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Transport for development
Robin Lovelace
EWB-UK, University of Leeds
1st Nov. 2013
What I'm going to talk about
1.What is development?
2.Transport interventions
– Infrastructure
– Vehicles
– Policies
– Pro...
A bit about me
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Interested science-policy interface
Geography in Bristol & Salamanca
Dissertation in Hondu...
1. What is developent?

• Choose the transport-related image that
best fits with your idea of development
1 - Young women with bikes in an urban area.
Source: BEN Namibia
2 - Local participation in road building, rural Africa
Source: Peter Bentall
3 - 'Megaproject' construction scheme: upgrading of the Panama Canal
Source: CNN
Discussion
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

"Development" is contested
Community or national scale?
Bottom-up or top down?
Social, environme...
Development usually includes:
• Poverty alleviation
• 'Sustainability'
– Environment
– Society
– Economy

• Long-term bene...
How can transport -> development
• Economic
– transport of goods and services
– finding employment, commuting
– direct imp...
2. Transport interventions
• This is where engineers come in!
• Two main pathways of change
– Infrastructure
– Vehicles

•...
2.1 Infrastructure
• Cars, buses,
motorbikes and trucks
are increasingly
ubiquitous
• But they can only
work well on good
...
What is transport infrastructure?
•
•
•
•
•
•

Roads (often earth or gravel)
Railways
Bridges
Air and boat ports
'Active t...
Infrastructure considerations
• Usually operate on a BIG scale involvement of central government
• But some community and ...
Impact of infrastructure
• Implications for user safety: should separate
motorised/non-motorised traffic

• Road deaths: 2...
Simple, tested solutions often best
• Good design can save lives

• Often best practice is not regulated for engineer's re...
EWB experience in infrastructure
• Limited due to the scale of projects
• Typically involve road maintenance and
rehabilit...
Bridges get kids to school

•
•
•
•
•

Existing bridge was damaged by flooding
EWB placement - 10 weeks coodination
New fo...
Footbridge: lessons learned
• "Engineers are most effective when acting
as a broker of technical advice rather than
a prov...
2.2 Vehicles - Introduction
• Bicycles, walking, buses and motorbikes
are common modes for world's poor
• Not cars: status...
Vehicles: considerations relative to
infrastructure projects
1. Higher turnover due to smaller size and
lower cost: shorte...
Pros and cons of different modes:
"Horses for courses"

Source: Starkey (2001) - freely available here
The boda-boda
Energy use
• Energy: critical in
era of fossil fuel
depletion and
climate change
(Lovelace et al. 2011)

• Should favour
l...
Example 2: Bicycle Ambulance Michael Linke, Namibia
• Developed using trial and error, designed
based on intuitive underst...
Example 3:
Bamboo rickshaw
• Final year Mech.
Eng. project
• Tackled issues of weight and sustainability
• But is there re...
Example 4: Bicycle trailers - UK
• Sustainable development needed
worldwide - issues in rich nations too
• Asked community...
Bicycle trailers - technical aspects
• After long discussion, L-section aluminium
chosen as basic material: light, adaptab...
Bicycle trailers - images
Bread trailer
3. Engineering in contex
• Engineering for development requires
understanding of 'Big Picture'
• Built on social and econo...
Engineering as problem solving
• But who sets the problems?
• Set your own problems
• Listen to others (local community)
•...
Appropriate technology
• Has the following
features (Greer
2009):
• Simple and resilient
• Modular
• Open source
• Scalabl...
Example 5: mobiles in Africa
• Common: "If you have a phone it is
nothing. In the olden days it meant you
were the richest...
Engineering as magic
• Imagine you are an
apprentice magician
• Your skills can
change the world
• But be warned: can
be u...
The design challenge
• Housekeeping - important pre-requisites
– Teamwork + peer evaluation
– Task A (concepts) -> report ...
East Timor: Transport system
• "about 2,600 km of the network is bitumen
paved, 500 km is gravel, and almost 3,000 km is
e...
Possible transport projects for
Timor Leste:
• Identified by community organisations
– Cheap alternatives to petrol for fu...
Thanks for listening

You are all in an amazingly privileged position with the world at your feet. Don't forget
that YOU c...
Recommended reading
Starkey, P. (2001) Local Transport Solutions People,
Paradoxes and Progress Lessons Arising from the
S...
Resources on Timor Leste
• Timor Leste Road Climate Resilience
Project (World Bank)
• ROADS FOR DEVELOPMENT (R4D),
Timor L...
References
Greer, J. M. (2009). The Ecotechnic Future: Envisioning a Post-Peak
World. Aztext Press.
Illich, I. (1974). Ene...
Transport for development
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Transport for development

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This is my lecture to Engineering Students at the University of Birmingham, for Engineers Without Borders UK. It talks about transport engineering in general terms and how engineers can use appropriate transport technologies to improve lives and their local environment.

Veröffentlicht in: Technologie
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Transport for development

  1. 1. Transport for development Robin Lovelace EWB-UK, University of Leeds 1st Nov. 2013
  2. 2. What I'm going to talk about 1.What is development? 2.Transport interventions – Infrastructure – Vehicles – Policies – Project design 3.Engineering in context and the design challenge
  3. 3. A bit about me • • • • • • • • Interested science-policy interface Geography in Bristol & Salamanca Dissertation in Honduras MSc in Environmental Science at York Focus on energy -> PhD in Sheffield 4 years on EWB Sheffield committee EWB UK work Now researching transport, Uni. Leeds
  4. 4. 1. What is developent? • Choose the transport-related image that best fits with your idea of development
  5. 5. 1 - Young women with bikes in an urban area. Source: BEN Namibia
  6. 6. 2 - Local participation in road building, rural Africa Source: Peter Bentall
  7. 7. 3 - 'Megaproject' construction scheme: upgrading of the Panama Canal Source: CNN
  8. 8. Discussion • • • • • • • "Development" is contested Community or national scale? Bottom-up or top down? Social, environmental or economic? Who and where benefits? Intra-national inequalities Are we overdeveloped? (Illich, 1974)
  9. 9. Development usually includes: • Poverty alleviation • 'Sustainability' – Environment – Society – Economy • Long-term benefit • Fairness • Economic growth? • Integration in global economy?
  10. 10. How can transport -> development • Economic – transport of goods and services – finding employment, commuting – direct impacts: tourism, construction, mechanics • Social – transport system impacts health – community cohesion – connectedness of nation • Environmental
  11. 11. 2. Transport interventions • This is where engineers come in! • Two main pathways of change – Infrastructure – Vehicles • Engineers have many additional impacts – Project design, longevity, lifecycle – Feedback into policy making process – Placing engineered solutions in context
  12. 12. 2.1 Infrastructure • Cars, buses, motorbikes and trucks are increasingly ubiquitous • But they can only work well on good roads • Infrastructure also influences transport modes and society
  13. 13. What is transport infrastructure? • • • • • • Roads (often earth or gravel) Railways Bridges Air and boat ports 'Active travel' pathways 'Ancillary assets' such as pavements, road signs and drainage • Parking spaces
  14. 14. Infrastructure considerations • Usually operate on a BIG scale involvement of central government • But some community and NGO projects • Maintenance is critical • Strategic thinking in where to place roads needed - now easier with better data • Long time-scales - can 'lock in' certain types of transport - e.g. UK roads policy.
  15. 15. Impact of infrastructure • Implications for user safety: should separate motorised/non-motorised traffic • Road deaths: 2nd cause of death of 5-29 yr olds worldwide. • Disproportionate impact on the poorest
  16. 16. Simple, tested solutions often best • Good design can save lives • Often best practice is not regulated for engineer's responsibility
  17. 17. EWB experience in infrastructure • Limited due to the scale of projects • Typically involve road maintenance and rehabilitation in rural areas • Many interrelated skill needed – Surveying – Land clearance – Earthworks – Project management – Communication!
  18. 18. Bridges get kids to school • • • • • Existing bridge was damaged by flooding EWB placement - 10 weeks coodination New foundations and anchorage blocks Standard, robust bridge design used Main impact: increased school attendance
  19. 19. Footbridge: lessons learned • "Engineers are most effective when acting as a broker of technical advice rather than a provider of solutions" (Daniel Gallagher, EWB volunteer, 2013) • Safety regulations • Engineers must be humble and recognise the limits of their knowledge and skills • Career opportunities: Dan now works for World Bank
  20. 20. 2.2 Vehicles - Introduction • Bicycles, walking, buses and motorbikes are common modes for world's poor • Not cars: status symbol, drives inequality (Illich, 1974) • Higher turnover due to smaller size and lower cost: shorter-term impacts • Easier to make substantial impact quickly
  21. 21. Vehicles: considerations relative to infrastructure projects 1. Higher turnover due to smaller size and lower cost: shorter-term impacts 2. Usually faster to implement, more room for experimentation 3. Vehicles are mobile, so impact can spread rapidly from place to place 4. Ownership: private - incentive to fix
  22. 22. Pros and cons of different modes: "Horses for courses" Source: Starkey (2001) - freely available here
  23. 23. The boda-boda
  24. 24. Energy use • Energy: critical in era of fossil fuel depletion and climate change (Lovelace et al. 2011) • Should favour low-energy modes • Health benefits
  25. 25. Example 2: Bicycle Ambulance Michael Linke, Namibia • Developed using trial and error, designed based on intuitive understanding • Medium-scale production (100 units) • Use: transporting HIV patients and others Source: Bicycle Empowerment Namibia
  26. 26. Example 3: Bamboo rickshaw • Final year Mech. Eng. project • Tackled issues of weight and sustainability • But is there really a need for this? – Not tested properly – Motivation from student, not local community – Steel is not an unsustainable resource • Take-away message: don't re-invent wheel
  27. 27. Example 4: Bicycle trailers - UK • Sustainable development needed worldwide - issues in rich nations too • Asked community groups for input • Project manager: – Design – Materials – Build • Lessons to learn • "Eco-technology"
  28. 28. Bicycle trailers - technical aspects • After long discussion, L-section aluminium chosen as basic material: light, adaptable and widely available • Solidworks used for design • Hitch was major challenge (redesign) • M6 bolts + nylocks • Testing before use
  29. 29. Bicycle trailers - images
  30. 30. Bread trailer
  31. 31. 3. Engineering in contex • Engineering for development requires understanding of 'Big Picture' • Built on social and economic foundations:
  32. 32. Engineering as problem solving • But who sets the problems? • Set your own problems • Listen to others (local community) • My top 3: – How can technology encourage good health? – How to we live without fossil fuels? – How can technology reduce inequalities • Think and research into these topics for yourself
  33. 33. Appropriate technology • Has the following features (Greer 2009): • Simple and resilient • Modular • Open source • Scalable What are these technologies . Are they appropriate?
  34. 34. Example 5: mobiles in Africa • Common: "If you have a phone it is nothing. In the olden days it meant you were the richest man in the meeting" [boy 16y, Ghana, owns smart phone] • Used to make travel more intelligently • Provides lifeline of accessibility to older generation • Used in combination with boda-boda drivers • Source: Dr Gina Porter (talk)
  35. 35. Engineering as magic • Imagine you are an apprentice magician • Your skills can change the world • But be warned: can be used for good or ill • How do you decide where to direct your magic? • Sustainability begins at home
  36. 36. The design challenge • Housekeeping - important pre-requisites – Teamwork + peer evaluation – Task A (concepts) -> report (2,500 w max) – Task B (design) -> report (2 + solutions) • Things to think about – do solutions address the real problem? – timescale of solution – local context + feasibility • Constraints – financial/economic – cultural/political – technological/environmental Pecha Kucha talk 6th December
  37. 37. East Timor: Transport system • "about 2,600 km of the network is bitumen paved, 500 km is gravel, and almost 3,000 km is earth-formed" (World Bank) • "While the road network is extensive, road standards are generally poor. Pavements are generally narrow (3.5 to 5.5 meters) and require vehicles to move off the pavement to pass other vehicles. Vertical and horizontal alignments are poor, limiting travel speeds and sight distance. Inadequate drainage exacerbates road damage." • Car ownership is low - 60 per 1000 people in Indonesia
  38. 38. Possible transport projects for Timor Leste: • Identified by community organisations – Cheap alternatives to petrol for fuel supplies – Cheap form of transport for students to take to get to school – Training program for mechanics to fix cars • Other possibilities – More intelligent bus/taxi services – Mapping for development – Training of bicycle mechanics and usage
  39. 39. Thanks for listening You are all in an amazingly privileged position with the world at your feet. Don't forget that YOU control your own destiny. Follow you best instincts and you can have a real impact on people around you. Slides available from www.robinlovelace.net.
  40. 40. Recommended reading Starkey, P. (2001) Local Transport Solutions People, Paradoxes and Progress Lessons Arising from the Spread of Intermediate Means of Transport. The World bank. http://tinyurl.com/m3mqh5h Petts, R. (2012) Handbook of Intermediate Equipment for Road Works in Emerging Economies. Intech Associates McLoughlin, A. and Lovelace, R. Transport in Development, Chapter (in progress) in EWB's Engineering in Development book. See here.
  41. 41. Resources on Timor Leste • Timor Leste Road Climate Resilience Project (World Bank) • ROADS FOR DEVELOPMENT (R4D), Timor Leste road project (Ausaid) • Timor-Leste: When a short road makes a huge difference (International Labour Org.) • Boosting Cycling in Timor Leste (SportImpact) • Timor Leste Strategic plan (gov.tl)
  42. 42. References Greer, J. M. (2009). The Ecotechnic Future: Envisioning a Post-Peak World. Aztext Press. Illich, I. (1974). Energy and equity (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Row. Retrieved from http://www.ridemybike.org/energyandequity.pdf Lovelace, R., Beck, S. B. M., Watson, M., & Wild, A. (2011). Assessing the energy implications of replacing car trips with bicycle trips in Sheffield, UK. Energy Policy, 39(4), 2075–2087. Wilson, D. G., Papadopoulos, J., & Whitt, F. R. (2004). Bicycling science (p. 477). MIT Press. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=0JJo6DlF9iMC&pgis=1

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