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Framing #VemPraRua

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Presented at the 2014 AEJMC Conference

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Framing #VemPraRua

  1. 1. Background  Protest paradigm: structural biases that produce a pattern of coverage of SMO actions  Entman & Rojecki (1992): the news grants legitimacy to participation by movements with little institutionalized power in politics but only so long as they steer clear of effective political action.  Historical overview of protest coverage in Brazil: media “flip- flop,” legitimizing protests when they become more powerful.
  2. 2. Research questions and hypotheses How did Brazilian media outlets cover the 2013 protests online?  RQ1: What frames were employed by main media outlets when covering the 2013 Brazilian protests online?  RQ2: What frames were employed by bloggers when referring to the 2013 Brazilian protests?  RQ3: What frames were employed by Twitter users when referring to the 2013 Brazilian protests?  H1: The more people participate in protests, the more the media use “legitimizing” frames when covering them.  H2: The broader and more resonant the collective action frames, the more the media use “legitimizing” frames to cover the protests.
  3. 3. Method  Computerized content analysis using the software Crimson- Hexagon  Sub-data sets: a) news websites; b) blogs and forums; c) Twitter news outlets; d) Twitter general  Machine learning: a sample was used to train the program on the various frames proposed by Hertog and McLeod (2001): confrontation, riot and debate  Algorithm applied the lessons to the large data sets based on the identification of central concepts (Hertog & McLeod, 2001; Miller & Riechert, 2001)  Results were compared with a timeline of the events (H1)  Hashtags were used as a proxy for the movement’s demands (H2)
  4. 4. News websites
  5. 5. Blogs
  6. 6. Twitter: news and general
  7. 7. Results
  8. 8. So what?  Brazilian media followed the “protest paradigm” more closely at the beginning of events, but migrated to legitimizing frames as public support increased (H1 supported).  This is consistent with the literature on media coverage of previous protests in the country, but in contrast to US theory.  News stories follow public support in the streets. Twitter news accounts follow public support on the Twittersphere.  The rise of the resonant “rights frame” was closely followed by legitimizing media coverage (H2 supported).
  9. 9. What’s next?  Software training limited: could not identify the circus frame.  Future studies on frame sponsorship are needed to understand Brazilian media’s “flip-flop” behavior.  Next step: compare the results of media frames analysis to the collective action frames promoted by SMOs and political elites on blogs and Twitter.
  10. 10. Thank you! rachelmourao@gmail.com @rachelmourao rachelmourao.wordpress.com