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RELATION OF INTERIOR
PLACES AND SPACES WITH
WHAT IS SPACE?
• Space it is the area provided for particular purpose. Space
can be two dimensional, three dimensional or multi.
• The perception of a space is known by the functionality and
quality of it.
So, Space doesn't defines the use,..behaviour
• Spaces can be identified as
• public ,personal etc.
How can we relate urban form to one building
................Elements in urban typology.....................
……...............Elements in building typology......................................
Thus, the similar type of
urban elements can be
related/seen in smaller
scales within a building.
• Urban design can be defined as about making connections
between people and places, movement and urban form, nature
and the built fabric.
• Some of the urban thinkers are JANE JACOBS,KEVIN
LYNCH, GARDEN CULLEN and CHRISTOPHER
• Jane Jacobs suggested let the cities be mixed use economies
and as ecosystems.
• Urban thinker Kevin Lynch was able to establish a
notation of city elements that matched peoples
• They are identified as:
• Other elements those can be identified in urban context
• Landscapes and
• Accessory features.
• Through his book “IMAGE OF THE CITY” Kevin Lynch explained
that people orient themselves by means of mental maps(i.e
perception of space).
• A design should be in such a way that it gives room for three
related movements-MAPPING,LEARNING AND SHAPING.
• MAPPING: people should create or acquire a clear map of the
• LEARNING: People should be able to learn how to navigate in the
• SHAPING: People should be able to operate and act in the
so, what is environment?
• An environment has these components
• IDENTITY: recognition of elements as separate entities.
• STRUCTURE: relation of elements to other objects and observer.
• MEANING: its practical and emotional value to the observer.
Kevin lynch five elements
• (Identity)Defnition: The streets, sidewalks, trails, and
other channels in which people travel.
• (Meaning )Importance:
• They organise the mobility.
• pattern of street network is what
defines a city and makes it unique.
• (Structure)Characteristics of Paths
• They are defined by their physical dimension, size
,shape and character of the buildings that line them.
• They range from grand avenues to intimate small
• (Identity)In interiors ,paths are identified as corridors, halls
,galleries, stairways and ramps.
• (Meaning ) user should be able to map out the overall
configuration of the paths in the building mentally, orientation
within the building and understanding of its spatial layout will be
• Within a large space, a path can be random, without form or
definition, and be determined by the activities and
arrangement of furnishings within the space
• (Structure) FORM OF THE CIRCULATION SPACE
• The form and scale of a circulation space, however,
should accommodate the movement of people as they
walk, pause, rest, or take in a view along a path.
PATHS IN INTERIOR SPACES
The form of a circulation space
varies according to how:
•Its boundaries that are
•Its form relates to the form
of the spaces it links
• It handles changes in level
with stairs and ramps
Paths defined by
change of floor
Paths defined by
Approach for Designing of paths
• A narrow, enclosed path naturally
encourages forward motion
• This act of entering can be made
significant in a number of ways not just by
punching a hole in a wall
• A passage can be created through an
implied plane established by two pillars
or an overhead beam
• If greater visual and spatial continuity
between two spaces is desired, even a
change in level can establish a
threshold and mark the passage from
one place to another
• Normally when a wall is used to define
and enclose a space or series of
spaces, an entrance is
accommodated by an opening in the
plane of the wall
• However, the form of the openings can
range from a simple hole in the wall to
an elaborate, articulated gateway
• Persons approaching an intersection or crossing are always faced with
a decision(i.e at nodes)
• The Continuity and Scale of each path at the intersection helps us to
distinguish between major routes leading to major spaces and
secondary paths leading to less important spaces
• If the paths at a crossing are equal, sufficient space must be
provided to allow people to pause and orient themselves
• The form and scale of entrances and paths must also convey the
functional and symbolic distinction between public promenades,
private halls, and service corridors
• To accommodate more traffic as well as to create spaces for pausing,
resting, or viewing, sections of a path can be widened
•Stairs are three-dimensional forms just as moving up or
This three-dimensional quality can be exploited when we
treat it as sculpture, freestanding within a space or
attached to a wall plane.
Further a space can itself become an oversized
Together with the pitch of the stairs, the locations of
landings determine the rhythm and choreography of
our movements as we ascend or descend its steps.
• Wide, shallow steps can serve as
an invitation, while a narrow,
steep stairway can lead to more
• While the act of walking up a
stairway may convey privacy,
aloofness, or detachment, the
process of going down can imply
moving toward secure, protected
or stable ground
• Stairs in accommodating a
change in level, can reinforce
the path of movement, interrupt
it, accommodate a change in its
course, or terminate it prior to
entering a major space
• (Identity)Defnition: A common point where two or more roads
meet to form a junction or square.
• The strategic focus points for orientations of squares and
• spots in a city into which an observer can enter, and which are
the intensive foci from which the person is travelling.
• (Meaning )Importance:
• to increase the perception of an active, urban corridor and to
encourage more walking.
• Strengthen the emphasis on alternative mode use in the
• Contribute to the overall vibrancy, safety, and desirability of
• (Structure)Characteristics of nodes:
• These nodes should occur where single uses or a
combination of uses lead to higher levels of pedestrian activity,
• Pedestrian nodes should include such furnishings as drinking
fountains, trash cans, and benches to increase the users’
sense of comfort. Seating should be arranged to
accommodate groups of people
• Careful thought should be given to the amount of seating
provided because too much unused seating may detract from
the goal of creating an active area
NODES IN INTERIOR SPACES
• (Identity)In interiors,They are identified as transition spaces,
intersecting spaces and common gathering spaces where
people of different activities meet together while moving.
• (Meaning ) These nodes punctuate the paths of movement
through a building and provide opportunities for pause, rest
• These are the casual common spaces with an unstructured
environment thatpromotes comfort and relaxation.
• (Structure) Persons approaching an intersection or crossing are
always faced with a decision.
• To avoid the creation of a disorienting maze, a hierarchical
order among the paths and nodes of a building should be
established by differentiating their scale, form, length and
(common /sharing/casual spaces in a building)
• Nodes or pass through spaces
• The path may pass through a space axially, obliquely
or along its edge
• In cutting through a space, the path creates pattern of
rest and movement within it
Approach for Designing of nodes
• A Grid configuration
consists of two sets of
parallel paths that intersect
at regular intervals and
create square or rectangular
fields of space
• A Network configuration
consists of paths that
connect established points
• In reality, a building usually
employs a combination of
the different paths
• Important points in any
pattern are centres of
activity, entrances to rooms
and halls and places for
vertical circulation provided
by stairways/ramps and
• OPTIMALLY SIZED
• Larger spaces provide a greater level of accommodation for
activities, but more is not always better.
• Appropriately sized common areas are simultaneously
compact enough to encourage interaction and generous
enough to house a range of activities.
• Spaces that are too big for their purpose or undifferentiated
feel empty when only a few people are around.
• One example there was an enclosed study lounge with three
tables. If it was occupied by a group, it felt intrusive for others
to come in, even though there were empty tables.
• The room should neither be big enough for multiple groups
nor small enough to dedicate to one activity at a time.
Large space with less furniture
Small space with
• NODES AS CASUAL SPACES
• Allowing people the freedom to move, rearrange
furniture, and create spaces that suit their needs gives
them desired control of their environment
• The Casual attendee searches out a comfortable spot
and takes refuge for an indeterminate period of time. The
unstructured or sometimes informal environment can
help make this space inviting, which is typically adjacent
to circulation and activity. Small groups may take
advantage of this space for solace or discussion.
Informal furniture like bean
furniture Which creates
comforting ,friendly and
• QUALITY OF SPACE
• Conversations, the most basic ingredient of social
interaction, occur in settings with good acoustics
,comfortable furniture, natural light and inviting colour.
• A study revealed that aesthetic buildings emphasize
warm colour schemes and use materials such as
drywall, wood, and stone that are more comfortable to
touch and softer acoustically.
• People do not hang out in spaces that are poorly lit,
outfitted with unfurnished ,uncomfortable furniture,
echoing, or otherwise physically unpleasant.
•DISTRIBUTION AND VARIETY
• People form social connections and build a sense of
community on a range of scales—with roommates, with
floor mates, and with other activity members.
• A variety of common areas distributed throughout the
building maximize opportunities for social connection at
these various scales.
• A common space in a room can be intimate than in a
floor .like wise, the common space in a floor is
distributed and larger.
• Multiple sizes and types of spaces are important in large
buildings and in towers, where the potential for an
anonymous experience is heightened.
IN A ROOM
Intimate furniture arrangements for a
similar type of people and similar
activities associated with them
IN A FLOOR
In a multifunctional
building floor more
furniture is widely spread
to encourage different
groups of people to enter
into a common space of
Educational and learning
places are allotted with
large common spaces in
a floor with intimate
furniture to encourage
social movement and
exchange of thoughts .
IN A FLOOR
•(Identity)Defnition: They are boundaries between two
Bodies of water (such as an ocean, river, or lake)
Landforms (such as mountains and hills)
Manmade structures (such as buildings, railroad tracks, walls, or
•(Meaning )Importance:Functionality and usage of the spaces
are clearly defined by edges..
•(Structure)Characteristics of edges:
Acts in a space by stopping it,more or less penetrable,or they may
be seams, lines along which two regions are related and joined
Street edges need to be oriented and/or adjusted for maximum
light on the space between buildings, and not just for interior
penetration, in order to encourage active street life
Edges in interior spaces
• We view site and building as a series of free-flowing
interior and exterior space .
• (Identity) colonnades, courtyards,windows and trellises
are transparent barriers, where public meets private,
indoors meets outdoors, light meets shadow; places of
• Within a room edges can be defined as separating
planes like partition walls,curtains,furnitures,grills etc.
• (Meaning )It allows each space to be clearly defined and
respond in its own way.
• It creates adjacency the most common spatial
• Views and vistas become an integral part of interior
•Should act as both
connector in a space.
•The degree of spatial
continuity that occurs
between two spaces
will depend on the
nature of plane that
both separates and
Design approach for edges
The separating plane can be:
•Limit physical and visual access between two adjacent
spaces, reinforce the individuality of each space and
accommodates their deference.
•Appears as free standing plane in a single volume space
• Can be defined with row of columns that allows a high
degree of visual and spatial continuity between the
• By merely implied by change of level or surfaces
articulated between the two spaces. It separates single
volume of space into two separate zones.
• Edges are also created by using jaliis as semi
seperators,screens which gives partial privacy
• Glass as partition enlarges the space giving partial
privacy by reducing noise levels.
and frost glass dividers
provide both visual and
Placement and continuity of edges.
• The issue of continuity within
building to building edges entails
balancing the variety between
bigger and smaller moves in.
• When big moves extend over
correspondingly large distance,
the effect is dispassionate.
• Introducing smaller scale
rhythms provokes continued
interest in a pattern.
• A long sequence of smaller,
unrelated moves quickly
becomes chaotic, and represents
the other extreme of monotony:
Though the partition wall is partially visible,the closer and more
differential arrangement made the space confusing and will also appears
chaotic in heavy traffic.
Introducing smaller scale rhythm made the display
board interesting and simpler.
Linear shapes and defined path makes the room bigger but are less
interesting for the viewer.
Linear patterns can be transformed like exemplary images making them
more vibrant and also interesting for the visitor.
Shapes of the edges
•Horizontal lines suggest a solid, harmonious
relationship with the earth, and offer a sense of
•Long horizontal lines can visually expand
space, making rooms appear wider or longer.
•Lest you go overboard, a room with too many
horizontal lines may become boring and lack
• Smooth, curling lines can improve functionality
and boost good feeling, both inside and out.
• People tend to be attracted to curved forms as
it creates free flowing pattern.
• Curves create harmony with the spaces
adjacent to it.
• Gentle curves give closure where as undulated
forms create negative spaces and are more
busy and chaotic.
• Districts: Areas characterized by common
characteristics, these are the medium to large areas,
which have some common identifying character.
• Distinctive physical characteristics might include
‘thematic continuities’, such as texture, space, form,
detail, symbol ,function and building.
• In interior spaces, districts can be termed as zones that
are divided for achieving the functionality and comfort of
• A kitchen with its adjoining wash area,store area forms a
• The presence of these and other similar attributes
reinforce a district’s fabric, cohesiveness, and identity
• Good planning makes for liveable neighbourhoods, a
safe and healthy community, and a sustainable economy
Importance of zoning
• Zoning helps in creating identity to the place, security
and enrich private and social behaviour.
• (Identity)Definition: external points of
orientation,easily identified objects– towers,
spires, hills are distant and are typically seen from
many angles and from distance, over the top of
• Other landmarks – sculptures, signs and trees are
primarily local being visible only in restricted
localities and from certain approaches.
• (Meaning )Importance: Functionally prominent
structures have a major influence on the
aesthetics of their immediate urban landscape;
location ,function of open spaces and landscape
• ( Structure)physical characteristics: some
aspect that is unique or memorable in the context.
Landmarks are identifies
variously depending on the
scale and focus of the
It can also define
functionality of the space.
• A sculpture in the middle
of lobby creates
movement acting as a
• The scale and proportion
of columns, define space
and also highlights the
importance acting as
Enhancing a architectural feature with interior colors and textures allowing natural
light add to the aesthetics of the place marking it as landmark or active and
A prime functional element of circulation is enhanced by adding sculpturic design
and colour to it.
Scale,Focus made the element of design as a landmark.