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Motivation and Learning

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Motivation and Learning

  1. 1. RUTH B. ASCUNA Golden Gate Colleges
  2. 2. » Is activity by one person designed to stimulate or arouse a state within a second person or group that under appropriate circumstances initiates or regulates activity in relation to goals. » Refers to the state within the learner without specifying the motive and is used particularly in describing intensity. SOURCE: Educational Psychology
  3. 3. » is the activation or energization of goal-oriented behavior. SOURCE: www.scribd.com
  4. 4. » A state within the individual that under appropriate circumstances initiates or regulates behavior in relation to a goal. » Refers to a more specific aroused state. SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
  5. 5. » An incentive to act or a reason for doing something or anything that prompted a choice of action. Anything that arouses the individual and directs his or her behavior towards some goal is called a Motive or “Motive is a factor which influences to do anything because anything we do has a motive behind” SOURCE: www.scribd.com
  7. 7. » A need is lack of something which, if present, would tend to further the welfare of the organism or of the species, or to facilitate its usual behavior. SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
  8. 8. » A drive is a tendency initiated by shifts in physiological balance, tissue tension, sensitivity to stimuli of a certain class, and response in any of a variety of ways that are related to the attainment of a certain goal. SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
  9. 9. » 1. Primary Drives – are unlearned and result from physiological imbalance which occur when certain essential substances such as food and water are needed. SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
  10. 10. » 2. Secondary Drives – are learned drives, such as anxiety and learned sexual states. SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
  11. 11. » The end result which the individual seeks with awareness. SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
  12. 12. » An incentive is an object or external condition, perceived as capable of satisfying an aroused motive that tends to elicit action to attain the object or condition. SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
  13. 13. » Individuals have preference for engaging in one activity over another and that many such preferences can be appraised quite reliably. » Interests have a directional effect on behavior. » Implies selective attention to certain activities. SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
  14. 14. » Implies the tendency to investigate and seek to learn more about new objects or phenomena with which there has been little or no previous experience. SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
  15. 15. » An act, or the result of an act, that is required or demanded of an individual by another person or by himself. SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
  16. 16. Human behavior SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY purposeful or goal directed or motivated
  18. 18. SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Based upon the physiological needs of the individual.
  20. 20. A motive once aroused leads to action. SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY motives drives
  21. 21. 1. The nature of the individual 2.The environmental situation 3. The nature of the motive 4.The strength of the motive SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
  22. 22. SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Primary Needs Secondary Needs
  23. 23. » Determined by a combination of needs operating simultaneously. SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY recognition Self-realization
  24. 24. » The process by which a student is helped to perceived, accept, and desire certain goals. (Kolesnick, 1963) SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
  26. 26. » Derived from the Latin interesse meaning “to be between” 1. The present status of a person in some ongoing activity in which he is involved, or the existing condition, situation, or experience in which he finds himself 2. The end, goal, or purpose of the activity, the outcome or the results of the experiences which are anticipated, desired, or dreaded. SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY interest Two Elements of Purposeful Behavior
  27. 27. 1. Competition 2. Knowledge of progress 3. Threat of failure 4. Praise and reproof (Kolesnik, 1963) SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
  28. 28. 1. Competition SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY individual group rivalry
  29. 29. 2. Knowledge of Progress SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY The individual tries to surpass his own past performance regardless of what anything else.
  30. 30. 3. Threat of Failure SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY nonpromotion
  31. 31. 4. Praise or Reproof and SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Rewards Punishments Intangible, verbal, or symbolic in nature, taking the form of praise or reproof, approval or disapproval, favorable recognition or adverse criticism.
  32. 32. » Represents the amount of quality of work he believes he can accomplish and is willing to try to achieve. 1.It is high enough to be challenging 2.It is low enough to be attainable SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Two Characteristics
  33. 33. 1. Focus pupil attention toward desired learning outcomes. 2. Utilize curiosity and encourage its development. 3. Utilize existing interests and develop others. 4. Provide concrete and symbolic incentives if necessary. 5. Arrange learning tasks appropriate to the abilities of the learner. 6. Provide for realistic goal-setting. 7. Aid the learners in making and evaluating progress toward goals. 8. Recognize that too high tension produces disorganization and inefficiency. SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
  34. 34. 1. Focus Pupil Attention Toward Desired Learning Outcomes SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Through use of materials and activities that involves a number of sensory perceptions
  35. 35. 2. Utilize Curiosity and Encourage its Development » Curiosity is generally expressed toward new and novel objects, ideas, and events rather than toward familiar ones, and the arousal of curiosity is not dependent on any form of reward or punishment nor attached to any specific drive situation, such as hunger or thirst. SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
  36. 36. 3. Utilize Existing Interests and Develop Others » Activities which are perceived as satisfying or rewarding acquire interest value. SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
  37. 37. 4. Provide Concrete and Symbolic Incentives if Necessary » Material and symbolic rewards are sought by adults as well as children can serve the purpose of getting pupils to perform inherently unpleasant tasks. SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
  38. 38. 5. Arrange Learning Tasks Appropriate to the Abilities of the Learner SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
  39. 39. 6. Provide for realistic goal-setting. Teacher 1. Have a fairly accurate estimate of each student’s abilities 2. Have a fairly accurate estimate of the difficulty of the learning activities 3. Encourage varying levels of performance by pupils 4. Permit students of all abilities to experience many successes and occasional feelings of failure in reaching their goals 5. Takes considerably more class time than does giving assignments to all students in class SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Pupils 1. Fairly reliable estimate of his own abilities in relation to the learning activity 2. A rough estimate of the difficulty of learning activity 3. Interest in the learning activity 4. Some previous success in connection with school learning
  40. 40. 7. Aid the Learners in Making and Evaluating Progress Toward Goals » Once a goal has been set, making progress toward that goal and knowing that progress is being made are the most stable and reliable intrinsic motivations known to mankind. SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
  41. 41. 8. Recognize That Too High Tension Produces Disorganization and Inefficiency » Trying to achieve a desired goal is always accompanied with some tension. SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
  42. 42. » All human behavior is purposeful or goal-oriented. Learning is goal-seeking behavior, and a learner must have goals and purposes in order to maintain a high degree of attention to the learning task. » One of the principal concerns, therefore, of the teacher revolves around the problem of how to gain and hold the attention of students and prevail upon them to put their best efforts into working at assigned tasks. SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY SUMMARY
  43. 43. » There is close relationship between a person’s needs, goals, and motivational process. A need is the absence of something desired, required, or useful for man’s well-being. A goal is anything a man thinks will contribute to the satisfaction of a need. SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY SUMMARY
  44. 44. » Human needs are important in motivation, and they can be classified in various ways. » One theory classifies human needs into four categories - physical security, emotional security, mastery and status. » Another theory states that man’s basic needs are arranged in a hierarchy of prepotency. » Thus, in order of their potency, man’s needs are physiological well-being, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization. SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY SUMMARY
  45. 45. » Much of man’s behavior is multimotivated. » It is determined by a combination of needs operating simultaneously. » Classroom motivation is the process by which a student is helped to perceive, accept, and desire certain goals. » The goals are the objectives of the school or a course or the end products of learning. SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY SUMMARY
  46. 46. » There are two kinds of motivation – intrinsic and extrinsic. » Intrinsic motivation refers to an individual’s recognition of the value inherent in the very nature of the activity. » The motives come directly from within the person, and no external pressures or inducements are necessary. SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY SUMMARY
  47. 47. » Extrinsic motivation pertains to the use of such incentives as report-card marks, honor rolls, and special privileges. » Teachers should help students in developing appropriate levels of aspiration, be aware of the potential dangers of overmotivation, and make judicious use of the principles of motivation. SOURCE: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY SUMMARY