The aim of the project is to solve traffic congestion
which is a severe problem in many modern cities all
over the world.
To solve the problem, we have designed a framework
for a dynamic and automatic traffic light control system
and developed a simulation model with codes in to
help build the system on hardware.
Generally, each traffic light on an intersection is
assigned a constant green signal time.
It is possible to propose dynamic time-based
coordination schemes where the green signal time of
the traffic lights is assigned based on the present
conditions of traffic.
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF DENSITY BASED
TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM
• The block
consists of the
DESCRIPTION OF REGULATED POWER
Each of the block is described in
more detail below-
Transformer-steps down high
voltage AC mains to low voltage
Rectifier- Converts AC to DC ,but
DC output is varying.
Smoothing- smoothens the DC
from varying greatly to a small
Regulator-Eliminates ripple by
setting DC output to a fixed
The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with
8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory.
PIN DIAGRAM OF AT89S52
FEATURES OF AT89S52:
• 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory
• Endurance: 10,000 Write/Erase Cycles
• 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
• Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz
• Three-level Program Memory Lock
• 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
• 32 Programmable I/O Lines
• Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
• Eight Interrupt Sources
• Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
• Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes
• Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode
• Watchdog Timer
• Dual Data Pointer
• Power-off Flag
• Fast Programming Time
• LEDs are semiconductor devices. Like
transistors, and other diodes, LEDs are
made out of silicon. What makes an LED
give off light there are the small
amounts of chemical impurities that are
added to the silicon, such as gallium,
arsenide, indium, and nitride.
• When current passes through the LED, it
emits photons as a byproduct. Normal light
bulbs produce light by heating a metal
filament until it's white hot. Because LEDs
produce photons directly and not via heat,
they are far more efficient than incandescent
Printed circuit board(pcb) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic
components using conductive tracks,pads and other features etched from cooper
sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate. PCBs can be single sided(one
copper layer),double sided(two copper layers) or multi layer(outer and inner layers).
A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain
a constant voltage level. we are using LM7805 regulator in this project .it may be used to
regulate one or more AC or DC voltages .
In this we are using infrared sensors namely infrared transmitter and
infrared receiver .the IR transmitter sends light ray to IR receivers. If there is any
obstacles occurring between these two then the data signal is send to microprocessor
and its act upon a signal.
A push button or simply button is a simple switch mechanism for controlling some
aspect of a machine or a process. Buttons are typically made out of hard material,
usually plastic or metal. Buttons are most often biased switches, through even many
un-biased buttons(due to their physical nature) require a spring to return to their un-
pushed state. Different people use different terms for the “pushing” of the button
,such as PRESS,DEPRESS,MASH,HIT,PUNCH..
A CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the
mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material signal with a
very precise frequency. This frequency is commonly used to keep track of time. To
provide a stable clock signal for digital integrated circuits, and to stabilize
frequencies for radio transmitters and receivers. The most common type of
piezoelectric resonator used is quartz crystal..
A photo diode is a type of photo detector capable of converting light
into either current or voltage depending upon the mode of operation. Photo diodes
are similar to regular semiconductor diodes except that they may be either exposed
or packaged with a window or a optical fiber connection to allow light to reach the
PROTEUS SOFTWARE FOR DESIGN CIRCUIT IMPLEMENTATION
Keil U vision software program procedure:
Creating Your Own Application in µVision2
To create a new project in µVision2, you must:
-Select Project - New Project.
-Select a directory and enter the name of the project file.
-Select Project - Select Device and select an 8051, 251, or C16x/ST10 device
from the Device Database™.
-Create source files to add to the project.
-Select Project - Targets, Groups, Files, Add/Files, select Source Group1, and
add the source files to the project.
-Select Project - Options and set the tool options. Note when you select the
target device from the Device Database™ all special options are set
automatically. You typically only need to configure the memory map of your
target hardware. Default memory model settings are optimal for most
-Select Project - Rebuild all target files or Build target.
Density based traffic light control
have many advantages compared
to time based traffic control.
We can save considerable amount
We can avoid unnecessary
occurrence of traffic jams which
causes public inconvenience.
There is no need of traffic inspector at the
junctions for supervising the traffic to run
The intelligent work which is done by traffic
inspector will be perfectly done by the
microcontroller in the circuit with the help of
sensors and the program which is coded to the
Thus from above theory we can conclude that using the method of density
based control of traffic lights we can save a considerable amount of time and also we
can prevent excessive traffic jams thus leading to smooth traffic flow.
In practice presently in India we are following time based control of traffic
signals and we are experiencing a heavy traffic jams all over which in turn consumes
lot of time and fuel. We hope these methods will be adopted as soon as possible so that
the limitations we are experiencing with present method can be overcome.