SlideShare ist ein Scribd-Unternehmen logo
1 von 23
Downloaden Sie, um offline zu lesen
COURSE :B.SC. (MICRO)
SUBJECT: ELEMENTARY MICROBIOLOGY
UNIT 3.2
1
Algae
 Simple, eukaryotic phototrophs that carry out
oxygenic photosynthesis using chlorophyll a
 Have sexual reproductive structures
 Every cell becomes a gamete
 Differ widely in distribution, morphology,
reproduction, and biochemical traits
© 2012 Pearson Education Inc. 2
Algae
 Distribution of Algae
 Most are aquatic
 Live in the photic zone of fresh, brackish, and saltwater
 Accessory photosynthetic pigments that trap energy
of light and pass it to chlorophyll a
 Morphology of Algae
 Unicellular, colonial, or have simple multicellular
bodies (thalli)
© 2012 Pearson Education Inc. 3
II. ALGAE
Vegetative Structures of multicellular algae:
 Thallus: Body. Lacks conductive tissue.
 Holdfasts: Anchor alga to rock.
 Stipes: Hollow, stem-like structures. Does not support
weight.
 Blades: Leaf-like structures.
 Pneumatocyst: Floating, gas-filled bladder.
DIVISIONS OF ALGAE
Green algae: May be unicellular or multicellular.
 Have cellulose cell walls, contain chlorophyll a and b, and
store starch like plants. Most are microscopic. Live close to
water surface. Believed to be the ancestors of terrestrial
plants.
 Sexual & Asexual production.
4
5
1
Brown Algae or Kelp: Macroscopic (up to 50 m
long). Most are found in coastal waters, at
intermediate depths. Rapid growth. Can be
harvested regularly.
Red Algae: Live at greater ocean depths than
other algae. Red pigments allow them to absorb
blue light that penetrates deepest into ocean.
Agar is extracted from many red algae. Some
produce lethal toxins.
6
Comparison of Algae and Plant Structure
7
2
DIVISIONS OF ALGAE (Continued)
 Diatoms: Unicellular or filamentous algae with complex
cell walls with silica or calcium.
 Two parts of cell wall fit together like Petri dish.
Distinctive patterns are used for identification. Store
energy in form of oil.
 Some diatoms can cause neurological disease (memory
loss and diarrhea) in people who eat mussels, due to
domoic acid intoxication.
 Fossil deposits of diatoms (diatomaceous earth) are
used as filtering agents and abrasives in several
industries.
8
Dinoflagellates (Plankton): Unicellular free-floating
algae. Rigid structure due to cellulose in plasma
membrane.
 Some dinoflagellates produce neurotoxins, which
kill fish, marine mammals, and humans.
 Paralytic shellfish poisoning: Consumption of clams and
mussels that have eaten dinoflagellates (Gonyaulax) that
produce neurotoxin.
 Red Tide: Caused by large concentrations of (Gonyaulax).
Euglenoids: Unicellular, flagellated algae. Semi-rigid
plasma membrane (pellicle). Most have anterior red
eye spot. Frequently studied with protozoa, because
lack a cell wall.
9
Euglenoids are Flagellated, Unicellular Algae
10
3
 Reproduction in Algae
 Unicellular algae
 Asexual reproduction involves mitosis followed by cytokinesis
 Sexual reproduction forms zygotes from individual gametes
 Zygote undergoes meiosis
 Multicellular algae
 Reproduce asexually by fragmentation
 Reproduce sexually with alternation of generations
© 2012 Pearson Education Inc. 11
12
4
Male haploid
individual
Female haploid
individual
Female
gamete
Male
gamete
Fusion
Zygote
Diploid
individual
Meiosis
Male and female
haploid spores
Diploid (2n) generation
Haploid (1n) generation
13
5
14
6
Whiplike flagellum
“Hairy” flagellum
15
7
Pneumocyst
16
8
17
9
LICHENS
Combination of a green alga (or cyanobacterium) and a
fungus.
Mutualistic relationship in which each partner benefits.
 Alga: Provides nutrients by photosynthesis to fungus.
 Fungus: Provides attachment and protection from desiccation.
20,000 species of lichens occupy unique habitats, in which
either fungi or algae could not survive alone: rocks, cement,
rooftops, trees, and newly exposed soil.
Grow very slowly, secreting acids that break down rocks.
Accumulate nutrients needed for plant growth.
Sensitive to air pollution.
Major food source for tundra herbivores (caribou and
reindeer).
18
Lichens: Combinations of Fungi and Green Algae (or
Cyanobacterium)
19
10
20
11
Ecological Importance of Algae
Important part of the food chain in aquatic
ecosystems because they fix carbon dioxide into
organic molecules that can be used by heterotrophs.
80% of the earth’s oxygen is believed to be produced
by planktonic algae.
Algal blooms are indicators of water pollution.
 Grow rapidly in water with high concentrations of organic
material (sewage or industrial waste).
Petroleum and natural gas reserves were formed
primarily from diatoms and plankton.
Many unicellular algae are symbionts in animals.
21
IV. SLIME MOLDS
Have both fungal and animal characteristics.
 Amoeboid stage
 Produce spores like fungi
Eukaryotic, classified as protists.
Cellular and plasmodial (acellular) slime molds.
Life Cycle of Cellular Slime Molds:
 Amoeba stage: Germinate from a spore.
 Slug stage: Many amoebas aggregate and sheath forms.
Migration.
 Fruiting body: Releases spores which germinate into amoebas.
Plasmodial (Acellular) Slime Molds
 Mass of protoplasm with many nuclei (plasmodium).
 Capable of sexual reproduction.
22
Reference:
 Images (1 to 11):
1. Microbiology by Gerard J. Tortora, Christine L
Case, and Berdell R. Funke
2. Brock Biology of Microorganisms (13th Edition)
by Michael T. Madigan, John M. Martinko, David
Stahl.
23

Weitere ähnliche Inhalte

Was ist angesagt?

Microorganisms in air
Microorganisms in airMicroorganisms in air
Microorganisms in airSaad Farooqi
 
Microbial Biocorrosion - An Introduction...
Microbial Biocorrosion - An Introduction...Microbial Biocorrosion - An Introduction...
Microbial Biocorrosion - An Introduction...KANTHARAJAN GANESAN
 
Endosymbiotic Theory Short Lecture
Endosymbiotic Theory Short LectureEndosymbiotic Theory Short Lecture
Endosymbiotic Theory Short Lecturejanetladams
 
Algae thallus structure
Algae thallus structureAlgae thallus structure
Algae thallus structureBimal K Chetri
 
Cynobacteria - A Blue Green Algae
Cynobacteria - A Blue Green AlgaeCynobacteria - A Blue Green Algae
Cynobacteria - A Blue Green Algaenishakataria10
 
General features and structure of yeast.ppt
General features and structure of yeast.pptGeneral features and structure of yeast.ppt
General features and structure of yeast.pptRAMESHVELCHAMY
 
Most probable number (MPN) method
Most probable number (MPN) method Most probable number (MPN) method
Most probable number (MPN) method DeborahAR1
 
Culture media types for industrial fermentation
Culture media types for industrial fermentationCulture media types for industrial fermentation
Culture media types for industrial fermentationHARINATHA REDDY ASWARTHA
 
BIOSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS BY VARIOUS ORGANISMS (BACTERIA, ALGAE AND FUNGI)
BIOSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS BY VARIOUS ORGANISMS  (BACTERIA, ALGAE AND FUNGI) BIOSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS BY VARIOUS ORGANISMS  (BACTERIA, ALGAE AND FUNGI)
BIOSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS BY VARIOUS ORGANISMS (BACTERIA, ALGAE AND FUNGI) swayam prakas nanda
 
Archaebacteria
ArchaebacteriaArchaebacteria
ArchaebacteriaADITIBAGDI
 
Microbial life in heavy metal environment
Microbial life in heavy metal environmentMicrobial life in heavy metal environment
Microbial life in heavy metal environmentsankarshankarpillai
 
Microbiologically influenced corrosion (mic) or biological corrosion
Microbiologically influenced corrosion (mic) or biological corrosionMicrobiologically influenced corrosion (mic) or biological corrosion
Microbiologically influenced corrosion (mic) or biological corrosionkoshykanjirapallikaran
 
Microbial fuel cell – for conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy
Microbial fuel cell – for conversion of chemical energy to electrical energyMicrobial fuel cell – for conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy
Microbial fuel cell – for conversion of chemical energy to electrical energyrita martin
 
the control of microbial growth
the control of microbial growththe control of microbial growth
the control of microbial growthRocky Nikijuluw
 
Biodegradable plastics
Biodegradable plasticsBiodegradable plastics
Biodegradable plasticsDC Graphics
 

Was ist angesagt? (20)

Microorganisms in air
Microorganisms in airMicroorganisms in air
Microorganisms in air
 
Microbial Biocorrosion - An Introduction...
Microbial Biocorrosion - An Introduction...Microbial Biocorrosion - An Introduction...
Microbial Biocorrosion - An Introduction...
 
Endosymbiotic Theory Short Lecture
Endosymbiotic Theory Short LectureEndosymbiotic Theory Short Lecture
Endosymbiotic Theory Short Lecture
 
Algae thallus structure
Algae thallus structureAlgae thallus structure
Algae thallus structure
 
Cynobacteria - A Blue Green Algae
Cynobacteria - A Blue Green AlgaeCynobacteria - A Blue Green Algae
Cynobacteria - A Blue Green Algae
 
Photobioreactor
PhotobioreactorPhotobioreactor
Photobioreactor
 
General features and structure of yeast.ppt
General features and structure of yeast.pptGeneral features and structure of yeast.ppt
General features and structure of yeast.ppt
 
Most probable number (MPN) method
Most probable number (MPN) method Most probable number (MPN) method
Most probable number (MPN) method
 
Culture media types for industrial fermentation
Culture media types for industrial fermentationCulture media types for industrial fermentation
Culture media types for industrial fermentation
 
BIOSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS BY VARIOUS ORGANISMS (BACTERIA, ALGAE AND FUNGI)
BIOSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS BY VARIOUS ORGANISMS  (BACTERIA, ALGAE AND FUNGI) BIOSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS BY VARIOUS ORGANISMS  (BACTERIA, ALGAE AND FUNGI)
BIOSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS BY VARIOUS ORGANISMS (BACTERIA, ALGAE AND FUNGI)
 
Archaebacteria
ArchaebacteriaArchaebacteria
Archaebacteria
 
Microbial life in heavy metal environment
Microbial life in heavy metal environmentMicrobial life in heavy metal environment
Microbial life in heavy metal environment
 
Microbiologically influenced corrosion (mic) or biological corrosion
Microbiologically influenced corrosion (mic) or biological corrosionMicrobiologically influenced corrosion (mic) or biological corrosion
Microbiologically influenced corrosion (mic) or biological corrosion
 
Biofouling
BiofoulingBiofouling
Biofouling
 
Vermiculture
VermicultureVermiculture
Vermiculture
 
Microbial fuel cell – for conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy
Microbial fuel cell – for conversion of chemical energy to electrical energyMicrobial fuel cell – for conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy
Microbial fuel cell – for conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy
 
Biodeterioration
Biodeterioration  Biodeterioration
Biodeterioration
 
the control of microbial growth
the control of microbial growththe control of microbial growth
the control of microbial growth
 
Biodegradable plastics
Biodegradable plasticsBiodegradable plastics
Biodegradable plastics
 
Bioremediation
BioremediationBioremediation
Bioremediation
 

Andere mochten auch

B.sc. (micro) i em unit 1.4 pro & euk org
B.sc. (micro) i em unit 1.4 pro & euk orgB.sc. (micro) i em unit 1.4 pro & euk org
B.sc. (micro) i em unit 1.4 pro & euk orgRai University
 
1 3usefulmicroorganism-110131110439-phpapp02 (1)
1 3usefulmicroorganism-110131110439-phpapp02 (1)1 3usefulmicroorganism-110131110439-phpapp02 (1)
1 3usefulmicroorganism-110131110439-phpapp02 (1)Paarth Sinha
 
Historia de la evolución informatica
Historia de la evolución informaticaHistoria de la evolución informatica
Historia de la evolución informaticaESSUNA
 
Vorschau zum Seminar Intranet Strategie und Governance [DE]
Vorschau zum Seminar Intranet Strategie und Governance [DE]Vorschau zum Seminar Intranet Strategie und Governance [DE]
Vorschau zum Seminar Intranet Strategie und Governance [DE]Stephan Schillerwein
 
Nutrition food-nutrition-and-health-1198017357690195-4
Nutrition food-nutrition-and-health-1198017357690195-4Nutrition food-nutrition-and-health-1198017357690195-4
Nutrition food-nutrition-and-health-1198017357690195-4tshepiso montsheng
 
B.sc cs-ii-u-3-basic computer programming and micro programmed control
B.sc cs-ii-u-3-basic computer programming and micro programmed controlB.sc cs-ii-u-3-basic computer programming and micro programmed control
B.sc cs-ii-u-3-basic computer programming and micro programmed controlRai University
 
Prayer is power
Prayer is powerPrayer is power
Prayer is powerwvss971
 
Exam 4 slides (2)
Exam 4 slides (2)Exam 4 slides (2)
Exam 4 slides (2)delta
 
1. alergia
1.  alergia1.  alergia
1. alergiaCFUK 22
 
B.sc. (micro) i em unit 4.2 sterilization
B.sc. (micro) i em unit 4.2 sterilizationB.sc. (micro) i em unit 4.2 sterilization
B.sc. (micro) i em unit 4.2 sterilizationRai University
 
B.sc. (micro) i em unit 3.4 protozoa
B.sc. (micro) i em unit 3.4 protozoaB.sc. (micro) i em unit 3.4 protozoa
B.sc. (micro) i em unit 3.4 protozoaRai University
 
B.sc.(micro) i em unit 1.1 microbiology
B.sc.(micro) i em unit 1.1 microbiologyB.sc.(micro) i em unit 1.1 microbiology
B.sc.(micro) i em unit 1.1 microbiologyRai University
 
Exam 3 Slides And Models
Exam 3 Slides And ModelsExam 3 Slides And Models
Exam 3 Slides And Modelsdelta
 
Sterilization, Disinfection and Disinfectants
Sterilization, Disinfection and DisinfectantsSterilization, Disinfection and Disinfectants
Sterilization, Disinfection and Disinfectants-
 
Lect.6 (chapter 5 microbial control)
Lect.6 (chapter 5 microbial control)Lect.6 (chapter 5 microbial control)
Lect.6 (chapter 5 microbial control)Osama Rifat
 

Andere mochten auch (20)

B.sc. (micro) i em unit 1.4 pro & euk org
B.sc. (micro) i em unit 1.4 pro & euk orgB.sc. (micro) i em unit 1.4 pro & euk org
B.sc. (micro) i em unit 1.4 pro & euk org
 
1 3usefulmicroorganism-110131110439-phpapp02 (1)
1 3usefulmicroorganism-110131110439-phpapp02 (1)1 3usefulmicroorganism-110131110439-phpapp02 (1)
1 3usefulmicroorganism-110131110439-phpapp02 (1)
 
Algae
AlgaeAlgae
Algae
 
Historia de la evolución informatica
Historia de la evolución informaticaHistoria de la evolución informatica
Historia de la evolución informatica
 
An orizontes
An orizontesAn orizontes
An orizontes
 
Vorschau zum Seminar Intranet Strategie und Governance [DE]
Vorschau zum Seminar Intranet Strategie und Governance [DE]Vorschau zum Seminar Intranet Strategie und Governance [DE]
Vorschau zum Seminar Intranet Strategie und Governance [DE]
 
Nutrition
NutritionNutrition
Nutrition
 
Nutrition food-nutrition-and-health-1198017357690195-4
Nutrition food-nutrition-and-health-1198017357690195-4Nutrition food-nutrition-and-health-1198017357690195-4
Nutrition food-nutrition-and-health-1198017357690195-4
 
B.sc cs-ii-u-3-basic computer programming and micro programmed control
B.sc cs-ii-u-3-basic computer programming and micro programmed controlB.sc cs-ii-u-3-basic computer programming and micro programmed control
B.sc cs-ii-u-3-basic computer programming and micro programmed control
 
Algae ii
Algae iiAlgae ii
Algae ii
 
Prayer is power
Prayer is powerPrayer is power
Prayer is power
 
Exam 4 slides (2)
Exam 4 slides (2)Exam 4 slides (2)
Exam 4 slides (2)
 
1. alergia
1.  alergia1.  alergia
1. alergia
 
B.sc. (micro) i em unit 4.2 sterilization
B.sc. (micro) i em unit 4.2 sterilizationB.sc. (micro) i em unit 4.2 sterilization
B.sc. (micro) i em unit 4.2 sterilization
 
B.sc. (micro) i em unit 3.4 protozoa
B.sc. (micro) i em unit 3.4 protozoaB.sc. (micro) i em unit 3.4 protozoa
B.sc. (micro) i em unit 3.4 protozoa
 
B.sc.(micro) i em unit 1.1 microbiology
B.sc.(micro) i em unit 1.1 microbiologyB.sc.(micro) i em unit 1.1 microbiology
B.sc.(micro) i em unit 1.1 microbiology
 
Exam 3 Slides And Models
Exam 3 Slides And ModelsExam 3 Slides And Models
Exam 3 Slides And Models
 
Sterilization, Disinfection and Disinfectants
Sterilization, Disinfection and DisinfectantsSterilization, Disinfection and Disinfectants
Sterilization, Disinfection and Disinfectants
 
Bacterial infection
Bacterial infectionBacterial infection
Bacterial infection
 
Lect.6 (chapter 5 microbial control)
Lect.6 (chapter 5 microbial control)Lect.6 (chapter 5 microbial control)
Lect.6 (chapter 5 microbial control)
 

Ähnlich wie B.SC. MICROBIOLOGY COURSE ELEMENTARY MICROBIOLOGY UNIT ON ALGAE

B.Sc. Biotech Biochem II BM Unit-3.1 Classification and morphology
B.Sc. Biotech Biochem II BM Unit-3.1 Classification and morphologyB.Sc. Biotech Biochem II BM Unit-3.1 Classification and morphology
B.Sc. Biotech Biochem II BM Unit-3.1 Classification and morphologyRai University
 
Introductiontoalgalcharacteristicsanddiversity
IntroductiontoalgalcharacteristicsanddiversityIntroductiontoalgalcharacteristicsanddiversity
IntroductiontoalgalcharacteristicsanddiversityMuhammad Fahad Saleh
 
Plant diversity assignment 1
Plant diversity assignment 1Plant diversity assignment 1
Plant diversity assignment 1Chevance Henry
 
additional topics for midterms.pptx
additional topics for midterms.pptxadditional topics for midterms.pptx
additional topics for midterms.pptxMissFaith2
 
Cyanobacteria 1 (1)
Cyanobacteria 1 (1)Cyanobacteria 1 (1)
Cyanobacteria 1 (1)SadaatAltaf
 
Chapter 5 - The Microbial World
Chapter 5 - The Microbial WorldChapter 5 - The Microbial World
Chapter 5 - The Microbial Worldmpattani
 
Chapter5 themicrobialworld-160313230056
Chapter5 themicrobialworld-160313230056Chapter5 themicrobialworld-160313230056
Chapter5 themicrobialworld-160313230056Cleophas Rwemera
 
laboratorio botanica.pdf
laboratorio botanica.pdflaboratorio botanica.pdf
laboratorio botanica.pdfcuentaoriperu
 
Classification of algae
Classification of algaeClassification of algae
Classification of algaesaran96
 
Introduction to Algal Classification: Part-1
Introduction to Algal Classification: Part-1Introduction to Algal Classification: Part-1
Introduction to Algal Classification: Part-1Dr.V.Vijaya
 
Kingdom Monera and Virus
Kingdom Monera and VirusKingdom Monera and Virus
Kingdom Monera and Virusjoygtablante
 
Kingdom Monera and Virus
Kingdom Monera and VirusKingdom Monera and Virus
Kingdom Monera and Virusjoygtablante
 
Phycology algae ... presentation
Phycology  algae ... presentationPhycology  algae ... presentation
Phycology algae ... presentationAnzaDar3
 
ALGAE Advance Microbiology.pptx
ALGAE Advance Microbiology.pptxALGAE Advance Microbiology.pptx
ALGAE Advance Microbiology.pptxAbhishek Tirkey
 

Ähnlich wie B.SC. MICROBIOLOGY COURSE ELEMENTARY MICROBIOLOGY UNIT ON ALGAE (20)

B.Sc. Biotech Biochem II BM Unit-3.1 Classification and morphology
B.Sc. Biotech Biochem II BM Unit-3.1 Classification and morphologyB.Sc. Biotech Biochem II BM Unit-3.1 Classification and morphology
B.Sc. Biotech Biochem II BM Unit-3.1 Classification and morphology
 
Introductiontoalgalcharacteristicsanddiversity
IntroductiontoalgalcharacteristicsanddiversityIntroductiontoalgalcharacteristicsanddiversity
Introductiontoalgalcharacteristicsanddiversity
 
Plant diversity assignment 1
Plant diversity assignment 1Plant diversity assignment 1
Plant diversity assignment 1
 
additional topics for midterms.pptx
additional topics for midterms.pptxadditional topics for midterms.pptx
additional topics for midterms.pptx
 
Cyanobacteria 1 (1)
Cyanobacteria 1 (1)Cyanobacteria 1 (1)
Cyanobacteria 1 (1)
 
Chapter 5 - The Microbial World
Chapter 5 - The Microbial WorldChapter 5 - The Microbial World
Chapter 5 - The Microbial World
 
Chapter5 themicrobialworld-160313230056
Chapter5 themicrobialworld-160313230056Chapter5 themicrobialworld-160313230056
Chapter5 themicrobialworld-160313230056
 
laboratorio botanica.pdf
laboratorio botanica.pdflaboratorio botanica.pdf
laboratorio botanica.pdf
 
Classification of algae
Classification of algaeClassification of algae
Classification of algae
 
Algae
AlgaeAlgae
Algae
 
Powerpoint (legaspina)
Powerpoint (legaspina)Powerpoint (legaspina)
Powerpoint (legaspina)
 
Introduction to Algal Classification: Part-1
Introduction to Algal Classification: Part-1Introduction to Algal Classification: Part-1
Introduction to Algal Classification: Part-1
 
Algae classification
Algae classificationAlgae classification
Algae classification
 
Kingdom Monera and Virus
Kingdom Monera and VirusKingdom Monera and Virus
Kingdom Monera and Virus
 
Kingdom Monera and Virus
Kingdom Monera and VirusKingdom Monera and Virus
Kingdom Monera and Virus
 
Protist APBio
Protist APBioProtist APBio
Protist APBio
 
Phycology algae ... presentation
Phycology  algae ... presentationPhycology  algae ... presentation
Phycology algae ... presentation
 
ALGAE Advance Microbiology.pptx
ALGAE Advance Microbiology.pptxALGAE Advance Microbiology.pptx
ALGAE Advance Microbiology.pptx
 
Algae.pdf
Algae.pdfAlgae.pdf
Algae.pdf
 
Algae.pdf
Algae.pdfAlgae.pdf
Algae.pdf
 

Mehr von Rai University

Brochure Rai University
Brochure Rai University Brochure Rai University
Brochure Rai University Rai University
 
Bdft ii, tmt, unit-iii, dyeing & types of dyeing,
Bdft ii, tmt, unit-iii,  dyeing & types of dyeing,Bdft ii, tmt, unit-iii,  dyeing & types of dyeing,
Bdft ii, tmt, unit-iii, dyeing & types of dyeing,Rai University
 
Bsc agri 2 pae u-4.4 publicrevenue-presentation-130208082149-phpapp02
Bsc agri  2 pae  u-4.4 publicrevenue-presentation-130208082149-phpapp02Bsc agri  2 pae  u-4.4 publicrevenue-presentation-130208082149-phpapp02
Bsc agri 2 pae u-4.4 publicrevenue-presentation-130208082149-phpapp02Rai University
 
Bsc agri 2 pae u-4.3 public expenditure
Bsc agri  2 pae  u-4.3 public expenditureBsc agri  2 pae  u-4.3 public expenditure
Bsc agri 2 pae u-4.3 public expenditureRai University
 
Bsc agri 2 pae u-4.2 public finance
Bsc agri  2 pae  u-4.2 public financeBsc agri  2 pae  u-4.2 public finance
Bsc agri 2 pae u-4.2 public financeRai University
 
Bsc agri 2 pae u-4.1 introduction
Bsc agri  2 pae  u-4.1 introductionBsc agri  2 pae  u-4.1 introduction
Bsc agri 2 pae u-4.1 introductionRai University
 
Bsc agri 2 pae u-3.3 inflation
Bsc agri  2 pae  u-3.3  inflationBsc agri  2 pae  u-3.3  inflation
Bsc agri 2 pae u-3.3 inflationRai University
 
Bsc agri 2 pae u-3.2 introduction to macro economics
Bsc agri  2 pae  u-3.2 introduction to macro economicsBsc agri  2 pae  u-3.2 introduction to macro economics
Bsc agri 2 pae u-3.2 introduction to macro economicsRai University
 
Bsc agri 2 pae u-3.1 marketstructure
Bsc agri  2 pae  u-3.1 marketstructureBsc agri  2 pae  u-3.1 marketstructure
Bsc agri 2 pae u-3.1 marketstructureRai University
 
Bsc agri 2 pae u-3 perfect-competition
Bsc agri  2 pae  u-3 perfect-competitionBsc agri  2 pae  u-3 perfect-competition
Bsc agri 2 pae u-3 perfect-competitionRai University
 

Mehr von Rai University (20)

Brochure Rai University
Brochure Rai University Brochure Rai University
Brochure Rai University
 
Mm unit 4point2
Mm unit 4point2Mm unit 4point2
Mm unit 4point2
 
Mm unit 4point1
Mm unit 4point1Mm unit 4point1
Mm unit 4point1
 
Mm unit 4point3
Mm unit 4point3Mm unit 4point3
Mm unit 4point3
 
Mm unit 3point2
Mm unit 3point2Mm unit 3point2
Mm unit 3point2
 
Mm unit 3point1
Mm unit 3point1Mm unit 3point1
Mm unit 3point1
 
Mm unit 2point2
Mm unit 2point2Mm unit 2point2
Mm unit 2point2
 
Mm unit 2 point 1
Mm unit 2 point 1Mm unit 2 point 1
Mm unit 2 point 1
 
Mm unit 1point3
Mm unit 1point3Mm unit 1point3
Mm unit 1point3
 
Mm unit 1point2
Mm unit 1point2Mm unit 1point2
Mm unit 1point2
 
Mm unit 1point1
Mm unit 1point1Mm unit 1point1
Mm unit 1point1
 
Bdft ii, tmt, unit-iii, dyeing & types of dyeing,
Bdft ii, tmt, unit-iii,  dyeing & types of dyeing,Bdft ii, tmt, unit-iii,  dyeing & types of dyeing,
Bdft ii, tmt, unit-iii, dyeing & types of dyeing,
 
Bsc agri 2 pae u-4.4 publicrevenue-presentation-130208082149-phpapp02
Bsc agri  2 pae  u-4.4 publicrevenue-presentation-130208082149-phpapp02Bsc agri  2 pae  u-4.4 publicrevenue-presentation-130208082149-phpapp02
Bsc agri 2 pae u-4.4 publicrevenue-presentation-130208082149-phpapp02
 
Bsc agri 2 pae u-4.3 public expenditure
Bsc agri  2 pae  u-4.3 public expenditureBsc agri  2 pae  u-4.3 public expenditure
Bsc agri 2 pae u-4.3 public expenditure
 
Bsc agri 2 pae u-4.2 public finance
Bsc agri  2 pae  u-4.2 public financeBsc agri  2 pae  u-4.2 public finance
Bsc agri 2 pae u-4.2 public finance
 
Bsc agri 2 pae u-4.1 introduction
Bsc agri  2 pae  u-4.1 introductionBsc agri  2 pae  u-4.1 introduction
Bsc agri 2 pae u-4.1 introduction
 
Bsc agri 2 pae u-3.3 inflation
Bsc agri  2 pae  u-3.3  inflationBsc agri  2 pae  u-3.3  inflation
Bsc agri 2 pae u-3.3 inflation
 
Bsc agri 2 pae u-3.2 introduction to macro economics
Bsc agri  2 pae  u-3.2 introduction to macro economicsBsc agri  2 pae  u-3.2 introduction to macro economics
Bsc agri 2 pae u-3.2 introduction to macro economics
 
Bsc agri 2 pae u-3.1 marketstructure
Bsc agri  2 pae  u-3.1 marketstructureBsc agri  2 pae  u-3.1 marketstructure
Bsc agri 2 pae u-3.1 marketstructure
 
Bsc agri 2 pae u-3 perfect-competition
Bsc agri  2 pae  u-3 perfect-competitionBsc agri  2 pae  u-3 perfect-competition
Bsc agri 2 pae u-3 perfect-competition
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen

CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenshipThe role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenshipKarl Donert
 
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...DrVipulVKapoor
 
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfDiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfChristalin Nelson
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFEPART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFEMISSRITIMABIOLOGYEXP
 
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17How to create _name_search function in odoo 17
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17Celine George
 
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxAnupam32727
 
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian CongressThe Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian CongressMaria Paula Aroca
 
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6Vanessa Camilleri
 
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Osopher
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Transdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptx
Transdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptxTransdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptx
Transdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptxinfo924062
 
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptxUmeshTimilsina1
 
Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...
Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...
Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...EduSkills OECD
 
BBA 205 UNIT 3 INDUSTRIAL POLICY dr kanchan.pptx
BBA 205 UNIT 3 INDUSTRIAL POLICY dr kanchan.pptxBBA 205 UNIT 3 INDUSTRIAL POLICY dr kanchan.pptx
BBA 205 UNIT 3 INDUSTRIAL POLICY dr kanchan.pptxProf. Kanchan Kumari
 
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptxmary850239
 
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesSulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesVijayaLaxmi84
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen (20)

CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
 
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenshipThe role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
 
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
 
CARNAVAL COM MAGIA E EUFORIA _
CARNAVAL COM MAGIA E EUFORIA            _CARNAVAL COM MAGIA E EUFORIA            _
CARNAVAL COM MAGIA E EUFORIA _
 
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfDiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
 
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFEPART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
 
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17How to create _name_search function in odoo 17
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17
 
Israel Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database Release
Israel Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database ReleaseIsrael Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database Release
Israel Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database Release
 
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
 
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian CongressThe Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
 
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
 
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
 
Transdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptx
Transdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptxTransdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptx
Transdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptx
 
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
 
Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...
Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...
Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...
 
BBA 205 UNIT 3 INDUSTRIAL POLICY dr kanchan.pptx
BBA 205 UNIT 3 INDUSTRIAL POLICY dr kanchan.pptxBBA 205 UNIT 3 INDUSTRIAL POLICY dr kanchan.pptx
BBA 205 UNIT 3 INDUSTRIAL POLICY dr kanchan.pptx
 
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
 
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesSulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
 

B.SC. MICROBIOLOGY COURSE ELEMENTARY MICROBIOLOGY UNIT ON ALGAE

  • 1. COURSE :B.SC. (MICRO) SUBJECT: ELEMENTARY MICROBIOLOGY UNIT 3.2 1
  • 2. Algae  Simple, eukaryotic phototrophs that carry out oxygenic photosynthesis using chlorophyll a  Have sexual reproductive structures  Every cell becomes a gamete  Differ widely in distribution, morphology, reproduction, and biochemical traits © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. 2
  • 3. Algae  Distribution of Algae  Most are aquatic  Live in the photic zone of fresh, brackish, and saltwater  Accessory photosynthetic pigments that trap energy of light and pass it to chlorophyll a  Morphology of Algae  Unicellular, colonial, or have simple multicellular bodies (thalli) © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. 3
  • 4. II. ALGAE Vegetative Structures of multicellular algae:  Thallus: Body. Lacks conductive tissue.  Holdfasts: Anchor alga to rock.  Stipes: Hollow, stem-like structures. Does not support weight.  Blades: Leaf-like structures.  Pneumatocyst: Floating, gas-filled bladder. DIVISIONS OF ALGAE Green algae: May be unicellular or multicellular.  Have cellulose cell walls, contain chlorophyll a and b, and store starch like plants. Most are microscopic. Live close to water surface. Believed to be the ancestors of terrestrial plants.  Sexual & Asexual production. 4
  • 5. 5 1
  • 6. Brown Algae or Kelp: Macroscopic (up to 50 m long). Most are found in coastal waters, at intermediate depths. Rapid growth. Can be harvested regularly. Red Algae: Live at greater ocean depths than other algae. Red pigments allow them to absorb blue light that penetrates deepest into ocean. Agar is extracted from many red algae. Some produce lethal toxins. 6
  • 7. Comparison of Algae and Plant Structure 7 2
  • 8. DIVISIONS OF ALGAE (Continued)  Diatoms: Unicellular or filamentous algae with complex cell walls with silica or calcium.  Two parts of cell wall fit together like Petri dish. Distinctive patterns are used for identification. Store energy in form of oil.  Some diatoms can cause neurological disease (memory loss and diarrhea) in people who eat mussels, due to domoic acid intoxication.  Fossil deposits of diatoms (diatomaceous earth) are used as filtering agents and abrasives in several industries. 8
  • 9. Dinoflagellates (Plankton): Unicellular free-floating algae. Rigid structure due to cellulose in plasma membrane.  Some dinoflagellates produce neurotoxins, which kill fish, marine mammals, and humans.  Paralytic shellfish poisoning: Consumption of clams and mussels that have eaten dinoflagellates (Gonyaulax) that produce neurotoxin.  Red Tide: Caused by large concentrations of (Gonyaulax). Euglenoids: Unicellular, flagellated algae. Semi-rigid plasma membrane (pellicle). Most have anterior red eye spot. Frequently studied with protozoa, because lack a cell wall. 9
  • 10. Euglenoids are Flagellated, Unicellular Algae 10 3
  • 11.  Reproduction in Algae  Unicellular algae  Asexual reproduction involves mitosis followed by cytokinesis  Sexual reproduction forms zygotes from individual gametes  Zygote undergoes meiosis  Multicellular algae  Reproduce asexually by fragmentation  Reproduce sexually with alternation of generations © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. 11
  • 12. 12 4
  • 13. Male haploid individual Female haploid individual Female gamete Male gamete Fusion Zygote Diploid individual Meiosis Male and female haploid spores Diploid (2n) generation Haploid (1n) generation 13 5
  • 14. 14 6
  • 17. 17 9
  • 18. LICHENS Combination of a green alga (or cyanobacterium) and a fungus. Mutualistic relationship in which each partner benefits.  Alga: Provides nutrients by photosynthesis to fungus.  Fungus: Provides attachment and protection from desiccation. 20,000 species of lichens occupy unique habitats, in which either fungi or algae could not survive alone: rocks, cement, rooftops, trees, and newly exposed soil. Grow very slowly, secreting acids that break down rocks. Accumulate nutrients needed for plant growth. Sensitive to air pollution. Major food source for tundra herbivores (caribou and reindeer). 18
  • 19. Lichens: Combinations of Fungi and Green Algae (or Cyanobacterium) 19 10
  • 20. 20 11
  • 21. Ecological Importance of Algae Important part of the food chain in aquatic ecosystems because they fix carbon dioxide into organic molecules that can be used by heterotrophs. 80% of the earth’s oxygen is believed to be produced by planktonic algae. Algal blooms are indicators of water pollution.  Grow rapidly in water with high concentrations of organic material (sewage or industrial waste). Petroleum and natural gas reserves were formed primarily from diatoms and plankton. Many unicellular algae are symbionts in animals. 21
  • 22. IV. SLIME MOLDS Have both fungal and animal characteristics.  Amoeboid stage  Produce spores like fungi Eukaryotic, classified as protists. Cellular and plasmodial (acellular) slime molds. Life Cycle of Cellular Slime Molds:  Amoeba stage: Germinate from a spore.  Slug stage: Many amoebas aggregate and sheath forms. Migration.  Fruiting body: Releases spores which germinate into amoebas. Plasmodial (Acellular) Slime Molds  Mass of protoplasm with many nuclei (plasmodium).  Capable of sexual reproduction. 22
  • 23. Reference:  Images (1 to 11): 1. Microbiology by Gerard J. Tortora, Christine L Case, and Berdell R. Funke 2. Brock Biology of Microorganisms (13th Edition) by Michael T. Madigan, John M. Martinko, David Stahl. 23