3. MAHATMA GANDHI
• Mahatma Gandhi was the fore front eminent political and ideological
leader during the Indian independence movement.
He pioneered satyagraha, resistance to tyranny through mass civil
His philosophy was firmly founded upon truth and ahimsa
His philosophy and leadership helped India gain independence and
inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world.
He inspired many prominent Leaders across the World, who applied his
principles in their own countries, in fight against tyranny and for gaining
Gandhiji is referred to as Mahatma or "Great Soul" (magnanimous), an
honorific first applied to him by Rabindranath Tagore).
In India, he is also called Bapu and officially honored in India as the
Father of the Nation. His birthday, 2 October, is commemorated as
Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday, and worldwide as the International
Day of Non-Violence.
Gandhi was assassinated on 30 January 1948 by Nathuram Godse of RSS.
4. IDEOLOGIES OF MAHATMA GANDHI:
• Satyagraha , loosely translated as "insistence on truth" or
"soul force" or "truth force," is a particular philosophy and
practice within the broader overall category generally
known as nonviolent resistance or civil resistance.
• Against racialism in south Africa- philosophy action –
• 2 major elements-TRUTH and NON VIOLENCE
• Passive resistance –weapon of the weak, satyagraha is the
weapon of the strong.
• The term "satyagraha" was coined and developed
by Mahatma Gandhi. He deployed satyagraha in
the Indian independence movement and also
during his earlier struggles in South Africa
for Indian rights.
The proposal of partition of Bengal became
publicly known in 1903, followed by immediate
and spontaneous protests all over Bengal. 500
meetings were held in East Bengal alone. 50,000
copies of a pamphlet with a detailed critique of
partition were distributed. This phase is marked
by moderate techniques of protest such as
petitions, public meetings, press campaign, etc.
to turn public opinion in India as well as
in Britain against partition. This movement also
involved the boycott of British products. Western
clothes were thrown onto bonfires. To let the
British know how unhappy the Indians were at
the partition of Bengal, leaders of the anti-
partition movement decided to use only Indian
goods and to boycott British goods. People
gathered at the cross roads and burnt the
imported clothes that they had. People picketed
the shops selling foreign goods, and imported
sugar was boycotted. People also resolved to use
things made only in India and this was called the
6. VALUE BASEDPOLITICS
Introduced moral values into
Used courage ,patience and
suffering to achieve higher goals in
Advocated legal and extra legal
methods to achieve freedom.
Restored to fast and penance
during the communal riots in
Was convinced in not using
physical brute force.
Won international sympathy for
his cause because of his peace
Before Gandhiji National
Movement was confined to cities
towns and the intellectuals.
He involved mass women,
Masses cooperated with him in
the Non – Cooperation Movement
and the Quit India Movement.
Exploded the myth of the
Moderates that India could be freed
with the help of foreign rule.
He made use of the constitutional
and extra constitutional mass action
in the freedom struggle.
8. Concern for the poor and the oppressed
Loved the poor and the oppressed and won their sympathy and
Worked for the abolition of untouchability .
Setup the Village Industries Association.
Advocated the use of khaadi in order to improve the lot of the
1917 the campaign against the system of ‘indenture’.
Fought for the rights of the indigo cultivators in Champaran in
Bihar. Made the British planters refund the illegal collections ,
succeeded in abolishing illegal practices.
On the day of independence he was busy with riot torn areas in
His greatest movement : Non cooperation and Civil Disobedience
10. Rowlatt Act was named after the President of the committee.
Rowlatt Act passed a set of new repressive measures to counter all
political unrest which manifested itself in many situations
1. Gandhiji in 1917- Champaran Satyagraha in Bihar – to fight
against indigo planters.
2. Forced the govt to make investigations into farmers’ grievances
and fins a solution.
3. Ahemdabad Mill employees strikes in 1918-1919 against
4. With Sardar Patel led a successful Kisan campaign in Khaira
5. Indian soldiers were disillusioned with the political conditions in
There was an all round political unrest to counter which the
government passed the Rowlatt Act
The Rowlatt Act 1919- ‘BLACK ACT’
11. According to the Rowlatt Act:
1. The Govt could use the extraordinary repressive
powers, it had during the war.
2. It could arrest any person without assigning any
reason for the arrest, search any place without a
warrant and imprison anyone without trial.
-An all-India hartal was observed on8th April
1919- to show people’s resentment to the
inhuman repressive measures. The whole
Indian Press supported it.
-Gandhi came to the forefront and took the lead
of the freedom movement in his hands.
12. On 13th April 1919- people organised a peaceful general meeting in a
small garden in Amritsar (enclosed plot of ground known as
Against the proclamation issued by General
Dyer on12th April which forbade public meetings
-People were not informed of this proclamation.
-General Dyer ordered troops to fire without
the people, closed the only exit.
- Thus Martial Law was proclaimed in Punjab.
The Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy
13. Policy of non violent and non cooperation was used in
India for the first time in Khilafat Movement .
Khilafat Movemebt adopted Non Cooperation
programme to fight against the British.
Programme were launched = boycott of Legislative
Councils, foreign goods, govt Schools and colleges, govt
functions and surrendering of titles and distinctions.
In 1921- the KM appealed to all the Muslims not to join
the police or armed forces, and not to pay taxes.
Vast possibility of Hindu Muslim unity, joint front against
Congress extended its support to KM.Hartals, protests,
scenes of Hindu Muslim unity were witnessed in different
parts of the country.
Ali brothers were arrested and jailed in 1921
End of Khilafat movement and then Mustafa Kamal Pasha
dethroned the Turkish Sultan and declared Turkey a secular
The Khilafat Movement
14. Non Cooperation Movement involved many conditions which
were the following:
1. Surrendering of the titles and offices and resignation from
nominated posts in the local bodies.
2. Boycott of Government schools, colleges and law courts.
3. Boycott of foreign goods and adoption of Swadeshi.
4. Boycott of election and other Govt functions.
Non Cooperation Movement
15. People began to have strikes everywhere
Govt declared the Congress an unlawful organization and
arrested many of its members & volunteers.
People defied Govt orders and were jailed.
Spirit of Sacrifice and Freedom filled the hearts of the Indians
On December 1921 in Session of Congress at Ahmadabad it was
decided to continue the Non Cooperation Movement with greater
Repression by the Government
16. Chauri Chaura Incident
So far the movement was non violent.
In A village near Gorakhpur violent mob stormed and burnt a police
station and killed 22 policemen.
Gandhiji was visibly moved and greatly disappointed
He Realised that the country was not yet ripe for a non violent
struggle and suddenly announced the suspension of the movement.’
He Believed that –”Violence would breed violence.”
Congress leaders were shocked at his decision.
Gandhiji was arrested and sentenced for 6 years imprisonment and
the charge of sedition.
17. Outcome of the NC Movement
• The movement brought Gandhi Ji into close touch with the masses.
• Gandhi Ji lived like a simple villager and became the symbol of the poor
and the downtrodden
• The movement surpassed all caste and creed distinctions in society
• The movement united the Hindus and Muslims
• By bringing about sentiments of nationalism, it tried to remove caste
distinctions in matters relating to the national interest.
• Congress became a revolutionary organization because it adopted a new
and changed programme
• The movement provided a national base to the Congress making it a
genuine revolutionary organization
• Indians realized by experience- passive resistance was more powerful
than any weapons used by the British
• Indians realized that passive resistance was more powerful than any
weapons used by the British
18. Events leading to the
Civil Disobedience Movement
1. Simon Commission
2. Recommendations of the Commission
3. The Congress Session at Lahore
19. 1. Simon Commission 1927
• A Commission would be set up to assess the merits of the Govt
of India Act of 1919 at the end of 10 years, in order to advise
the Govt about the next step to be taken.
• After its chairman Sir John Simon.
• The Commission was - to tour the country- meet various
political leaders- and tell govt about the next constitutional
• All white and no Indian.
• Self respect of the Indians was
• All the political leaders decided
21. Recommendations of the
1. Complete autonomy in the provinces including the department of
Law and order, but the governor should be given over- riding
powers in certain matters like internal security.
2. There should be a federal Govt at the centre, consisting of British
India and the Princely States.
3. British Troops and British Officers should stay on in Indian
regiments for many years.
4. Provincial Legislative Councils should be enlarged.
5. The Governor- General should be free to select and appoint
members of his cabinet.
6. High Courts should be under the administrative control of the
Govt of India.
22. • Commission submitted its Report on 27th May, 1930.
• Indian leaders were unhappy because the Commission
proposed a limited transfer of power in the provinces with
• Commission granted a political revolution.
• Turning point in India’s struggle for Freedom.
• CD movement began as a protest against the Commission.
• The Nehru Report and the Demand for Poorna Swaraj
erealso the offshoots of the political excitement created by
protests against this Commission.
23. 3. The Congress Session at Lahore
• Annual Session of Congress as Lahore in
December, 1929 under the Chairmanship of
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, a resolution for
complete independence, ‘Poorna Swaraj’ was
• First Independence Day was celebrated on 26th
Jan 1930 in Kolkatta.
• Indian National Flag was hoisted and
independence pledge by Congressmen.
• 26th Jan 1950 India became Republic and its
Constitution was promulgated.
24. CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT
• The CWC vested MG with full power to launch the CD Movement.
• CDM was organized to disobey the Laws made by the British Govt.
• Programme- non violent Sathyagraha, boycott of Schools and Colleges,
courts and foreign goods, picketnig of shops, burning of foreign cloth,
spinning, large scale fighting against untouchability, breaking the salt laws and
27. Dandi March
• Gandhi ji started the CIVIL DISOBEDEINCE MOVEMENT ON 12th
March 1920 with his famous Dandi March.
• Dandi is a village on the sea-cost of Gujarat.
• 78 followers walked for 200 miles.
• Dandi March violated the Govt laws which forbade anyone to manufacture
• 1st time in the History of India men & women were mobilized for the national
• Worked together against harassment of the British Govt.
• Movement spread rapidly.
British administration was put out of gear in many places.
Midnapur in Bengal went out of the control of the Govt
Peasants in United Provinces refused to pay taxes to the Govt
North West Frontier- the Pathans adopted the policy of NC under the
leadership of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Kahn.
28. Results of Dandi March
• Leaders and people were arrested on 5th May
1930,Congress was declared illegal, Hartals all over the
country, 60,000 were imprisoned, firing at 29 places,
Sholapur at Maharashtra became almost independent.
• British failed to suppress the movement. More the
repression greater was the determination of the
Congress volunteers. Passive resistance of the Congress
volunteers against the lathi charges and firing aroused
admiration of non Congressmen.
• Band of Volunteers ‘Red Shirts’ paralysed the Govt,
Gharwal Regiment posted at NWFP refused to fire on
the RSV also called as Kudhai Khidmatgars
• Disobedience of Govt order was a bad Omen for the
Govt and began to think of conciliation.
29. ROUND TABLE CONFERENCE
• Lord Irwin the Viceroy announced that a RTC of British
statesmen and Representatives of British India and Indian
States would be held in London in November. 1930.
• To find an acceptable solution to the Indian Leaders for a
• The Congress reacted unfavorably.
• Congress wanted summoning of a Constituent Assembly to
draft a Constitution for India.
• British Government refused and went ahead with its plan
• Congress decided to Boycott and decided to launch another
Civil Disobedience Movement.
30. GANDHI - IRWIN PACT
• Realization of British Govt.
• They felt that they could not underestimate the genuine feelings of
• British were eager to compromise.
• Sir Tej Bahdur Sapru and D. Jaykar became the mediators.
• Leaders were released from jail in Jan 1931.
• Understanding between Gandhiji and Irwin- Concluded a pact known as
Gandhi ji called of CDM, Gandhiji agreed to attend II RTC in London,
agreed to stop boycotting British goods,
Government : - Viceroy agreed to withdraw ordinances promulgated
against CDM, release people from jail, return the seized property,
allowed the peaceful picketing of liquor and opium shops and allow
people living within some distance of the seas shore to collect or
manufacture salt, free from any tax or duty.
31. Second Round Table Conference
• Sole representative from m Congress was Mahatma Gandhi.
• Representatives of Muslims, Sikhs, Christians and princes.
• Gandhi ji pressed for immediate and full responsible Govt.
• No agreement communal representation.
• Disgusted Gandhi ji left England in December 1931.
32. Renewal of CDM- 1923-34
• Gandhi returned on 28th Dec 1931.
• Renewed the Civil Disobedience Movement on 1st Jan
• People picketed British shops and liquor shops, organised
Salt Satyagrahas and violated forest laws, refused to pay
rents and revenues, Congress held illegal sessions as it
was banned, Land, houses and property were confiscated,
national leaders were jailed while the communalists were
given a wide scope to inflame communalism.
33. SUMMARY – ROLE OF MAHATMA
• Gandhi first employed civil disobedience while working as an expatriate
lawyer in South Africa. He fought for the resident Indian community's
struggle for civil rights. After his return to India in 1915, he organised
protests by peasants, farmers, and urban labourers concerning excessive
land-tax and discrimination. After assuming leadership of the Indian
National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns to ease
poverty, expand women's rights, build religious and ethnic amity, end
untouchability, and increase economic self-reliance. Above all, he aimed
to achieve Swaraj or the independence of India from foreign
Gandhi famously led his followers in the Non-cooperation movement
that protested the British-imposed salt tax with the 400 km (240 mi)
Dandi Salt March in 1930.
He launched the Quit India Movement in 1942, demanding immediate
independence for India. Gandhi spent a number of years in jail in both
South Africa and India.