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Comprehensive Transportation Study

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Comprehensive Transportation Study

  1. 1. Executive Summary of Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR TTRANSSFORMM i CONTENTS 1. – VISION, STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES AND CHALLENGES ............1-1 1.1 BACKGROUND.......................................................................................................................................................................1-1 1.2 VISION FOR MMR..................................................................................................................................................................1-1 1.3 THE STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................1-3 1.4 BRANDING MMR....................................................................................................................................................................1-4 1.5 KEY CHALLENGES IN EVOLVING .....................................................................................................1-5 2. TRAVEL IN MMR – ISSUES AND PROBLEMS.............................................................................2-1 2.1 HISTORICAL TRENDS...........................................................................................................................................................2-1 2.2 INTERNAL TRAVEL - 2005 ....................................................................................................................................................2-2 2.3 SLUMS AND TRANSPORTATION .........................................................................................................................................2-4 2.4 INCOME LEVELS AND HOUSING TYPES ............................................................................................................................2-5 2.5 REHABILITATING SLUMS .....................................................................................................................................................2-5 2.6 EXTERNAL TRAVEL ..............................................................................................................................................................2-6 2.7 SUB-URBAN RAILWAYS........................................................................................................................................................2-7 2.8 TRAVEL BY BUS ....................................................................................................................................................................2-9 2.9 TRAVEL BY PARA TRANSIT MODES .................................................................................................................................2-10 2.10 TRAVEL BY PRIVATE VEHICLES .......................................................................................................................................2-10 2.11 PORTS ..................................................................................................................................................................................2-14 2.12 AIRPORT ..............................................................................................................................................................................2-16 2.13 INTERCITY RAIL TERMINALS.............................................................................................................................................2-17 2.14 INTERCITY BUS TERMINALS .............................................................................................................................................2-17 2.15 GOODS/TRUCK TERMINALS..............................................................................................................................................2-18 3. GOALS & OBJECTIVES OF .............................................................3-1 3.1 BACKGROUND.......................................................................................................................................................................3-1 3.2 POLICIES AND OBJECTIVES................................................................................................................................................3-1 4. ENVISIONING MMR AS A ‘WORLD CLASS’ REGION.................................................................4-1 4.1 BACKGROUND.......................................................................................................................................................................4-1 5. ONE REGION - MANY POTENTIAL FUTURES.............................................................................5-1 5.1 EVOLVING ALTERNATIVES GROWTH STRATEGIES.........................................................................................................5-1 5.2 THE LONG TERM GROWTH STRATEGY (LTS)...................................................................................................................5-2 6. TRAVEL DEMAND ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDED TRANSPORT NETWORK FOR 2031, 2021 AND 2016 ...............................................................................................................................6-1 6.1 BACKGROUND.......................................................................................................................................................................6-1 6.2 TRANSPORT NETWORK FOR THE YEAR 2031 ..................................................................................................................6-1 6.3 TRANSPORT NETWORK FOR THE YEAR 2021 ..................................................................................................................6-4 6.4 TRANSPORT NETWORK FOR THE YEAR 2016 ..................................................................................................................6-4 7. TERMINALS IN MMR......................................................................................................................7-1 7.1 RAIL TERMINALS...................................................................................................................................................................7-1 7.2 INTER STATE/ INTER CITY BUS TERMINALS.....................................................................................................................7-2 7.3 TRUCK TERMINALS ..............................................................................................................................................................7-3 7.4 AIRPORT TERMINALS...........................................................................................................................................................7-3 7.5 PASSENGER WATER TRANSPORT TERMINALS ...............................................................................................................7-4 8. TRAFFIC ENGINEERING MEASURES..........................................................................................8-1 9. ASSESSMENT OF COST, ECONOMIC VIABILTY AND PHASING OF PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION.........................................................................................................................9-1 9.1 COST ESTIMATES.................................................................................................................................................................9-1 9.2 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS..........................................................................................................................................................9-3 9.3 PRELIMINARY IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE ..................................................................................................................9-4
  2. 2. TTRANSSFORMM Executive Summary of Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR ii 9.4 FUNDING OF PROJECTS......................................................................................................................................................9-5 10. FINANCIAL ANLYSIS AND RESOURCE MOBILIZATION TRANSFORM PROJECTS’S IMPLEMENTATION ...................................................................................................................... 10-1 10.1 BACKGROUND.....................................................................................................................................................................10-1 10.2 GENERAL REVENUE SOURCES ........................................................................................................................................10-2 10.3 USER PAY SOURCES..........................................................................................................................................................10-2 10.4 TRANSPORT SYSTEM LEVERAGE SOURCES .................................................................................................................10-6 10.5 FINANCIAL ANALYSIS TO EXPLORE POTENTIAL OF PSP/PPP......................................................................................10-6 FINANCING PLAN FOR ...............................................................................................................................10-22 11. NEED FOR CHANGE AND SUGGESTED INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS ...................... 11-1 11.1 NEED FOR STRENGTHENING............................................................................................................................................11-1 11.2 UMTA A SEPARATE AUTHORITY OR WITHIN A REGIONAL GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE?........................................11-1 11.3 OPTIONS FOR A REGIONAL AUTHORITY.........................................................................................................................11-2 11.4 UNIFIED MUMBAI METROPOLITAN TRANSPORT AUTHORITY ......................................................................................11-7 12. POLICIES, ACTS AND ACTION PLAN ....................................................................................... 12-1 12.1 POLICIES & ACTS................................................................................................................................................................12-1 12.2 THE ACTION PLAN ..............................................................................................................................................................12-1 13. SUMMARY.................................................................................................................................... 13-1 LIST OF TABLES TABLE 2-1: KEY TRANSPORT INDICATORS (GROWTH %)........................................................................................................... 2-1 TABLE 2-2: MUMBAI TRAVEL DEMAND – MAIN MODE (AVERAGE WORKING DAY): 2005....................................................... 2-3 TABLE 2-3: DAILY FATALITIES IN ACCIDENTS IN MMR ................................................................................................................ 2-3 TABLE 2-4: GROWTH OF STAGE CARRIAGES, CONTRACT CARRIAGES AND SCHOOL BUSES IN MMR .............................. 2-9 TABLE 2-5: DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS OF THE MAJOR TRANSPORT UNDERTAKINGS IN MMR (YEAR 2002-03) ................ 2-9 TABLE 2-6: GROWTH OF MOTOR VEHICLES IN MMR (ON ROAD AS ON 31ST MARCH, 1996 TO 2005) ............................... 2-10 TABLE 2-7: GROWTH OF TWO WHEELERS IN MMR ................................................................................................................... 2-11 TABLE 2-8: GROWTH OF CARS IN MMR....................................................................................................................................... 2-11 TABLE 2-9: GROWTH OF PRIVATE VEHICLES (CARS & TWO WHEELERS) IN MMR ............................................................... 2-12 TABLE 2-10: ANNUAL GROWTH OF PRIVATE VEHICLES (CARS & TWO WHEELERS) IN MMR, 1996-2005 .......................... 2-12 TABLE 2-11: PROPORTION OF CARS IN PRIVATE VEHICLES ................................................................................................... 2-13 TABLE 2-12: PRIVATE VEHICLE POPULATION OF MMR, VEH./1000 PERSONS....................................................................... 2-13 TABLE 2-13: FORECASTED GROWTH OF PRIVATE VEHICLE POPULATION OF MMR, VEH./1000 PERSONS...................... 2-14 TABLE 5-1: POPULATION-EMPLOYMENT (IN MILLION) IN INTERMEDIATE HORIZON YEARS ................................................. 5-2 TABLE 6-1: RECOMMENDED METRO CORRIDORS/ LINES FOR THE HORIZON YEAR 2031.................................................... 6-2 TABLE 6-2: RECOMMENDED SUB-URBAN CORRIDORS/ LINES FOR THE HORIZON YEAR 2031............................................ 6-2 TABLE 6-3: RECOMMENDED HIGHWAY CORRIDORS FOR THE HORIZON YEAR 2031 ............................................................ 6-3 TABLE 8-1: PROPOSED TRAFFIC ENGINEERING MEASURES BY COMPONENTS AND AREA ................................................ 8-1 TABLE 9-1: SUMMARY OF PRELIMINARY COST ESTIMATES FOR PROPOSED TRANSPORT NETWORKS FOR HORIZON YEARS 2031, 2021 AND 2016.......................................................................................................................................... 9-1 TABLE 9-2: PROPOSED TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE IN MMR FOR THE HORIZON PERIOD 2008-2031 ......................... 9-2 TABLE 9-3: RESULTS OF THE ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORT STRATEGIES IN LONG TERM ...................................................... 9-4 TABLE 9-4: RESULTS UNDER SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS FOR P3E3 .............................................................................................. 9-4 TABLE 9-5: COST ESTIMATE (2031) AND PHASING (2010-31) FOR RECOMMENDED TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE IN MMR............................................................................................................................................................. 9-6 TABLE 10-1: COMPONENT WISE CUMULATIVE INVESTMENT REQUIREMENTS ................................................................... 10-1 TABLE 10-2: VEHICLE GROWTH FORECAST ............................................................................................................................... 10-4 TABLE 10-3: RESIDENTIAL BUILDING VALUE GROWTH FORECAST –P3 E3 ........................................................................... 10-5 TABLE 10-4: EMPLOYMENT GROWTH FORECAST ..................................................................................................................... 10-5 TABLE 10-5: APPROXIMATION OF DC POTENTIAL 2006-2031 ................................................................................................... 10-5 TABLE 10-6: VEHICLE GROWTH FORECAST ............................................................................................................................... 10-5 TABLE 10-7: TOLL RATES ON SELECTED NETWORK................................................................................................................. 10-7 TABLE 10-8: FIRR OF FREEWAY NETWORK (%) ....................................................................................................................... 10-13 TABLE 10-9: RESULTS OF SELECTED FREEWAY PROJECTS................................................................................................. 10-14 TABLE 10-10: VIABILITY ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL INTERCHANGES .................................................................................... 10-15 TABLE 10-11: RESULTS OF FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF SUB-URBAN RAIL NETWORK (FIRR IN %) ...................................... 10-15 TABLE 10-12: FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF SUB-URBAN RAIL PROJECTS.................................................................................. 10-16
  3. 3. Executive Summary of Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR TTRANSSFORMM iii TABLE 10-13: RESULTS OF FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL STATIONS ON SUB-URBAN RAIL ROUTE.................. 10-17 TABLE 10-14: RESULTS OF FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF METRO NETWORK AT MMR LEVEL (FIRR IN %)............................ 10-17 TABLE 10-15: RESULTS OF FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL METRO CORRIDORS ................................................... 10-18 TABLE 10-16: FIRR OF INDIVIDUAL METRO STATION .............................................................................................................. 10-18 TABLE 10-17: POTENTIAL FOR PPP/PSP BY INDIVIDUAL PROJECTS .................................................................................... 10-20 TABLE 10-18: SUMMARY OF FUNDING REQUIREMENT AND SOURCES - 2031 .................................................................... 10-22 TABLE 10-19: INVESTMENT OPTION WITH NO BUDGET AND ANY OTHER CONSTRAINTS ................................................ 10-24 TABLE 10-20: INVESTMENT OPTION WITH BUDGET AND OTHER CONSTRAINTS ............................................................... 10-26 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1-1: MUMBAI METROPOLITAN REGION - STUDY AREA FOR CTS ............................................................................... 1-1 FIGURE 1-2: THE VIRTUOUS CYCLE .............................................................................................................................................. 1-3 FIGURE 1-3: ESTIMATED TOTAL INCOME IN YEAR 2005 OF TOP 38 CITIES (BILLION US$ IN PPP TERMS) ......................... 1-9 FIGURE 1-4: ESTIMATED INCOME PER CAPITA IN 2005 IN SELECTED MAJOR CITIES (000’ US$ IN PPP TERMS)............... 1-9 FIGURE 2-1: PROJECTED VEHICULAR GROWTH – MMR............................................................................................................. 2-1 FIGURE 2-2: APPROACHING MAHIM CAUSEWAY......................................................................................................................... 2-2 FIGURE 2-3: HOME INTERVIEW SURVEY....................................................................................................................................... 2-3 FIGURE 2-4: MODE SHARE (WITHOUT WALK)............................................................................................................................... 2-3 FIGURE 2-5: AVERAGE TRIP LENGTH (KM) ................................................................................................................................... 2-4 FIGURE 2-6: EXPENDITURE ON TRAVEL (RS PER MONTH): VARIATION BY OCCUPATION.................................................... 2-4 FIGURE 2-7: EXPENDITURE ON TRAVEL (RS PER MONTH): VARIATION BY MODE ................................................................. 2-4 FIGURE 2-8: DISTRIBUTION BY HOUSING TYPE........................................................................................................................... 2-5 FIGURE 2-9: REPORTED AVERAGE HOUSEHOLD INCOME BY HOUSING TYPE ...................................................................... 2-5 FIGURE 2-10: SLUMS ALONG SUBURBAN RAILWAY TRACKS .................................................................................................... 2-6 FIGURE 2-11: SLUM REHAB HOUSING (MUTP) ............................................................................................................................. 2-6 FIGURE 2-12: VICTORIA TERMINUS - 19TH CENTURY................................................................................................................. 2-7 FIGURE 2-13: SUBURBAN TRAIN PASSENGERS (PEAK PERIOD- 6:00AM TO 11:00AM)........................................................... 2-8 FIGURE 2-14: MEASURING CROWDING IN TRAINS: NUMBER OF PASSENGERS PER SQ M IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF A SECOND CLASS COACH ........................................................................................................................................................ 2-8 FIGURE 2-15: GROWTH OF TOTAL MOTOR VEHICLES IN MMR................................................................................................ 2-11 FIGURE 2-16: GROWTH OF PRIVATE VEHICLES IN MMR .......................................................................................................... 2-12 FIGURE 2-17: PROPORTION OF CARS IN PRIVATE VEHICLES ................................................................................................. 2-13 FIGURE 2-18: PORTS IN MMR........................................................................................................................................................ 2-15 FIGURE 2-19: MUMBAI PORT......................................................................................................................................................... 2-15 FIGURE 2-20: JN PORT................................................................................................................................................................... 2-16 FIGURE 2-21: GROWTH OF TRAFFIC AT JN PORT...................................................................................................................... 2-16 FIGURE 2-22: SLUMS AROUND EXISTING AIRPORT .................................................................................................................. 2-16 FIGURE 2-23: DESIRE PATTERN OF AIR TRAVELERS................................................................................................................ 2-16 FIGURE 2-24: PROJECT GROWTH OF AIR TRAFFIC................................................................................................................... 2-17 FIGURE 3-1: MUMBAI ISLAND: AN AERIAL VIEW........................................................................................................................... 3-1 FIGURE 3-2: P D’MELLO ROAD........................................................................................................................................................ 3-1 FIGURE 3-3: FORT ........................................................................................................................................................................... 3-2 FIGURE 3-4: DADAR.......................................................................................................................................................................... 3-2 FIGURE 3-5: MAHALAKSHMI............................................................................................................................................................ 3-2 FIGURE 3-6: SHANGHAI - URBAN FORM........................................................................................................................................ 3-2 FIGURE 3-7: BANDRA WEST............................................................................................................................................................ 3-3 FIGURE 4-1: SHANGHAI SKYLINE ................................................................................................................................................... 4-1 FIGURE 4-2: WORK FORCE PARTICIPATION RATE ...................................................................................................................... 4-2 FIGURE 6-1: CONCEPTS FOR DEVELOPING TRANSPORT NETWORK (TRANSIT AND HIGHWAY) FOR HORIZON YEAR 2031 ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 6-6 FIGURE 6-2: RECOMMENDED TRANSPORT NETWORK (TRANSIT AND HIGHWAY) FOR HORIZON YEAR 2031................... 6-7 FIGURE 6-3: RIGHT OF WAY REQUIREMENTS FOR HIGHER ORDER HIGHWAY CORRIDORS............................................... 6-8 FIGURE 6-4: RECOMMENDED TRANSPORT NETWORK (TRANSIT AND HIGHWAY) FOR HORIZON YEAR 2021................... 6-9 FIGURE 6-5: RECOMMENDED TRANSPORT NETWORK (TRANSIT AND HIGHWAY) FOR HORIZON YEAR 2016................. 6-10 FIGURE 7-1: PROPOSED TERMINALS & INTER-MODAL STRATEGY........................................................................................... 7-1 FIGURE 7-2: PWT ROUTES AND TERMINALS................................................................................................................................ 7-4 FIGURE 9-1: CUMULATIVE COST ESTIMATES FOR HORIZON YEAR PERIOD 2008-2031 ........................................................ 9-3 FIGURE 10-1: REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT CHARGE FRAMEWORK .......................................................................................... 10-3 FIGURE 10-2 : INTEGRATED REGIONAL AND MUNICIPAL DEVELOPMENT CHARGE FRAMEWORK.................................... 10-3 FIGURE 10-3: METRO ADVERTISEMENTS IN SHANGHAI........................................................................................................... 10-6 FIGURE 10-4: AIR RIGHT AND TRANSIT ORIENT DEVELOPMENT (KUALA LUMPUR AND TOKYO)....................................... 10-6 FIGURE 10-5: FREEWAY INTERCHANGES IDENTIFIED FOR NODAL DEVELOPMENT............................................................ 10-9
  4. 4. TTRANSSFORMM Executive Summary of Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR iv FIGURE 10-6: SUBURBAN RAILWAY SYSTEM WITH IDENTIFIED STATION NODES FOR COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT............................................................................................................................................................................. 10-10 FIGURE 10-7: METRO SYSTEM WITH STATIONS TYPES IDENTIFIED FOR COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT ...................... 10-11 FIGURE 10-8: VIABILITY SENSITIVENESS TO INCREASE AND DECREASE IN NUMBER OF NODES.................................. 10-19 FIGURE 11-1: STRENGTHENING MMRDA TO INCLUDE TRANSPORT FUNCTIONS-“UNIFIED TRANSPORT ADMINISTRATION” .......................................................................................................................................................................... 11-3 FIGURE 11-2: PROPOSED ORGANISATIONAL SETUP IN MMRDA............................................................................................. 11-4 FIGURE 11-3: PROPOSED ORGANISATIONAL SETUP IN MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS AND ULB’S..................................... 11-5 FIGURE 11-4: INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENT FOR OPTION 2: PROPOSED ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE FOR UMTA................................................................................................................................................................................................ 11-7 LIST OF BOXES BOX 1-1: GENESIS ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1-1 BOX 1-2: SWOT OF MMR.................................................................................................................................................................. 1-2 BOX 1-3: DIMENSIONS OF VISION FOR MMR ................................................................................................................................ 1-3 BOX 1-4: POTENTIAL AREAS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF MMR FOR DEVELOPING PUBLIC REALM AND DISTINCT URBAN IMAGE................................................................................................................................................................................... 1-5 BOX 5-1: LTS – A PERSPECTIVE ..................................................................................................................................................... 5-2 BOX 11-1: ISSUES AND CONCERNS............................................................................................................................................. 11-1 BOX 12-1: THE ACTION PLAN ....................................................................................................................................................... 12-1
  5. 5. Acknowledgement LEA International Ltd., Canada and LEA Associates South Asia Pvt. Ltd., India, wish to gratefully acknowledge the unique opportunity granted to them by MMRDA and the World Bank in preparing a Comprehensive Transportation Study for Mumbai Metropolitan Region or . Preparation of transportation plan for the horizon period up to 2031 that covers detailed analysis of base year travel patterns, travel demand modeling, assessment of planning parameters for different future growth scenarios, assessment of alternative public transport and road networks and related social/environmental/ economic/financial analyses, stakeholder consultation and, technology transfer etc. could not have been accomplished without the active participation and key inputs from many individuals. We take this opportunity to acknowledge with gratitude the encouragement and support given by the following: • All the members of “Authority” of MMRDA • All the members of High Level Steering Committee • MMRDA and its officials o Dr. Suresh Joshi, IAS, Former Metropolitan Commissioner, MMRDA o Dr. T. Chandra Shekhar, IAS, Former Metropolitan Commissioner, MMRDA o Mr. Ratnakar Gaikawad, IAS, Metropolitan Commissioner, MMRDA o Mr. Milind Mhaiskar, IAS, Additional Metropolitan Commissioner & Project Director, MUTP, MMRDA o Mr. PRK Murthy, Chief, Transport & Communication Division, MMRDA o Ms. Uma Adusumilli, Chief, Planning Division, MMRDA o Mr. U. V. Luktuke, Chief, Town & Country Planning, MMRDA o Mrs. K. Vijaya Lakshmi, Sr. Transportation Planner, MMRDA • Members of the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) who provided valuable and insightful guidance through all the phases of the study • Mr. Sanjay Ubale, IAS, Secretary GAD (Special Projects), Government of Maharashtra • Mr. A.K Jain, IAS, Former Director, MTSU • Mr. U P S Madan, IAS, Director, MTSU • Mr. S Kshatriya, IAS, General Manager, BES&T Undertaking • Mr. V K Kaul, General Manager, Central Railway • Mr. A K Jhingron, General Manager, Western Railway • Mr. Vishnu Kumar, Former Director (Projects), Mumbai Rail Vikas Corporation • Municipal Commissioners of Municipal Corporations and Chief Officers of Municipal Councils of MMR • City Engineers and other technical staff of ULBs • Staff of public transport undertakings of MMR (BEST, NMMT, TMT, KDMT, MBMT, MSRTC) • Mr. A. K. Swaminathan, World Bank • Mr. Hubert Josserand, World Bank and • other World Bank Advisors In addition to those that are identified above, we wish to acknowledge the countless other persons and agencies who provided information and assistance to our consulting team during the progress of the study and who were instrumental in developing a transportation plan for the MMR that is reflective of the aspirations of its citizens and their elected decision makers. Finally, the citizens of MMR deserve special thanks for providing their inputs and extending their co-operation at the time of surveys, which formed the critical base for the preparation of Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR. By any global measures, the problems of planning and managing a huge and complex region such as MMR are immense and daunting. However, during the course of the study, MMR demonstrated its incredible resiliency to rapidly and effectively overcome severe flooding and horrendous terrorist rail bombing that would have severely weakened the resolve of lesser cities. There is a spirit of optimism and confidence in Mumbai’s future that is infectious and inspiring. We believe that the recommendations provide a realistic and achievable plan for the implementation of longer term transport strategies and also more immediate action proposals, with one of the principal objectives being transformation of “MMR into a world class metropolis with a vibrant economy and globally comparable quality of life for all its citizens”. We pray for a positive approach and willful implementation of various recommended transport infrastructure proposals, to the wider benefit of the society. Respectfully Submitted LEA International Ltd., Canada LEA Associates South Asia Pvt. Ltd., India July 2008
  6. 6. Foreword The Comprehensive Transportation Study (CTS) for the Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) or (Transportation Study for the region of Mumbai) articulates a vision for MMR's future transportation as a seamless, integrated system, in which commuters can make their journeys throughout the region safely and conveniently by various modes of transport with strong emphasis towards public transit. outlines long term (2031), medium term (2021) and short term (2016) transportation strategies and guidance necessary to attain this vision. is an initiation from World Bank and MMRDA to formulate comprehensive transportation strategy for the metropolitan region. MMRDA with technical assistance from World Bank under MUTP embarked on . It has been over 25 years since the last comprehensive regional transport study is undertaken for the region. This study has provided insight to the current challenges of commuting in MMR, addressed the issues and prepared an infrastructure and investment plan for the next few decades. stresses the need for MMRDA’s continuing efforts and expanding on its commitment recognizing the varying needs and priorities of different transportation users, in developing MMR’s major transportation infrastructure. by recognising the significance of transport for the economic growth and social well-being of MMR, proposes developing integrated multi-modal transportation system. It advocates focusing on the, development of metro corridors throughout the region, optimising and expanding the suburban rail network and reducing sub-human crowding conditions and providing an integrated network of access controlled highways. The estimated cost of the proposed transport infrastructure in MMR for the period upto 2031 is about INR 2,100 billion (US 50 billion dollars approx.). strongly supports increased cooperation and coordination by all the transportation providers in the MMR and emphasizes the need to be sensitive to the people and environment. Suggestions are made for more immediate solutions to current mobility problems to improve the existing transportation network's efficiency, reliability, and cost effectiveness that are currently impairing the region's prosperity and well-being of its citizens. It advocates increased participation in transportation decision making by regional and local authorities and public. It encourages Public Private Partnerships (PPP) that can help to meet the travel investment needs of the future. received significant guidance and input from Technical Advisory Committee constituted by MMRDA comprising senior officials from various Government planning and implementation organisations of MMR. An extensive stakeholder consultative process conducted, in an open and cooperative environment. Stakeholder consultation meetings were conducted in May 2007 at sub-region level for groups of ULB officials & elected representatives, Central Railway and Western Railway, under the auspices of the MMRDA. Presentations on recommendations including transportation plans and strategies were made to Corporators of the ULBs and MLAs and MPs of the Region in January 2008. Two meetings of High Level Steering Committee (HLSC) on were held, one on 19 th May, 2006 with a focus on providing a direction to the study and the expected outcomes and the second on 8 th November, 2007 for considering the study findings, recommendations and further action. recommendations and proposed Action Plan were presented and discussed at the MMRDA Authority meeting, chaired by the Chief Minister on 15 th March, 2008. The CTS findings and recommendations were also endorsed by Unified Mumbai Metropolitan Transport Authority (UMMTA) headed by Chief Secretary in May 2008. ’s recommendations provide a package of transportation plans and strategies to respond to MMR's present and future transportation needs including resource mobilisation and institutional arrangements. I am sure the report recommendations are though ambitious will pave the way in realizing the vision for transforming Mumbai into World class city. Ratnakar Gaikawad, IAS Metropolitan Commissioner, Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority July 2008
  7. 7. 1-1 1. – VISION, STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES AND CHALLENGES 1.1 BACKGROUND 1. Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) is one of the fastest growing metropolises in India. With geographical spread of about 4,355 sq.km, MMR comprises seven municipal corporations, 13 municipal councils and 996 villages (Figure 1-1). With a population of 19 Million (Census, 2001), it is ranked as the sixth largest metropolitan region in the world. The Region’s estimated 2005 population is nearly 21 million, which is expected to grow to about 34 millions by the year 2031, with the distinction of becoming the largest metropolitan region in the world. The workforce participation rate is anticipated to reach about 45% by the year 2031 (37% in 2005). Mumbai aspires to be one of the globally competitive cities in the world. The short comings for it are many. Notable amongst them include transportation inadequacies. 2. The Comprehensive Transportation Study (CTS) for MMR has been rechristened as “ ” (TRANSportation Study FOR the region of Mumbai). The mandate of the present assignment included formulating strategies with a long term (2031 year) perspective and then developing medium and short term (2021 and 2016) investment programs within the context of the long term strategy and ongoing investments being planned in MMR (BOX 1-1). BOX 1-1: Genesis • 1962, Bombay traffic and transportation study by M/s Wilbur Smith Associates; • 1983, Planning for Road System for BMR by CRRI, based on extensive home interviews and other surveys. • 1992 CTS for MMR by M/s WS Atkins: travel demand was estimated using the 1978 household survey data collected by CRRI and updated to 1992 by supplementary surveys. Recommended enhancement of sub-urban rail system, additional highway corridors, etc. and investment proposals up to 2011. This formed the base for MUTP-II. • All subsequent studies used only updated CRRI travel matrices and no such Home Interview Surveys (HIS) were carried out; • It has been over 25 years since the last comprehensive regional transport study is undertaken for the region. World Bank recommended fresh Comprehensive Transportation Study (CTS) for MMR to formulate MUTP phase - II components and a comprehensive transportation strategy for the metropolitan region. MMRDA with technical assistance from World Bank under MUTP embarked on this CTS for MMR. 1.2 VISION FOR MMR 3. The Task Force, appointed by the Chief Minister following the Bombay First-McKinsey report “Mumbai Vision: Transforming Mumbai into a world-class city”, adopted the vision of “Transforming Mumbai into a world class city with a vibrant economy and globally comparable Figure 1-1: Mumbai Metropolitan Region - Study Area for CTS
  8. 8. TTRANSSFORMM Executive Summary of Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR 1-2 quality of life for its citizens” to counter the declining economy and achieve true potential of growth. The World Bank agreed to support a market-friendly growth inducing strategy that is equitable and inclusive and based on a business plan1 approach. 4. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analyses of MMR is undertaken and the conclusions are summarised in Box 1-2. BOX 1-2: SWOT OF MMR Strengths • Presence of two sea ports and airport • Long history of international trade and financial services • Presence of reputed research and educational institutions • Large talent pool, good work culture • Good power supply in Greater Mumbai (though now under stress) • Efficient public transport with a successful PPP in MRT • Barely satisfactory water supply in Greater Mumbai • Citizens that pay user fees and taxes. • Presence of MMRDA – A metropolitan planning and development authority Opportunities • The presence of ports and airport offer opportunities for improved external trade under the new WTO regime • GoI policy of SEZs to boost export • Possibilities of setting up of off-shore banking units and international financial services centre in SEZs • Growing demand for IT and ITES • Growth of high end manufacturing – gems and jewellery, fashion goods etc. • Potential for growth of media and entertainment Weakness • Topographic constraints, limited land supply. • High real estate and housing prices • Large proportion of slum dwellers • Inadequate power supply • Extremely overcrowded trains and slow moving buses on congested roads • Water supply on the brink of turning into weakness in Greater Mumbai and already a weakness in parts of MMR • Generally poor solid waste management • Vulnerability to flooding and disruption to traffic • Greater Mumbai ranked 150 in quality of life index in international comparison. • Greater Mumbai ranked 11 th amongst 12 Indian cities in “ease of doing business” Threats • Competition from other Indian and developing Country cities in terms of better quality of life at lower real estate and housing prices • Inability to convert economic momentum into investment in infrastructure • Inability to improve business environment. 5. The earlier efforts of envisioning were having focus on Greater Mumbai. However, considering the growth and expansion of Mumbai beyond the municipal boundaries and the economic interdependence of the local jurisdictions, it is considered more appropriate to have a vision for the entire metropolis. There is also a consensus that the vision statement prepared by the 2004 Task Force - “Transforming MMR into a world class metropolis with a vibrant economy and globally comparable quality of life for all its citizens”, is considered appropriate by study. 1 MMRDA at the behest of Government of Maharashtra appointed LEA International Limited, Canada in joint venture with LEA Associates South Asia Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi (LASA), who were already engaged in preparation of Comprehensive Transportation Study (CTS), to prepare the Business Plan for Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR).
  9. 9. Executive Summary of Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR TTRANSSFORMM 1-3 1.3 THE STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES 6. The basic strategy to attain the vision, as envisaged in “Business Plan” is to sustain MMR in a virtuous cycle of economic growth, resource mobilization, investment in infrastructure and improved quality of life or livability with recognition that good governance plays a crucial and central role in implementing such a strategy (Figure 1-2). 7. In order to sustain the MMR in a virtuous cycle the basic strategy proposed ensuring the following: (a) a competitive MMR; (b) a livable MMR; (c) a bankable MMR; and (d) a well governed MMR. 8. The noteworthy feature of this vision statement is that it covers the entire metropolitan region and incorporates the notion of inclusive growth for all its citizens. Building on SWOT analysis of MMR, the vision needs to be further translated and expanded into economic, social and environmental dimensions or objectives (Box 1-3). BOX 1-3: DIMENSIONS OF VISION FOR MMR Economic Growth (a) Greater Mumbai will continue to be the financial capital of India with a leading position in stock trading, mutual funds, insurance, banking and other financial services. Greater Mumbai will also emerge as the global financial centre exploiting its strategic location between London and Tokyo; (b) MMR will strengthen its position in information technology (IT) and information technology enabled services (ITES) and should emerge as the centre for high-end outsourcing such as engineering design; (c) Manufacturing like apparel and fashion goods, gems and jewellery, electronics, printing and publishing and repair services should prosper in MMR; (d) Greater Mumbai will maintain and technologically enhance its standing as the major film producing and entertainment centre in the South and Southeast Asia; (e) MMR will emerge as an important logistic and export hub through synergy between ports, airports and the special economic zones (SEZs); and (f) MMR will improve its rank in “ease of doing business” in terms of reducing time and cost of regulatory compliances. Social and Environmental Dimension (a) All citizens of MMR will have access to basic civic services like safe drinking water, sanitation, public transport, education, health care and recreation facilities; (b) All sections of the citizens will have access to affordable housing with substantial increase in average space per person; and (a) The development will be environmentally sustainable and conserving built and cultural heritage. 9. In the vision, the phrase world - class city has been used and then interpreted to imply vibrant economy and globally comparable quality of life. In this, the context of strong globalizing trends and the concept of world cities also need to be noted. The phrase world cities was perhaps Figure 1-2: The Virtuous Cycle
  10. 10. TTRANSSFORMM Executive Summary of Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR 1-4 used for the first time by Prof. Peter Hall when he identified seven cities viz. London, New York, Tokyo, Moscow, Paris, Randstadt Holland, and Rheine Ruhr region as the world cities.2 Whereas more recently, Sassen popularized the phrase global cities and identified London, New York and Tokyo as the global cities 3 . 10. A roster of world cities was prepared in 1999 where the presence of global accountancy services, global advertising services, global banking services and global legal services was used as the criteria to determine world city-ness. Greater Mumbai did not find a direct entry into the roster but was identified as having “relatively strong evidence” of world city formation.4 The details of classification given in footnote indicate that there is a considerable variation in cities in terms of population size, income and quality of life. But the listings are indicative of the competition that Greater Mumbai has to face in the global context. Aspirations as Global Financial Centre 11. Greater Mumbai aspires to be a much more important global financial centre. It currently ranks 41 on the Global Financial Centre’s Index (GFCI) prepared by an independent agency Z/Yen on behalf of the City of London Corporation. 1.4 BRANDING MMR 12. Visual images of a city make lasting impact on particularly international business travellers. World Trade Centre (prior to its destruction) in Manhattan, New York, Millennium Dome and Canary Wharf in London, Minato Merai in Yokohama and Burj in Dubai or Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur are some of the recent examples. After Gateway of India and Marine Drive, Greater Mumbai or Navi Mumbai have not been able to create similar landmarks, which in the recent past would connote modern Mumbai. Individually some of the buildings in Bandra-Kurla Complex (BKC) are distinctly modern but they do not create a brand image. 13. Buildings on the waterfront seem to be more suited to create such brand images. Nariman Point at the end of Marine Drive has a potential in that direction. In the context of emerging structure of MMR, there are some more opportunities for creating a brand image. These are: (a) Development near the Mahim Bay: With the completion of Bandra Worli Sea link, there would be some spare capacity available on the Veer Savarkar Marg, which can be utilized to redevelop Mill Land into an iconic building on the waterfront; (b) Sewri: With the proposed Sewri-Nhava Trans Harbour Link Sewri, where Mumbai Port Trust (MbPT) land is available, would become an ideal location to create a distinctive landmark on the harbour; (c) Nerul, Navi Mumbai: Across the harbour in Navi Mumbai too, there is a potential to develop a landmark that offers a distinctive image to Navi Mumbai. The likely locations could be Nerul or Belapur on the waterfront; (d) Near the proposed airport in Navi Mumbai; and (a) In addition Greater Mumbai’s built heritage, protected, conserved and spruced up can also create a distinctive image. 2 World Cities Peter Hall, Heinemann, London 1966. 3 The Global City Saskia Sassen Princeton University Press 1991 and other works. 4 A Roster of World Cities Beaverstock et al in Cities 16(6) 1999. The “Alpha World Cities” include London, Paris, New York, Tokyo in the top rung with Chicago, Frankfurt, Hong Kong, Los Angeles, Milan and Singapore in the lower rung. The “Beta World Cities” include San Francisco, Sydney, Toronto, Zurich, Brussels, Madrid, Mexico City, Sao Paulo, Moscow and Seoul. The “Gamma World Cities” include Amsterdam, Boston, Caracas, Dusseldorf, Geneva, Houston, Jakarta, Johannesburg, Melbourne, Osaka, Prague, Santiago, Taipei, Washington, Bangkok, Beijing, Montreal, Rome, Stockholm, Warsaw, Atlanta, Barcelona, Berlin, Buenos Aires, Budapest, Copenhagen, Hamburg, Istanbul, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, Miami, Minneapolis, Munich and Shanghai. Other cities relatively strong evidence of world city formation are Athens, Auckland, Dublin, Helsinki, Luxembourg, Lyon, New Delhi, Philadelphia, Rio De Janeriro, Tel Aviv and Vienna.
  11. 11. Executive Summary of Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR TTRANSSFORMM 1-5 14. In order to achieve such results, conscious efforts in urban design, particularly in public places – streetscapes, plazas, parks and gardens is necessary. Business Plan for transforming MMR into a World Class city will have to pay attention to these concerns. BOX 1-4: POTENTIAL AREAS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF MMR FOR DEVELOPING PUBLIC REALM AND DISTINCT URBAN IMAGE Port land Mahim bay BKC Nerul Seawood Fort Port land Mahim bay BKC Nerul Seawood Fort Potential Areas for Landmark Development Public Spaces along Water Waterfront Development Water Sports and Marina Development 1.5 KEY CHALLENGES IN EVOLVING 15. is to address major challenges arising from existing shortfalls in the transport networks that are the results of decades of underfunding, and the huge population and employment growth expected over the next 25 years. Extensive modelling, analysis and consultation are undertaken to arrive at the best strategies and investment programs to support MMR as a world class metropolis meeting its economic as well as social objectives.
  12. 12. TTRANSSFORMM Executive Summary of Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR 1-6 16. One cannot predict, with great confidence, a single future for the MMR. The approach adopted in is to determine transport investment strategies that were resilient and robust enough to accommodate several possible futures and to provide future decision makers with the essential transport framework to make progressive implementation decisions using the most current assessment of needs and priorities. Some implementation decisions cannot be deferred. 17. Future transport corridors need to be carefully defined and protected. Measures to ensure fully integrated land use planning and transport infrastructure planning need to be implemented immediately, including establishing financial mechanisms that fairly allocate and accumulate capital funding for both deficit correction and expansions due to urban growth. 18. The ensuing sub-sections highlight some of the major challenges that have influenced the scope and issues considered in preparing a comprehensive transportation plan for the MMR to achieve the prime objective “Transforming MMR into a world class metropolis with a vibrant economy and a globally comparable quality of life for all its citizens”. Amongst challenges, which are described in the ensuing sections, the real challenge is to meet the requirements of both, growing economy and expanding poverty, at the same time. 1.5.1 PHYSICAL CHALLENGES Difficult Landform and Geography 19. The MMR is geographically very diverse with relatively narrow valleys and shoulder plains sandwiched between the ocean, estuaries, rivers, creeks and hill ranges. As various generations built bridges, particularly the railways, the urban structure took the initial form of linear communities, along the railways, acting almost as umbilical cords. Then road bridges replaced ferries, but the linear urban form prevailed. The core of the city is an island connected to mainland through limited number of linkages. The immediate suburban areas are divided by the Sanjay Gandhi National Park as well as several rivers, lakes and creeks. Other municipalities in the region are spread over a very large area. While some, such as Thane and Mira-Bhayandar are contiguous with the urban structure of Greater Mumbai, others, such as Bhiwandi and Vasai depend on single or very few transport linkages with Greater Mumbai. 20. There are a number of other municipalities, whose connectivity with rest of the region ranges between these two extreme examples. Also, there are many hilly areas as well as large creeks which cut across the region. The initial impression is a region full of almost insurmountable constraints. On the other hand, as compared to other similar regions, this diversity makes MMR unique and interesting. Many other large metropolitan regions, which have grown from a port base, have had to contend with a difficult typography and were forced to build major civil engineering structures to more fully integrate physically separated land masses. In many respects MMR has not 50 km50 km
  13. 13. Executive Summary of Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR TTRANSSFORMM 1-7 faced up to this stark reality and this has resulted in extreme crowding and congestion. addresses these issues that will become even more pronounced as the region rapidly reaches the forecasted population of 34 million by 2031. Scarcity of Developable Land 21. While the gross land area of MMR is large, encompassing some 4,355 sq. km, only about 12.5% of this land can be categorized as being potentially developable. Some 1,134 sq.km are under the jurisdiction of various municipalities and their respective development plans, spread over various geographically diverse areas ranging from wetlands to mountains. The existing built-up area is about 418 sq.km, leaving a balance of the 718 sq.km.. However, since this also includes water bodies and green zones, the actual developable land within municipal boundaries is about 168 sq,km. Further potential urbanisable zones, identified in Regional Plan for 1996-2011, under two categories i.e., U1 and U25 , contribute another 182 and 180 sq.km respectively. In total, this means that there is about 530 sq.km of land, which is currently deemed suitable for future development, or a mere 12.5% of the total MMR land area. Within Greater Mumbai 41% of 438 sq.km land area is considered as “No Development Zones” for a number of reasons largely related to environmental constraints or for park/open space preservation. There is less than 10 sq.km of designated land yet to be developed in Greater Mumbai. State of Good Repair and Functional Efficiency 22. A high priority needs to be given to maintaining existing transportation systems in a state of good repair and functional efficiency. Funding to achieve this objective is rarely adequately budgeted as the same agencies have responsibility for both maintaining and expanding the systems. In this competition for funding, good repair typically loses out to system expansion. In MMR, the state of good repair and functional efficiency of the transportation systems have reached crisis levels. Regional infrastructure is unsafe and of low quality, and is very counterproductive to the aspiration of being world class. But perhaps more important, the inadequacies impose severe stress on the travelling public, undermining the health and well-being of MMR’s greatest strength, its people. The poor state of infrastructure is already leading to the worst signs of demand suppression. Crowding on suburban rail coaches is worse than standards specified for transporting animals in the same system. As for safety, on an average day, 15 persons are killed on the road and rail systems, predominantly on the suburban rail network. This loss of life is deplorable and can be largely attributed to overcrowding. Some investments are now being made to improve service levels on the rail network but these will not significantly redress the present deficiencies. Perhaps the most impressive characteristic of the suburban rail network is its reliability, its speed and very low fares. 23. Road transportation is no better with traffic snarls and all day congestions. Despite this, between 1991 and 2005, there has been an increase of 140% in the number of cars and 300% in the number of two wheelers on the road. And there are no indications that the desire by the public to own vehicles is diminishing. Vulnerability 24. Functioning transportation networks are crucial in times of natural and other calamities including floods, earthquakes and terrorist attacks. There is no element of redundancy in the existing systems and it is only with the heroic efforts of operating staff that disasters are so well mitigated. Existing public transport and road network in MMR is composed of long uni-dimensional corridors without adequate alternatives to fall back upon in case these arterial communication lines are severed. 5 U1 zone covers areas where more intensive urban development and economic activity is expected in future. U2 zone has areas which have potential for urbanization. It includes lands within 1 km on either side of important roads and within 1.5 km radius from railway stations.
  14. 14. TTRANSSFORMM Executive Summary of Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR 1-8 25. A level of redundancy in the network can go a long way in ensuring a quick recovery in case of disaster by ensuring that supply lines are not completely cut-off. This aspect has been taken into account while framing the future transportation network for the region under . 1.5.2 SOCIAL CHALLENGES Heterogeneity 26. With more than 50% of population living in slums and working in the informal sector, the region presents formidable social challenges as well. In many respects, MMR consists of many different social and economic strata each having distinct transportation needs and aspirations. It is now recognized that in large urban areas, governments have to attempt to provide transport choices with a “public transport first” agenda. However the maintenance and management of an efficient road network is also critical for the social and economic functioning of the city. Achieving the right modal balance is a key investment issue that has been addressed in . 27. In terms of governance, while Greater Mumbai is under a unified and strong municipality (MCGM), the rest of the region comprises many heterogeneous urban, semi-urban and rural areas governed by a range of urban local bodies. To tie together transportation needs of such diverse groups along with keeping up with the aspiration of the region present challenges of its own including the need to maintain social inclusion. The regional transport needs are large and fiscally demanding, which may call for institutional restructuring to deliver the . This is not to suggest that the present governance arrangements in the MMR should be radically changed, but that a different overarching mechanism needs to be put in place to plan, finance, build and operate regional scale and regional level functioning transport systems. Slums 28. There is no other metropolitan area in the world that has such a large and diverse socio- economic milieu as MMR, particularly the number of poor residents. This is a manifestation of the historical magnetism of MMR in attracting rural populace from across India. This, coupled with unaffordable and restricted supply of housing, has resulted in large increase in slum population over last 20 to 30 years. household surveys (2005) indicate that, about 41.3% of the population of MMR lives in slums. This slum population of about 8.6 million people in about 2.0 million households represents an enormous housing deficiency in the Region. 29. Slum dwellers are an integral part of the economic and social fabric of MMR. Rising education standards and income levels of slum dwellers over the next 25 years will inevitably materialize into a generational shift in housing from slums to regular, more permanent accommodation. This shift will be accompanied by increased demands for motorized travel with more people working in formal sectors. Predicting these generational socioeconomic changes, is a key factor in travel demand forecasting for the Region. 1.5.3 ECONOMIC CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES Growth 30. Greater Mumbai, a major part of MMR, is the largest city of India and sixth largest in the world. It is also the densest city of the world due to many people living in slums or slum like conditions. In spite of this, MMR has a unique role to play in the economy of the nation as country’s most important financial centre and one of its most important service and logistical hubs. It contributes a disproportionate share to the national GDP, thus benefiting the whole country.
  15. 15. Executive Summary of Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR TTRANSSFORMM 1-9 Income of MMR6 was estimated to be about INR 1295 billion in 2004-05 which comprised 40% of the state of Maharashtra. Per capita income, at about Rs 45,000 was three times that of an average Indian in the same year. 31. It is estimated that the region has a population of 20.8 million (2005) and employment of 7.6 million. By 2031, this population is expected to grow by 1.5 to 1.7 times and employment by 1.9 to 2 times, making MMR world’s second largest metropolitan area. By estimates of M/s PriceWaterhouseCoopers made earlier this year, Greater Mumbai ranks 37th richest city of the world with a total income of US$ 126 billion (in PPP terms) (Figure 1-3). Further, the same study observes that by the year 2020, Greater Mumbai will improve its position to 24th richest city of the world with an estimated income of US$ 300 billion 7 . 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1TokyoJapan 2NewYorkUSA 3LosAngelesUSA 4ChicagoUSA 5ParisFrance 6LondonUK 7Osaka/Kobe 8MexicoCity 9PhiladelphiaUSA 10WashingtonDC 11BostonUSA 12Dallas/Fort 13BuenosAires 14HongKong 15San 16AtlantaUSA 17HoustonUSA 18MiamiUSA 19SaoPauloBrazil 20SeoulSouth 21TorontoCanada 22DetroitUSA 23MadridSpain 24SeattleUSA 25MoscowRussia 26Sydney 27PhoenixUSA 28Minneapolis 29SanDiegoUSA 30RiodeJaneiro 31BarcelonaSpain 32ShanghaiChina 33Melbourne 34IstanbulTurkey 35DenverUSA 36Singapore 37MumbaiIndia 38RomeItaly Source: UK Economic Outlook, March 2007, PriceWaterhouseCoopers Figure 1-3: Estimated Total income in Year 2005 of top 38 cities (Billion US$ in PPP terms) 32. Even in per capita terms, it was estimated that Greater Mumbai had a per capita income of about US$ 6000 in the year 2005, highest in India or any other country in the SAARC region. Competitiveness Issues 33. Status of the region as a financial centre and economic engine is fast eroding due to expensive housing and poor quality of transport and other infrastructure. If the region is not able to keep pace with the rest of the cities of country, it will fast lose the status it has enjoyed, making it go through the vicious circle of economic decline and lowered quality of life. Catching up with world cities is still a far cry. 34. Even with this scenario, no organisation is responsible for planning for economic growth of the metropolis at an appropriate metropolitan scale. Constitutionally, all ULBs are responsible for social and economic growth in their areas. But with backlog of infrastructure deficiency and limited capacity, they are generally busy catching up on the shortfall. As of now, even basic statistics on economic parameters, which are important for measuring competitiveness, are not available for MMR. This is because these parameters are 6 The economic data (national accounts) are available for administrative districts. MMR comprises the districts of Greater Mumbai and parts of Thane and Raigad. Data for precisely defined MMR are therefore not available. Hence, the income of Greater Mumbai, Thane and Raigad districts have been considered for calculation of MMR income. 7 UK Economic Outlook, March 2007, PriceWaterhouseCoopers 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 NewYork London Chicago LA Paris Tokyo Osaka BuenosAires Moscow MexicoCity Istanbul SaoPaulo Rio Shanghai Mumbai Source: UK Economic Outlook, March 2007, PriceWaterhouseCoopers Figure 1-4: Estimated income Per Capita in 2005 in Selected Major Cities (000’ US$ in PPP terms)
  16. 16. TTRANSSFORMM Executive Summary of Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR 1-10 reported at district level, and the boundary of MMR does not match with the boundary of any of its constituent districts. 35. Many of the challenges associated with maintaining competitiveness are closely related to the physical challenges. Chronic shortage of affordable housing as well as a state of bad repair of metro’s infrastructure remains the main stumbling blocks for MMR to continue as the preferred choice for doing business. Already, existing leading cities of the world have started taking note of the growth and impending competition. Thus, competing with world cities will continue to be a challenge for MMR. 1.5.4 INSTITUTIONAL CHALLENGES 36. The recently completed Business Plan for the MMR observed that there is no strong metropolitan agency in MMR. For a metropolis aspiring to be world class in a short time frame, this presents the most formidable challenge. It becomes all the more challenging when the absence of a strong metropolitan level organisation is coupled with presence of too many not-so-strong ones. 37. The MMR comprises various habitations of varying sizes. It is governed by a multitude of Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) responsible for these different areas, posing enormous coordination issues. About twenty municipal corporations and councils govern major urbanised parts of MMR. Rural areas are governed by village level bodies that are coordinated by district level coordinating authorities. While most of the urban habitations are contiguous, there are few small ones that are interspersed in the region. Contiguous parts are recognised by the Census of India as Greater Mumbai Urban Agglomeration for reporting demographic statistics. 38. Physical development plans are prepared independently by each of the ULBs. At the metropolitan level, till recently, planning is being done by MMRDA, an authority created in early 1970. As of now, metropolitan planning is to be done by a “Metropolitan Planning Committee (MPC)” assisted by MMRDA although no working MPC has come into existence as yet. It is be noted that there are also “District Planning Committees” (DPC) to plan for the entire districts. In MMR there are some full and part of districts. DPC relationship with MPC or MMRDA is not so far clear. 39. About ten different departments of the provincial government and eight ministries of the federal government are directly responsible for providing various social and physical infrastructures in the MMR. Many of these have either exclusive or overlapping functions with ULBs and MMRDA. Till recently (upto 2003), MMRDA was restrained from doing any development work in area under Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai. Thereafter, although it did act proactively in the area of transportation, many hurdles still exist to let it function as a true coordinating authority at a metropolitan level. 1.5.5 FINANCIAL CHALLENGES 40. In spite of Greater Mumbai being the 37th richest city of the world, it lacks resources for creation and upkeep of matching transport infrastructure. MMR may need in the range of US$ 25 to 30 billion by the year 2016 to have a world class transport infrastructure, necessitating expenditure in excess of INR 3 billion every year till 2016. (This has to be seen with the approximate size of MMR economy with income of INR 20 billion). 41. Compared to this, overall capital expenditure of all the ULBs in MMR in the year 2006 was about US$ 420 million. MMRDA contributes about US$ 5 million every year. World Bank funding under the project, Mumbai Urban Transport Project (MUTP), amounts to US$500 million (out of total project cost about US$ 945 million) over a six year period from 2002 to 2008 (averaging about US$ 160 million per annum). 42. It can be quickly seen that the sums are small in comparison to the requirement. The recently concluded Business Plan for MMR identifies problems related to sources, collection as well
  17. 17. Executive Summary of Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR TTRANSSFORMM 1-11 as utilisation of funds. Sources are limited to octroi (dependent on buoyancy of economy) and property tax (tagged to the rate and base revision because of restrictive laws such as Rent Control Act). In addition, there are inefficiencies in collection. Even the capacity to borrow gets restricted due to laws restricting base revision. ULBs are not allowed to borrow on the strength of their balance sheets. 43. The Business Plan Study also mentions problems related to utilisation of funds and highlights issues such as weak internal processes for project identification, preparation and tender approvals. MMRDA’s own balance sheet is about US$2 billion with more than half of it in bank deposits. Borrowings are insignificant. Funds are not leveraged to secure resources from the capital market at competitive rates, a necessity to increase the rate of investment in infrastructure. 44. Funds created by MMRDA to lend to ULBs remain unutilised to the extent of 50% due to lack of bankable projects, limited debt servicing capacity of ULBs and unwillingness to levy and collect user fees. Further, funds of MMRDA are mainly from leased land that is not a very buoyant resource. Development Charge, which can form a sustainable source of revenue, cannot be collected by MMRDA, since it is not vested with the power to do so. Only special planning authorities are allowed to collect development charges. 45. A good development in recent years is that MMRDA has acquired expertise in putting together public transport projects in PPP format. This is a potent method of attracting private equity on the basis of its own participation. But, overall, financial scarcity as well as structuring is likely to remain one of the major challenges in implementation of the proposed transportation plan. 1.5.6 TRANSPORTATION CHALLENGES 46. To support the anticipated scale of economic development there are many inter-related transport challenges. The first challenge is to improve MMR’s public transport system to accommodate the growth of population and employment and consequent travel demand8 . This can be achieved by capacity enhancements to the existing suburban railway system; creating new metro corridors; connecting major existing and planned activity centres of the region; providing exclusive bus lanes to reinforce rail based transit with a higher order road based public transport system. Transit First is therefore considered as the guiding principle in preparation of transportation plan for MMR. 47. The second challenge is to create a hierarchical system of roads and freeways to meet a wide spectrum of travel desires, including goods vehicles and the projected large increases in traffic entering and leaving the MMR. 48. The third challenge is to structure the most effective institutional arrangements to efficiently implement the proposed regional transport plan in a timely and prioritized manner. An integral part of process is the mobilization of resources from traditional as well as new funding opportunities. International experiences in resource mobilization did provide useful insights into successful financing mechanisms. 49. Preparing a transportation plan for this scale of urbanization at any point of time and anywhere in the world is a Herculean task. The task becomes more complex particularly in a country, state and region that is undergoing profound social and economic change. Based on discussions and guidance from many individuals and agencies, it was concluded that the transportation study should consider several future population and employment distribution strategies for the MMR and attempt to develop transportation strategies and plans that are resilient 8 Total travel during morning peak period (6:00 to 11:00 AM) is expected to increase from 4.75 million motorized trips to 10.00 million trips by 2031. Most of these trips need to be supported by public transport modes.
  18. 18. TTRANSSFORMM Executive Summary of Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR 1-12 or robust to meet several possible long term futures. This would better serve the agencies in making the right investment choices, with some appreciation of the potential risks associated with social and particularly economic change. 50. examined most of the important factors that greatly influence travel in the Region, and the changing economic and social conditions, challenges and opportunities that will need to be satisfied and captured. It is believed that the final recommendations of “ ”, are expected to be useful in the future for updating of the Regional Plan and Development Plans of ULBs in MMR focus has been on the following five major components: • Establishing base line data from primary and secondary surveys; • Analysis and assessment of travel demand of 2005 and for horizon periods 2016,2021 and 2031; • Preparation of Long, Medium & Short Term Transportation Strategies/ Plans; • Suggesting Institutional Strengthening; and • Evolving Investment plan and Funding Options 51. This Executive Summary is intended to provide an insight and overview of .
  19. 19. 2-1 2. TRAVEL IN MMR – ISSUES AND PROBLEMS Creating a comprehensive data base on land use, travel patterns, transport network and systems and socio- economic information was vital to analyse existing traffic and travel characteristics in MMR. Extensive primary surveys were conducted besides assimilation of secondary data/information. Specifically, the discussion focuses on results and findings of analyses including internal travel pattern and demand, external travel pattern and demand, terminal studies and future requirements, road network and public transport networks, operational aspects public transport systems, etc. 2.1 HISTORICAL TRENDS 1. While MMR has been so far a region with one of the highest public transport share in the world, it is expected that this status is expected to change in future. Table 2-1 provides a summary of some changes in key transport indicators for the Region over the period 1991-2005. Although these indicators are rather simplistic they are illustrative of urban transport trends over the last 15 years. Table 2-1: Key Transport Indicators (Growth %) MMR Actual 15 year (1991-2005) Population Growth 43% Sub-urban Train Daily Trips 35% Bus Daily Trips (Main Mode + Feeder Trips) 9% Registered Cars 137% Registered Two Wheelers 306% Registered Auto Rickshaws 420% Registered Taxis 125% Registered Commercial Vehicles 200% Airport Passengers 94% 2. The transport indicators for the period 1991-2005 indicate that, buses are capturing a much smaller share of travel and suburban services are not keeping pace with population growth. Bus services are loosing out to autos and two wheelers for shorter distance trips particularly to the railway stations. The very large increase in the number of autos and two wheelers is a reflection of this trend. In the newly developing urban areas outside MCGM, the auto industry has found a niche market in areas not well served by public transit. Ride sharing of autos is an example of the private sector nimbly responding to a market opportunity to the benefit of their customers. 3. Suburban train ridership growth is only about 80% of the population increase. It could be argued that this is due to the severe crowding conditions on the system. But in addition to this constraint, the informal employment sector is increasing and the formal employment sector has declined in proportional terms. Informal employees have a greater propensity to live close to their work places and consequently more people walk to work. Figure 2-1: Projected Vehicular Growth – MMR
  20. 20. TTRANSSFORMM Executive Summary of Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR 2-2 4. The 137% increase in cars, a 306% increase in two wheelers, the 420% increase in autos and 128% increase in taxis during 1991-2005 has created a lethal dose of traffic congestion which has categorised Mumbai and region as one of the most congested cities in the world (Figure 2-1). 5. Parking space availability is often limited in the busy parts of the city and drivers often have to “baby sit” the vehicle and are called on demand by phone. Many private cars could be characterised as “private taxis”. Parking problems are acute in three distinct areas. 6. Firstly in the older built-up areas and slums, which were developed without due consideration of changing vehicle ownership levels and with little available parking and poor local road accessibility. These areas could be residential, shopping or employment zones that are difficult to change and where some constraints on vehicular use will have to be considered. 7. Secondly in the newly developed areas where private vehicles use is expected to be high need provision of off-street parking and access. 8. Thirdly, there are many traffic corridors connecting these multiple communities to places of employment/ other urban activities. 9. The observed speeds on some of the major corridors in the study area during 1990 to 2005 indicate that, overall, the speeds are decreasing with time and most probable reason is the increasing trend of traffic levels (Figure 2-2). However, traffic stream speed depends on several other factors like, time of the day, level of activity along and across the road, pavement condition, etc. at the time of observation. 10. Over the years, minimum average travel speed in Island city has fallen from 18 to 8 kmph, in spite of major capacity expansion programs underway, maximum average travel speed has shown marginal increase from 25 to 30 kmph, which is primarily due to construction of flyovers reducing location specific (and movement specific) delays. Most of the network remains highly congested. 11. In the suburbs of Greater Mumbai, minimum average travel speed has fallen from 30 to 5 kmph, although maximum travel speed increased from 40 to 45 kmph. In Thane, maximum average journey speed has dropped from 45 to 32 kmph, indicating traffic congestion due to increased traffic flows. Over four decades, there has been little change on major roads in rest of the region. 2.2 INTERNAL TRAVEL - 2005 12. During this study, a total of 275,000 interviews were conducted in 66,000 homes recording details of more than 325,000 journeys made by the residents on an average day (Figure 2-3). This Figure 2-2: Approaching Mahim Causeway
  21. 21. Executive Summary of Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR TTRANSSFORMM 2-3 formed part of a scientifically carried out survey through a group of 400 enumerators (specially trained for this purpose) over a long time period during the study. 13. A total of about 10 million people in MMR make about 28.5 million journeys (trips) every day, counting going-to and coming-back separately. More than half of these journeys, i.e. about 15 million, are made entirely on-foot. Another 13.5 million trips are made by a combination of modes, at least one of which is motorized. It has been estimated that all these journeys total to about 250 million kilometres of travel every day. The details are presented in Table 2-2 Table 2-2: Mumbai Travel Demand – Main Mode (Average Working Day): 2005 Main Mode Trips per day Walk 1,48,50,000 Train 69,75,000 Bus 35,50,000 Rickshaw 10,50,000 Taxi 2,25,000 Two Wheeler 10,50,000 Car 6,25,000 Total 2,83,25,000 14. Almost seven million journeys are made by Suburban Rail. It is the most important mode of travel after walk. Equally important are public bus services on which another 3.5 million trips are made. In addition, these buses also double as an access mode for people who use suburban railways. Out of seven million journeys made by rail, as mentioned earlier, about 1.5 to 2.0 million use buses to reach their railway station of choice. Thus, buses in total carry about 5.5 million passengers. 15. About one million journeys are made by Two Wheelers. Equal numbers are made by three wheeled ubiquitous Auto-Rickshaw. About 850,000 journeys are performed by cars and taxis. In spite of each of these modes being less than one-fifth of either train or bus, their high per capita road coverage creates almost insurmountable congestion. About 20 people get killed every day (approx. 13 on trains and 7 on roads Ref. Table 2-3. Table 2-3: Daily Fatalities in Accidents in MMR Persons killed every day Year Road Rail Total 2002 5 10 15 2003 5 10 15 2004 6 13 19 2005 7 12 19 Source: Basic Transport & Communication Statistics for MMR, March 2005 by MMRDA and Indian Railways Figure 2-3: Home Interview Survey Figure 2-4: Mode Share (Without Walk) 52% People walk but they are excluded from this figure
  22. 22. TTRANSSFORMM Executive Summary of Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR 2-4 16. Unaffordable housing throughout the city of Mumbai forces residents to move farther away in surrounding municipalities, where, they often remain captive to rail. For this reason, average trip length for these commuters is unusually high at almost 24 km (see Figure 2-5). Length of journeys made by all other modes is much less, varying from seven to twelve km except Auto-Rickshaws which is used for even smaller journeys of 1 to 5 km (Figure 2-5). 17. In terms of percentage, Mumbai Region should take pride in the fact that 78% of journeys are made by trains and buses (as main mode) which is highly efficient in terms of energy consumption, environmental costs and per capita space requirement. Although, as was found out, these are not the causes but effects of other phenomenon such as unusually compact urban form, high densities, low incomes and lack of affordable housing. Thus, sadly, these are signs of an overall low quality of life with lack of choices and alternatives rather than a conscious selection of most efficient mode of travel. However employees owning cars or two wheelers often choose to leave their vehicles at home and use public transport. 18. On an average, little over Rs 200 is spent by each person on account of transportation. Figure 2-6 provides the variation by occupation. Full time employees spend the most whereas housewives and retired people spend the least. 19. Further, if one analyses the variation by mode (in terms of expenditure per worker), it can be seen that people using cars (with drivers) spend the most whereas workers using company chartered buses spend the least (Figure 2-7). Figure 2-6: Expenditure on Travel (Rs per month): Variation by Occupation Figure 2-7: Expenditure on Travel (Rs per month): Variation by Mode 2.3 SLUMS AND TRANSPORTATION 20. There is no other Metropolitan area in the world that has such a large and diverse socio- economic milieu as Mumbai, particularly the number of residents who are poor and extremely poor. This is a manifestation of the historical magnetism of Mumbai in attracting rural populace from across India by being a place which provides best chances of survival. This, when coupled with high birth rates in this section of population, unaffordable and restricted supply of housing has resulted in a large increase in slum population over last 20 to 30 years. Household surveys corroborate earlier surveys and the 2001 Census of India that about 50% of the population of Mumbai is being housed in slums. Figure 2-5: Average Trip Length (km)
  23. 23. Executive Summary of Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR TTRANSSFORMM 2-5 21. Slums have been characterized in as either Slum Type 1 (buildings contained within a semi-organised area and built with semi-pucca building materials) or Slum Type 2 (representing the less structured and more temporary slum dwellings including those located on the roadways, railway corridors and watercourses). The mixture of housing is shown in Figure 2-8. This slum population of 10 million people in about 2.3 million households represents an enormous housing deficiency which is perhaps the most serious social problem of the MMR. 22. People who live in slums (2005 estimates) represent • 41% of total MMR population (50% in Greater Mumbai and 27% outside of Greater Mumbai) • 48% of total MMR employment • 60% of people who walk to get to work 23. Slum dwellers are an integral part of the economic and social fabric of Mumbai. Rising education standards and income levels of slum dwellers over the next 25 years will inevitably materialize in a generational shift in housing from slums to regular permanent accommodation. This shift will be accompanied by increased demand for motorized travel with more people working in formal employment. 2.4 INCOME LEVELS AND HOUSING TYPES 24. Slum dwellers have reported household income that is about two thirds of what families living in apartments earn (Figure 2-9). The potential changes in income levels over the next 25 years could have a major impact on the amount of urban travel. One of the major influences on urban travel is the practice of people changing jobs but not homes, even if this involves increased travel. The experience of developed economies is that this phenomenon in itself is creating a 30% increase in travel even with no overall increase in employment. India is now experiencing high volatility in the job market with companies aggressively competing for qualified staff and retaining employees, which is becoming a major business issue and is driving inflation pressures. The observed experience of large cities is that as they expand, the average person trip lengths get longer, which further generates increased travel demand on the transportation networks. 2.5 REHABILITATING SLUMS 25. Unfortunately the need to reallocate and provide alternative accommodation for slum dwellers has become a major cost and timing constraint in undertaking infrastructure projects. 26. The road and rail projects, being currently undertaken under MUTP, require resettlement and rehabilitation of over 22,000 households involving 110,000 residents (Figure 2-10 and Figure 2-11). Each resettled family is provided, at no extra cost, with a 225 sq ft apartment including title Figure 2-8: Distribution by Housing Type Figure 2-9: Reported Average Household Income by Housing Type
  24. 24. TTRANSSFORMM Executive Summary of Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR 2-6 of ownership. This resettlement programme has been estimated to cost Rs. 4,800 million (US $120 million). Figure 2-10: Slums along Suburban Railway Tracks Figure 2-11: Slum Rehab Housing (MUTP) 27. Plans to undertake an expansion of the Mumbai airport are also faced with similar resettlement and rehabilitation problems with an estimated 70,000 slum families currently occupying airport land. Government policies have established an eligibility occupancy date of 1995 for slum resettlement and rehabilitation, although this criterion is under constant review and challenge. 2.6 EXTERNAL TRAVEL 28. Analysis of traffic counts on the outer periphery (cordon) show that four National Highways carry most traffic. A total 55,000 vehicles enter or leave MMR everyday through these corridors which is about 60% of the total external traffic. The Mumbai-Pune Expressway adds another 23% of the total traffic and various State Highways contribute a total of 18%. 29. The origins or destinations of passenger-vehicle movements in and out of MMR are dominated by Greater Mumbai. About 63% of all vehicle movements either originate from, or terminate in Greater Mumbai. Share of Kalyan (9%), Thane (7%) and Navi Mumbai (4%) are also significant. Most of these trips are made for work-related purpose. In addition, about 116,000 bus passengers arrive in and depart from MMR daily. Greater Mumbai accounts for one-third of this traffic. Kalyan-Dombivali and Thane are also important. Through-traffic, traversing the region, accounts for only 4% of passenger movements. Many buses travel on Mumbai-Pune Expressway. 30. MMR also produces on an average day about 110,000 tonnes of freight traffic, and attracts about 104,000 tonnes by roads. Of this, Greater Mumbai produces about 43% and attracts 37%. Navi Mumbai, Bhiwandi and Thane are also important centres of production and attractions for goods traffic. About 16% of the total freight movement is through-traffic, for in MMR. 31. A comparison of traffic count data at the outer cordon locations i.e. entry/ exit locations of MMR carried out in CRRI study (1983) and present study (2005) indicates that, the traffic growth by Bus, Trucks, Car and Two wheelers is 6.3%, 7.4%, 13.1% and 11.9% per annum respectively. Inter-city passenger travel by cars and two wheelers is increasing at faster rate than by bus. The reasons could be several, but the major reason is increasing private vehicle ownership. 32. Approximately 6,630 buses enter or leave MMR per day through outer cordon locations of MMR. On an average, the traffic split by private and Govt. buses is 45% and 55% respectively. On NH8, SH53 and Mumbai-Pune Expressway, operation of private buses are high. While, on SH35, MSH2, SH38 and NH4, operation of Govt. buses are high. Comparisons of present findings with previous studies indicate that, inter-city travel by private buses is increasing and it is expected that, this trend would further continue.
  25. 25. Executive Summary of Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR TTRANSSFORMM 2-7 2.7 SUB-URBAN RAILWAYS 33. The history of transit in Mumbai and history of railways in India are tied together. Just thirteen years after the first train of India was flagged off from CST to Thane 153 years ago, the first suburban operation started between Virar and Back bay in 1867 (near Churchgate of today). For these deeply historical reasons, unlike any other city of India, Mumbai Region has greatly benefited by having a very mature and efficient rail based transit system developed, operated and maintained by Indian Railways for more than 140 years. While Indian Railways is now mainly a national intercity passenger and freight operator of India, it has continued to operate and maintain the Mumbai Transit System, a non-core activity. 34. ‘Indian Railways’ operates about 2100 suburban services per weekday (1186 by Central Railway and 913 by Western Railway) over about 400 km route network (280 km of Central Railway and 120 km of Western Railway). The fleet strength of Central Railway is 86 trains of 9 car rakes and 24 trains of 12 car rakes and that of Western Railway is 41 of 9 car rakes and 31 of 12 car rakes. Average weekday suburban rail travel demand is estimated to be 15 million passenger km in 2005, at an average rail journey length of 26 km. The number of weekday passenger trips by rail is estimated at 7 million. The average commuter density is observed to be 9 persons/sqm (average standing density 12 persons/sqm, density in the space between car doors is 16 persons/sqm). Maximum passenger flow is observed across Mahim where about 400,000 passengers move in morning peak hour (0900-1000 hrs) and 320,000 passengers in the evening peak hour (1800-1900 hrs.) (Figure 2-13 and Figure 2-14). 35. Traffic on suburban rail is growing differentially on different parts of the network. Lines operated by Western Railway from Churchgate to Virar have a very low growth rate (0.65% per annum). This is mainly due to supply crunch. On the other hand, network operated by Central Railway is more diverse and has many under-utilised sections. Therefore, it has been growing at a higher rate of 2.65% per annum. 36. One of the remarkable attributes of the suburban rail system is the low fares compared to any other transit system in the world. However this low cost comes with a severe penalty with 10-12 casualties per day and crowding levels reaching an intolerable 16 persons/sqm in the space between car doors (average standing density is 12 persons/sqm). The average crowding level is 9 persons/sqm. There is an urgent need for enhancing the sub-urban rail system to reduce the over- crowding level. In addition, to cater for the future travel demand, there is a need for capacity augmentation by extending sub-urban railway system, supplementing with metro system, exclusive bus lanes on major highway corridors. Figure 2-12: Victoria Terminus - 19th Century
  26. 26. TTRANSSFORMM Executive Summary of Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR 2-8 Figure 2-13: Suburban Train Passengers (Peak Period- 6:00am to 11:00am) The world’s most crowded transit system Figure 2-14: Measuring Crowding in Trains: Number of passengers per sq m in different parts of a second class coach
  27. 27. Executive Summary of Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR TTRANSSFORMM 2-9 2.8 TRAVEL BY BUS 37. Bus1 is predominant in MMR, after sub-urban rail. Daily travel by Bus as a main mode in the base year (2005) is about 3.55 million trips, which is 26.3% of total travel demand (without walk trips). It is pertinent to mention here that bus is acting as a major feeder mode/service to the sub- urban train. If access/ egress is also included, the trips performed by bus would be about 5.5 million/day. In all, bus services are operated over 5,700 routes. 38. Travel by contract carriages (buses operated by private operators, companies) is also predominant on some of the routes. Growth of stage carriages, contract carriages and school buses in the MMR are presented in Table 2-4. In 2005, contract carriages have been increased from 7,396 to 10,633 and school buses have increased from 912 to 1,298. However, the no. of trips per bus carried by these contract carriages and school buses per day is approximately 1/10 of the passengers/bus carried by the public transport buses. The growth of contract carriages clearly indicates that, the public transport, sub-urban train and bus are losing their share. The reason for more operation of contract carriages and school buses is convenient and comfort offered by these modes. Table 2-4: Growth of Stage Carriages, Contract carriages and School Buses in MMR Year Stage Carriages Contract Carriages School Buses Total 1996 6041 7117 842 14000 1997 6293 7508 850 14651 1998 6557 7787 861 15205 1999 6737 8144 864 15745 2000 6948 8608 867 16423 2001 7144 9027 871 17042 2002 7038 6761 897 14696 2003 7149 7033 933 15115 2004 6719 7396 912 15027 2005 6740 10633 1298 18671 39. In MMR, BEST is the biggest public road passenger transport provider with a fleet strength of 3,380 and operating 334 routes in the MMR. In fact, it is the biggest municipal public transport undertaking in India. BEST operates services within Greater Mumbai and from Greater Mumbai to other major destinations outside Greater Mumbai. Fleet and number of routes operated by major transport undertakings in the MMR are presented in Table 2-5. Table 2-5: Descriptive Statistics of the Major Transport Undertakings in MMR (Year 2002-03) TU Pass- km (million) Bus-km (million) No. of Buses Held No. of Employees Pass. Carried (million) Average Carrying Capacity Occupancy Ratio or Load Factor* No. of Routes Operated One-way Passenger Trips Originated Daily** (Millions) BEST 10,187 237.7 3,380 35,276 1560.9 75.0 57.2 334 4.30 TMT 914 19.64 264 2,555 96.2 58.2 80.0 43 0.26 MSRTC 7,933 204.2 1,950 294.4 251.6 0.77 Raigad 2,128 65.9 660 95.0 64.1 0.26 Thane 3,384 64.3 585 97.2 63.6 0.27 Palghar 1,153 38.3 428 68.1 63.4 0.19 Mumbai 1,268 35.7 277 34.1 60.5 0.05 Note: * The load factor is based on average carrying capacity of vehicles at the end of the year. ** Daily Passenger trips includes main mode trips and access/ egress trips Complete Statistics for NMMT, KDMT and MBMCTU are not available Source: Basic Transport & Communications Statistics for MMR, March 2005 1 The road based public transport (bus) system is mainly operated by municipal corporation undertakings like BEST, NMMT, TMT, KDMT, MBMCTU, etc. In addition, MSRTC (which provides services mainly for inter-city travel) also cater to the internal travel needs of MMR.
  28. 28. TTRANSSFORMM Executive Summary of Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR 2-10 2.9 TRAVEL BY PARA TRANSIT MODES 40. Intermediate Public Transport (IPT) modes i.e. Taxi and Auto in metropolitan cities plays an important role in meeting unstructured travel demands of users. It performs as feeder service to the main mass transport system (Both rail and road based) and provides accessible movement in predefined areas. The services provided by the IPT are intermittent in nature and this has complete flexibility in destination which is determined by the passengers. In MMR, IPT is acting as competent access/ egress mode and competing with road based public transport system, especially on short trip lengths. Trip characteristics by these modes is entirely different compared to the trips made by other motorised modes, as these modes offer high flexibility, services from almost door to door, fare, etc. 41. As per the 2005 statistics, number of Autos in Greater Mumbai and rest of MMR is 1,02,224 and 1,17,946 respectively (46.4%:53.6%). Population of Taxi in Greater Mumbai and rest of MMR is 56,459 and 17,634 respectively (76.2%:23.8%). Operation of Autos and Taxis in Greater Mumbai is high compared to rest of the region. Past trend during 2000 to 2004 indicates that, there is an increase in Auto and Taxi population in rest of MMR, whereas it is almost stagnant in Greater Mumbai. Annual growth rate of Auto population and Taxi population in MMR is 4.0% and 3.1% respectively (2000-2004 data). 42. Based on IPT studies, it is found that, on an average, taxis perform 10 trips a day with an average trip length of 5.1 km. The proportion of taxis owned and hired by operators/drivers is 40%:60%. Autos perform 16 trips day with an average trip length of 2.9 km. The proportion of autos owned and hired by operators/drivers is 61%:39%. 2.10 TRAVEL BY PRIVATE VEHICLES 43. Daily travel by private vehicle modes, two wheelers and cars in the base year (2005) is estimated to be about 1.05 million and 0.63 million respectively, which is 7.8% and 4.6% of total travel demand (without walk trips) of MMR. 44. The total number of motorized vehicles that is, four wheelers, two wheelers, trucks and tractor trailers registered in each sub region, from 31st March 1996 to 2005 is presented in Table 2-6. The growth pattern of all Motor vehicles in MMR (MCGM, Rest of MMR and MMR) and MCGM (Island city, Western suburbs, Eastern suburbs and Greater Mumbai) is presented in Figure 2-15. Table 2-6: Growth of Motor Vehicles in MMR (On Road as on 31st March, 1996 to 2005) Year Greater Mumbai Thane Kalyan Pen-Raigad MMR 1996 0.73 0.26 0.08 0.06 1.14 1997 0.81 0.31 0.09 0.08 1.29 1998 0.86 0.36 0.11 0.10 1.43 1999 0.92 0.40 0.12 0.11 1.55 2000 0.97 0.45 0.14 0.12 1.69 2001 1.03 0.51 0.16 0.14 1.84 2002 1.07 0.58 0.17 0.16 1.98 2003 1.12 0.65 0.19 0.18 2.14 2004 1.20 0.76 0.21 0.20 2.37 2005 1.29 0.85 0.23 0.23 2.60 Source: Transport Commissioner's Office, Government of Maharashtra
  29. 29. Executive Summary of Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR TTRANSSFORMM 2-11 0 500,000 1,000,000 1,500,000 2,000,000 2,500,000 3,000,000 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Year Veh.Population Greater Mumbai Rest of the Region MMR Figure 2-15: Growth of Total Motor Vehicles in MMR 45. The number of registered Two Wheelers, Cars and their total (private vehicles) as on 31st March 1996 up to the year 2005 is presented in Table 2-7, Table 2-8 and Table 2-9 respectively. 46. The growth trend of private vehicles in MMR (MCGM, Rest of MMR and MMR) is presented in Figure 2-16. Table 2-7: Growth of Two Wheelers in MMR Year Greater Mumbai Thane Kalyan Pen-Raighad MMR 1996 0.30 0.13 0.05 0.04 0.52 1997 0.33 0.15 0.06 0.04 0.58 1998 0.35 0.17 0.07 0.05 0.65 1999 0.38 0.19 0.08 0.06 0.71 2000 0.41 0.21 0.09 0.07 0.78 2001 0.44 0.24 0.10 0.08 0.87 2002 0.48 0.27 0.11 0.09 0.95 2003 0.53 0.31 0.13 0.10 1.07 2004 0.58 0.36 0.14 0.11 1.20 2005 0.65 0.40 0.16 0.13 1.34 Source: Transport Commissioner's Office, Government of Maharashtra Table 2-8: Growth of Cars in MMR Year Greater Mumbai Thane Kalyan Pen-Raighad MMR 1996 0.26 0.04 0.00 0.01 0.32 1997 0.29 0.06 0.01 0.02 0.37 1998 0.31 0.07 0.01 0.02 0.41 1999 0.32 0.08 0.01 0.02 0.43 2000 0.33 0.10 0.01 0.02 0.46 2001 0.34 0.12 0.01 0.03 0.51 2002 0.35 0.14 0.02 0.03 0.54 2003 0.37 0.16 0.02 0.03 0.58 2004 0.38 0.20 0.02 0.04 0.64 2005 0.41 0.22 0.02 0.04 0.69 Source: Transport Commissioner's Office, Government of Maharashtra
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