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Sustainable Tourism
Development
Objectives
• Understand the different stages in destination
development
• Understand sustainable tourism development
and its benefits
• Identify the different prerequisites of a
sustainable tourism development.
• Analyze the roles played by various
stakeholders in sustainable tourism
development.
Stages of Destination Development
Stage 1: Discovery
• The stage of exploration
• A destination begins as a relatively
unknown place and visitors initially
come in small numbers restricted
by lack of access, facilities, and
local knowledge
Stage 1: Discovery
Boracay during 1970s
Stage 2: Development
• The stage of growth
• As more people discover the
destination, the word spreads
about its attractions and the
amenities are increased and
improved
Stage 2: Development
Boracay during 1980s
Stage 3: Stagnation
• The stage of maturity
• Tourist arrivals then begin to grow
rapidly toward some theoretical
carrying capacity which involves
social and environmental limits.
• Often happens rapidly.
Stage 3: Stagnation
Stage 4: Decline
• Possible trajectory of a destination after
the stage of stagnation
• The stage of saturation and alienation
• Increased congestion and unsustainable
development caused the resources that
originally drew visitors to the destination
to become corrupted, or no longer exist.
• The destination has become saturated
• The appeal of the destination has
disappeared and the tourists now look for
unaltered destination
Stage 4: Decline
Stage 4: Rejuvenation
• Possible trajectory of a destination
after the stage of stagnation
• Technological developments or
infrastructure improvements leading
to increased carrying capacity can
help rejuvenate a destination.
Resources for Developing
Tourism
• Resources can be divided into 4
categories:
– Capital
– Labor
– Materials
– Knowledge
• In tourism, materials include
natural and human-made assets.
Terrestrial
s
Features,
Marine
Features,
Wildlife
Cultures,
Customs,
History
Building,
Structures
Production
Service
Equity
Investment
Knowledge
Experience
Why Do We Need
Sustainable Planning?
• Resources are scarce and finite.
• Society must choose among economic
activities including tourism that could have
higher returns to scale.
• Provided that tourism increases economic
diversion, then resources can be allocated
in developing it.
What is Sustainable
Development?
Sustainable development is
progress that meets the needs of
the present without compromising
the ability of the future to meet their
own needs (UN WCED, 1987).
In tourism, sustainability
means…
• Achieving quality growth in a manner
that does not deplete the natural and
built-in environment and preserves the
culture, history and heritage of local
community.
• Achieving balance between number of
visitors and the capacity of the given
environment
• Greatest interaction and enjoyment
with the least destruction.
Carrying Capacity
• The largest number of people a
destination can efficiently manage
within its given environ and
management capabilities
Issues to be considered:
• Natural and man-made cultural and
environmental resources comprising
tourism product are conserved and
renewed when necessary.
– For the benefit of succeeding
generations.
– Tourists not only consume the
tourism product, they should be
made aware of the need to protect it.
Issues to be considered:
• Tourism must be beneficial for the
receiving destination, region and
country.
– For the receiving destination to be
prepared to accommodate tourists
and hospitality be extended when
tourists overstayed.
Issues to be considered:
• Maintaining and renewing the
tourism product is critical.
– To sustain steady tourist flow
– To ensure tourist satisfaction
– Sometimes, this means limiting
tourists flows
Issues to be considered:
• Benefits and costs must be politically
acceptable for the governing entities
at national, regional and destination
levels.
Prerequisites to Sustainable
Tourism Development
• High quality attractions
• Tourism infrastructure
• Community support and tolerance
• Government assistance at all levels
• Personal security and safety of
tourists
• Code of ethics and behavior of
tourists
High Quality Attractions
• Attractions draw visitors
• Offers experiences that visitors
want and need
• The goal of sustainable tourism
development is the preservation of
the attractions so that future
generations can enjoy them
Attributes of Attractions
• Natural or human made
• Fixed or mobile
• New or ancient
• Large or small
• Temporary or permanent
• Maybe designed for some type of
human activity
• Unique
Key Players
• Private Sector
– Owns and operates profit making
tourist attractions and facilities
• Government Sector
– Owns and operates public facilities
and attractions
– Establishes regulatory guidelines
• NGOs
Tourism Infrastructure
The sum total of basic facilities,
equipment and installations needed
for a functioning tourism industry.
• Tourist Facilities
• Transportation System
• Utilities
• Health Facilities
• Cultural and recreational infrastructures
Tourism Infrastructures
• Infrastructures may be owned privately
• Maybe operated for profit or non profit
• Infrastructures serve tourists as well as local
population
• Regardless of who builds and operates them,
infrastructures must be carefully planned and
executed.
• Infrastructures must serve higher goals of the
nation, region and destination.
• Public opinions must be heard and political
systems must be employed in evaluating the
merits of proposed tourism projects.
Mistakes are made
when single purpose
tourism infrastructures
are narrowly
conceived and
rushed.
Feasibility and market studies are required to
evaluate the financial realism and the
environmental, social and economic impacts of
tourism development.
Community Support and
Tolerance
Culture:
•Has numerous and diverse traits
•A learned behavior
•Creation of human mind and practice
•Spreads through communication
•Not limited to human acts, customs or
material possessions
•Embraces a large field of human
behavior and creativity
Community Support and
Tolerance
• Cultural harmony is an important issue
in sustainable tourism development.
• Cultural diffusion is the process of
spreading individual cultural traits from
their source to other areas.
• Tourism is a means of transmitting
culture.
• A safe and secure environment must
be established where law prevails and
local culture is protected.
Community Support and
Tolerance
• Harmony between traditional and
foreign cultures must be established
through demonstration and
communication
– Mutual respect can be gained
– Acceptance of tourism and cultural
changes can be achieved
Government Assistance
• National level
– Initiates tourism development
• Regional level & local level
– Strategy is broken down into
components
– Assigned to different agencies for
implementation
Personal Security and
Safety of Tourists
• Personal security is a prime
consideration
– War
– Terrorism
– Political instability
– Natural disasters
Personal Security and
Safety of Tourists
• Well equipped medical facilities
and competent medical staff are
required
– Emergency first aid kit
– Exit strategy for tourists in cases of
emergency
Personal Security and
Safety of Tourists
• To ensure safety of tourists,
government services must be
immediately available.
• Local governments must be
prepared to respond to multiple
crises including ordinary and
unexpected.
Code of Ethics and
Behavior for Tourists
• Tourists should extend their respect
for local authority to the local
population and culture.
• To promote cultural understanding,
tourists must be aware of the local
codes of ethics, social mores and
behavioral conventions.
Benefits of Sustainable
Tourism Development
• Developing new businesses
• Expanding job opportunities
• Increasing income
• Marketing new products
• Improving infrastructures
• Encouraging diversification
• Integrating local economy
• Promoting community pride
• Higher quality of life for local population

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SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT

  • 2. Objectives • Understand the different stages in destination development • Understand sustainable tourism development and its benefits • Identify the different prerequisites of a sustainable tourism development. • Analyze the roles played by various stakeholders in sustainable tourism development.
  • 3. Stages of Destination Development
  • 4. Stage 1: Discovery • The stage of exploration • A destination begins as a relatively unknown place and visitors initially come in small numbers restricted by lack of access, facilities, and local knowledge
  • 6. Stage 2: Development • The stage of growth • As more people discover the destination, the word spreads about its attractions and the amenities are increased and improved
  • 8. Stage 3: Stagnation • The stage of maturity • Tourist arrivals then begin to grow rapidly toward some theoretical carrying capacity which involves social and environmental limits. • Often happens rapidly.
  • 10. Stage 4: Decline • Possible trajectory of a destination after the stage of stagnation • The stage of saturation and alienation • Increased congestion and unsustainable development caused the resources that originally drew visitors to the destination to become corrupted, or no longer exist. • The destination has become saturated • The appeal of the destination has disappeared and the tourists now look for unaltered destination
  • 12. Stage 4: Rejuvenation • Possible trajectory of a destination after the stage of stagnation • Technological developments or infrastructure improvements leading to increased carrying capacity can help rejuvenate a destination.
  • 13. Resources for Developing Tourism • Resources can be divided into 4 categories: – Capital – Labor – Materials – Knowledge • In tourism, materials include natural and human-made assets.
  • 15. Why Do We Need Sustainable Planning? • Resources are scarce and finite. • Society must choose among economic activities including tourism that could have higher returns to scale. • Provided that tourism increases economic diversion, then resources can be allocated in developing it.
  • 16. What is Sustainable Development? Sustainable development is progress that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future to meet their own needs (UN WCED, 1987).
  • 17. In tourism, sustainability means… • Achieving quality growth in a manner that does not deplete the natural and built-in environment and preserves the culture, history and heritage of local community. • Achieving balance between number of visitors and the capacity of the given environment • Greatest interaction and enjoyment with the least destruction.
  • 18. Carrying Capacity • The largest number of people a destination can efficiently manage within its given environ and management capabilities
  • 19. Issues to be considered: • Natural and man-made cultural and environmental resources comprising tourism product are conserved and renewed when necessary. – For the benefit of succeeding generations. – Tourists not only consume the tourism product, they should be made aware of the need to protect it.
  • 20. Issues to be considered: • Tourism must be beneficial for the receiving destination, region and country. – For the receiving destination to be prepared to accommodate tourists and hospitality be extended when tourists overstayed.
  • 21. Issues to be considered: • Maintaining and renewing the tourism product is critical. – To sustain steady tourist flow – To ensure tourist satisfaction – Sometimes, this means limiting tourists flows
  • 22. Issues to be considered: • Benefits and costs must be politically acceptable for the governing entities at national, regional and destination levels.
  • 23. Prerequisites to Sustainable Tourism Development • High quality attractions • Tourism infrastructure • Community support and tolerance • Government assistance at all levels • Personal security and safety of tourists • Code of ethics and behavior of tourists
  • 24. High Quality Attractions • Attractions draw visitors • Offers experiences that visitors want and need • The goal of sustainable tourism development is the preservation of the attractions so that future generations can enjoy them
  • 25. Attributes of Attractions • Natural or human made • Fixed or mobile • New or ancient • Large or small • Temporary or permanent • Maybe designed for some type of human activity • Unique
  • 26. Key Players • Private Sector – Owns and operates profit making tourist attractions and facilities • Government Sector – Owns and operates public facilities and attractions – Establishes regulatory guidelines • NGOs
  • 27. Tourism Infrastructure The sum total of basic facilities, equipment and installations needed for a functioning tourism industry. • Tourist Facilities • Transportation System • Utilities • Health Facilities • Cultural and recreational infrastructures
  • 28. Tourism Infrastructures • Infrastructures may be owned privately • Maybe operated for profit or non profit • Infrastructures serve tourists as well as local population • Regardless of who builds and operates them, infrastructures must be carefully planned and executed. • Infrastructures must serve higher goals of the nation, region and destination. • Public opinions must be heard and political systems must be employed in evaluating the merits of proposed tourism projects.
  • 29. Mistakes are made when single purpose tourism infrastructures are narrowly conceived and rushed. Feasibility and market studies are required to evaluate the financial realism and the environmental, social and economic impacts of tourism development.
  • 30. Community Support and Tolerance Culture: •Has numerous and diverse traits •A learned behavior •Creation of human mind and practice •Spreads through communication •Not limited to human acts, customs or material possessions •Embraces a large field of human behavior and creativity
  • 31. Community Support and Tolerance • Cultural harmony is an important issue in sustainable tourism development. • Cultural diffusion is the process of spreading individual cultural traits from their source to other areas. • Tourism is a means of transmitting culture. • A safe and secure environment must be established where law prevails and local culture is protected.
  • 32. Community Support and Tolerance • Harmony between traditional and foreign cultures must be established through demonstration and communication – Mutual respect can be gained – Acceptance of tourism and cultural changes can be achieved
  • 33. Government Assistance • National level – Initiates tourism development • Regional level & local level – Strategy is broken down into components – Assigned to different agencies for implementation
  • 34. Personal Security and Safety of Tourists • Personal security is a prime consideration – War – Terrorism – Political instability – Natural disasters
  • 35. Personal Security and Safety of Tourists • Well equipped medical facilities and competent medical staff are required – Emergency first aid kit – Exit strategy for tourists in cases of emergency
  • 36. Personal Security and Safety of Tourists • To ensure safety of tourists, government services must be immediately available. • Local governments must be prepared to respond to multiple crises including ordinary and unexpected.
  • 37. Code of Ethics and Behavior for Tourists • Tourists should extend their respect for local authority to the local population and culture. • To promote cultural understanding, tourists must be aware of the local codes of ethics, social mores and behavioral conventions.
  • 38. Benefits of Sustainable Tourism Development • Developing new businesses • Expanding job opportunities • Increasing income • Marketing new products • Improving infrastructures • Encouraging diversification • Integrating local economy • Promoting community pride • Higher quality of life for local population