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1. AdvertisingObjectives : Direct response advertising: where direct action is required by the receiver in response to exposure to message, measurement of sales is justifiable. Thus it attempts to induce quick response from the members of the target audience,Ads offering some kind of incentive, or ads announcing contests, or encouragingprospects to place orders on phone or through internet. In such cases evaluation isbased on sales results. The retail sector: can also use sales measures, and it has been suggested that packaged goods organizations, operating in markets, which are mature with established pricing and distribution structures, can build a databank from which it is possible to isolate the advertising effect through sales.If a particular celebrity is used for an ad campaign and a particular amount ofmoney is spent on it, by monitoring the amount of sales, it is possible to evaluatethe success of the campaign or success of using the celebrity. Sales Promotion Programs: Many sales promotion programs have sales objectives since their goal is often to generate trial or short-term sales increasesSeveral companies come up with the scratch and win offers. Britannia at the timeof world cup had actually come up with such offers “ Britanniakhao, world cupjao”However, there are certain difficulties associated with using sales as advertisingobjective: Sales could result from variety of influences, such as the other marketing mix elements, competitor actions and wider environmental effects, like the strength of the currency or the level of interest. Concept of adstock or carryover: the impact of promotional expenditure will not be immediately apparent as the receiver may not enter the market until a later date but the effects of the promotion may still influence the final purchase decision. Thus while measuring effectiveness of campaign, sales results may not show its full impact as there is considerable time lag between audience exposure to ad and actual sales.
Sales objectives do little to assist the media planner, copywriters and creative team working on the communication programme.2.Lavidge Steiner model of communicationRobert J. Lavidge and Gary A. Steiner | A Model For Predictive Measurements ofAdvertising Effectiveness | Advertising & Society Review 1:1 A Model ForPredictive Measurements of Advertising Effectiveness Robert J. Lavidge and GaryA. Steiner Lavidge, Robert J. and Gary A. Steiner. 1961. A model for predictivemeasurements of advertising effectiveness. Journal of Marketing. 25(October), 59-62. Reprinted with the permission of the American MarketingAssociation.Reprinted with the permission of the American MarketingAssociation. 1The development and selection of research designs too often reflectsthinking which is technique-oriented. This article looks at advertising researchfrom another viewpoint. It starts with the questions: What is advertising supposedto do? What are its functions? The authors then show the implications of thesequestions in relation to measurements of the effectiveness of proposedadvertisements. 2What are the functions of advertising? Obviously the ultimatefunction is to help produce sales. But all advertising is not, should not, and cannotbe designed to produce immediate purchases on the part of all who are exposed toit. Immediate sales results (even if measurable) are, at best, an incomplete criterionof advertising effectiveness. In other words, the effects of much advertising are"long-term." This is sometimes taken to imply that all one can really do is wait andsee — ultimately the campaign will or will not produce.3. Component1. The HeadlineThe Headline is the most read part of an advertisement. So advertisers try to tellmaximum part of the product story through the headline. A headline will introducethe product or makes the promise statement or puts a question. It basically tries toattract the attention of the readers and create curiosity so the audience or readersees further. The major types of headlines are:
Direct promise of benefit News about the product Curiosity or provocative, and Command headlinesDirect headlines make a direct promise about how the product will benefit thereaders. Readers are often interested in what is new in the product so the words‗new‘, ‗improved‘, etc. are often used in headlines. Such headlines provide somenew ‗information‘ and are called news headline.Sometimes the promise or benefit is not offered in the headline. Instead an indirectapproach is adopted by either posing a question or making a provocative statement,the headline tries to create a lot of curiosity about the product. It also forces thereaders or the audience to see the copy and the promise is made in the copy of theAd. In command headlines, the readers are urged to buy the product by promisinga reward. For example, ‗buy one, get one free‘ or ‗buy for the price of two‘.Usually they command or ask the consumers to buy.Another type of headline is the select headline. This is directed at the headlinescanners. Such a headline selects it own audience and can reach selected groups byeither addressing them directly or by discussing their specific problems.2. The Sub-HeadlineThis is not always used in ads. However, when the advertiser wants to say a lot atthe beginning but the headline cannot do the job, then the subheading is used. Theheadline and subheading together can contain a longer message. The subheadingusually spells out or elaborates the promise made in the headline or it stresses onthe product‘s unique features.3. SloganIt is a phrase or a sentence that describes the benefit derived from the product orone of the product‘s most important attributes. The term slogan comes from theGaelic words sluaghgairm, meaning battle cry. These days it is the battle cry in thefield of sales and marketing. It consists of a single phrase by which an advertiserconveys an important idea, which will presumably lead readers or audience toremember and think favorably of this company. Slogan is thus a shortand catchyphrase that gets the attention of the audience, is easy to remember and comesoff the tongue easily. Slogan can of different types:
Slogan that emphasizes product or reward- every product has some reward to offer consumers. It may have some hidden quality that differentiates a product from the competitors. Slogans that emphasizes action to be taken- the slogan might urge directly that you use the product or service.4. Body CopyWhen the headline usually makes a claim, the body copy elaborates upon it andprovides supporting proof. When the headline poses a question, the subheadinganswers it. The amount of detail in an advertisement should be sufficient to answerthe questions arising in the minds of a prospective buyer. And if the consumersrequire more details or information, then they can be requested to come back to thecompany for information booklets or can be invited to come to the retailer ordealer for more information or demonstration.Sometimes the consumer wants a proof or evidence of the claims made in theadvertisement. So proofs about quality, performance, durability, etc. are providedthrough arguments, proofs by experts, testimonials by users or throughdemonstrations in the body copy.5. VisualizationThe headline is a major attraction –getting device. Another device is the visualimpact of the ad. This is the combination of the visuals used in the advertisementsand the visual treatment given to other elements of the ad. This visual impactbecomes strong if the idea has been properly visualized.Visualization means to think in terms of visuals or pictures. And one need not bean artist or painter to be able to visualize as all it require is thinking.For example think about the picture, which comes to your mind when you think theword ‗flower‘. It could be a bouquet of flower or a garden full of beautiful flowers.These kind of perceptions need to be portrayed in the advertisements. A visualizerneed not draw or paint these things but can just describe these and leave thedrawing to the artists.Visuals and pictures help people dream and project themselves in to another time,place, or situation. Pictures appeal to our hidden and suppressed emotions. Alsopictures communicate ideas quickly and easily and also there is no chance ofmisinterpretation. Visuals not only attract attention, they hold the interest and often
tell maximum part of the story. Visuals also identify the product, arouse interest,create a favorable impression of the product or the advertiser, clarify claims madein the copy, make demonstrations, emphasize the unique features of the product.And finally the visuals provide continuity for all advertisements in the campaignthrough the use of similar visuals.6. LayoutLayout has two meanings. One means the total appearance of the advertisement, itsdesign, the composition of the various elements. The other meaning is the act orprocess of placing the elements (copy, visuals, etc) together.A layout could be the first pencil sketch, which puts the idea on paper or could alsobe the final piece after finishing touches. Good layouts are unimaginative. Thevarious stages of a layout are: Thumbnail sketches- Advertising people usually work in pairs. A copywriter and a visualizer sit together and create ideas. The first thing they do is to come up with as many ideas as possible. And as they get the ideas they put them on paper, which is called thinking on paper. This helps in many ways-it records all the ideas options on paper, it gives some kind of a shape to the idea without using any expensive color, wasting much paper, etc. and without spending much time and efforts. In the thumbnail sketch the various elements of the advertisement are just schematically or diagrammatically represented. For example, a thick serrated line represents the headline. Thinner serrated lines represent the subheading and the slogan. Straight lines or dotted lines represent body copy. Boxes crossed inside represent visuals. Also thumbnail sketches are very small in size. Only the shape is proper-being proportionately smaller. Rough sketches- in the rough stage, bigger layouts are made so that moredetails can be accommodated. Hand lettering is done for the headlines and other copy parts that are to be composed in bigger type sizes. A rough sketch of the visual is pasted. These rough layouts are presented to the agency creative director for approval. Then the rough layout is further polished. Comprehensive stage- the rough layout is still small in size, with no color, with no proper borders and no proper lettering and visuals. Now it is enlarged to its actual size. All the copy is lettered or composed. Proper borders and other marks are put on the layout. Photographs and other visual are cut from other places or Photostatted and pasted. Some coloring-
particularly using crayons, water colors, etc is done. This stage is called the comprehensive stage. As the name suggests this layout is easy to understand. This layout is presented to the client for approval. Once the client approves the layout, it is then ready for the final finishing touches. Art work-this is the final stage of layout. Here care is taken to look into each minute detail. The copy is properly composed or lettered. Proper photographs, paintings, sketches, or graphics are used. Other elements like borders etc are properly places. Coloring is done. Finishing artists give the final touches. This stage is now ready to be printed. All these various stages of preparing the layout are beneficial in a many ways. First these stages save time, money and efforts. If you prepare a final layout without taking the approval and it gets rejected, then all the material used, efforts and time spend are wasted. Also working on only one idea curtails the various other possible options.A layout starts with a blank piece of paper. What the layout artist does is to placethe copy, visuals and other elements on it. This placing of elements is not just meredecoration. What is required is a good, clear vision and interpretation of the sellingconcept of the story. A good layout allows all its elements-visuals, headlines,subheadings, body copy, charts, maps, logo, borders and other elements-to worktogether to do the job of telling the product story.A good layout takes into consideration the principles of balance, proportion, unity,contrast, harmony, rhythm, and direction. And finally a good layout must beattractive, must create an appropriated mood or feeling, must have individually tostand out fr9om the clutter of advertisements.7. TrademarkThe term trademark includes any word, symbol or device or any combination thereof adopted and used by a manufacturer or merchant to identify his goods anddistinguish them from those manufactured or sold by others in the market.Trademarks are important because of two reasons: It increases the credibility of the firm because the buyer buys the product only after looking at the brand name. Registration of trademarks prohibits duplication.
4. Measuring advertisement effectivenessThe basics of measuring effectivenessOur main objective in measuring advertising effectiveness is to determine theeffect of each advertising campaign from the results of our measuring andcompare it with its price. Then we can decide which campaigns bring the bestvalue for the money spent.It is also important to realise the various factors influencing advertising. Themedium, ad copy (exact wording), the format, audience (is the ad well aimed tothe people who use our products?) – all of this effects the final success of thecampaign. Therefore, it is necessary to judge the effectiveness in context.Before we start, we need to decide which criteriaare we going to monitor. Thesewill differ with respect to the medium used, our possibilities, the purpose of thead etc.Examples of possible criteria are: customers tell how did they learn about us increase in sales of the promoted goods more calls to our toll-free line calls to a campaign-specific phone number specific codes applied by customers to receive offered discount (i.e. „Tube―) redeemed coupons or vouchers that were given out at a campaing increased visits on our website other metrics from our website statistics (i.e. orders amount) – see belowIt is best to combine several criteria, because a customer can for example eithercontact you by calling your line or by sending you an email. Also, accept the fact,thatwe are not going to be able to measure everything. Especially if you runseveral campaigns in various media simultaneously, it may be difficult to ascribethe measured effects to a specific campaign. This can be helped by careful choiceof criteria or by running campainsseperately (though it is not always desirable).Contrary to traditional media, online campaigns are usually very easilytraceable and can be measured well.
Small companies will probably not use the methods of big corporations (adrecognition or recall) which are based on questioning samples of people once thecampaign has ended. This would be too costly for small advertisers. Instead, youcan simply judge the impact by how many people has the medium reached(viewers, readers, listeners) and comparing how much did it cost to reach thousandpeople (this is called CPM).5. Guidelines for advertisingAdvertising Industry in India is on the expansion spree for the last few years andhas become a serious and big business growing at a considerable rate. However,the growth of this industry is affected by the prevalent malpractices carried out byadvertisers in order to lure the consumers and sustaining an edge over thecompetitors. Advertisement is often described as commercial speech and enjoysprotection under Article 19(1)(a) of the Indian Constitution. As a facet of the Rightto Information, it facilitates the dissemination of information about the sellers andtheir products. However, the manner of facilitation is subject to a number ofstatutory provisions.Under the Indian legal regime, the prominent, prohibitory legal provisions thatregulate advertising are:1. Obscene publication or advertisement of a lottery under the Indian Penal Code.2. Harmful publication under the Young Persons (Harmful Publications) Act, 1956.3. The indecent representation of women under the Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986.4. Use of report of test or analysis for advertising any drug or cosmetic under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940.5. Inviting transplantation of organs under the Transplantation of Human Organs Act, 1994.
6. Advertisement of magical remedies of diseases and disorders under Drugs and Magical Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act, 1954.7. Advertisements relating to prenatal determination of sex uner the Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) Act, 1994.8. Advertisements of cigarettes and other tobacco products under tah Cigarettes and other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act, 2003.9. Any political advertisement forty hours prior to polling time under the Representation of People Act, 1951.Absence of a single comprehensive legislation had created a lot of confusion in theadvertising industry. In 1985, a self regulatory mechanism of ensuring ethicaladvertising practices was established in the form of the Advertising StandardsCouncil of India (ASCI), a non statutory tribunal. ASCI entertained and disposedoff complaints based on its Code of Advertising Practice (ASCI Code). Gradually,the ASCI Code received huge recognition from the advertising industry. In August2006, the ASCI Code was made compulsory for TV advertisements by amendingthe Cable Television Networks (Amendment) Rules, 2006: ―No advertisementwhich violates the Code for Self-Regulation in Advertising, as adopted by theASCI, Mumbai fro public exhibition in India, from time to time, shall be carried inthe cable service.‖ This move has provided a binding effect on the ASCI Code.Rule 7 postulates that any advertisement which derides any race, caste and tends toincite people to crime, cause disorder or are indecent or vulgar. Further, section 6of the Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Act, 1955 prohibits thetransmission or retransmission of any advertisement through a cable service unlessthey are in conformity with the ASCI Code. The key objectives of ASCI code is toensure that advertisements must – Make truthful and honest representations and claims which is essential to prohibit misleading advertisements; Not be offensive to public decency or morality; Not promote products which are hazardous or harmful to society or to individuals, particularly minors; and Observe fairness in competition keeping in mind consumer‘s interests.Under the ASCI Code, complaints against the advertisements can be made by anyperson who considers them to be false, misleading, offensive, or unfair. Thecomplaints are evaluated by an independent Consumer Complaints Council (CCC).
CCC decides on complaints from the general public including governmentofficials, consumer groups, etc., complaints from one advertiser against anotherand even suomoto complaints from the member of the ASCI Board, CCC, or theSecretariat. The CCC usually decides upon the complaints within a period of 4 to 6weeks once the party concerned is afforded an opportunity of presenting its case.6. MultimediaMultimedia is more than one concurrent presentation medium (for example, onCD-ROM or a Web site). Although still images are a different medium than text,multimedia is typically used to mean the combination of text, sound, and/or motionvideo. Some people might say that the addition of animated images (for example,animated GIF on the Web) produces multimedia, but it has typically meant one ofthe following: Text and sound Text, sound, and still or animated graphic images Text, sound, and video images Video and sound Multiple display areas, images, or presentations presented concurrently In live situations, the use of a speaker or actors and "props" together with sound, images, and motion videoMultimedia can arguably be distinguished from traditional motion pictures ormovies both by the scale of the production (multimedia is usually smaller and lessexpensive) and by the possibility of audience interactivity or involvement (inwhich case, it is usually called interactive multimedia). Interactive elements caninclude: voice command, mouse manipulation, text entry, touch screen, videocapture of the user, or live participation (in live presentations).Multimedia tends to imply sophistication (and relatively more expense) in bothproduction and presentation than simple text-and-images. Multimediapresentations are possible in many contexts, including the Web, CD-ROMs, andlive theater. A rule-of-thumb for the minimum development cost of a packagedmultimedia production with video for commercial presentation (as at trade shows)is: $1,000 a minute of presentation time. Since any Web site can be viewed as amultimedia presentation, however, any tool that helps develop a site in multimediaform can be classed as multimedia software and the cost can be less than forstandard video productions.