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NASA Case Study JPL Knowledge Management

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NASA Case Study JPL Knowledge Management

  1. 1. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AT NASA Puneet Bhalla Jyoti Jain P S Karthik
  2. 2. NASA
  3. 3. CASE STUDY • Oct 2002, HBR • Dorothy Leonard & David Kiron • Managing Knowledge & Learning at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) & JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) • Downsizing & Retirement of Experienced Scientists & Engineers • Civilian space program as well as aeronautics and aerospace research • President Dwight D. Eisenhower established NASA in 1958
  4. 4. j p l . n a s a . g o v TEN CENTRES OF NASA HQ, WASHINGTON, D.C. 4  Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California  Armstrong Flight Research Center, Edwards, California  Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland  John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida  Jet Propulsion Laboratory, near Pasadena, California  John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, Cleveland  George Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama  Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia  Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas  John C. Stennis Space Center, Bay St. Louis, Mississippi
  5. 5. SPUTNIK Oct 5, 1957 Conceived During crisis
  6. 6. FIRST MAN IN SPACE Russians, USSR winning the space race
  7. 7. RACE TO THE MOON •$500 Mill to $5.2 Bill in 1965 •5.3% of the Federal Budget •$179 Bill – 2001 •One in 50 Americans on the Apollo program •Manhattan & Panama Canal
  8. 8. PANAMA; MANHATTAN & APOLLO 77 km waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean Employ more than 130,000 people and cost nearly US $2 billion (about $27 billion in 2017
  9. 9. BEFORE APOLLO Technical Depth NO Project Management Culture •Small Scale Projects •Centralizing Authority for •Design •Engineering •Testing •Construction •Manufacturing •Logistics •Training •Operations
  10. 10. MANNED FLIGHT
  11. 11. IRON TRIANGLE Performance Time Costs Pre Apollo Costs Performance Time Post Apollo after 1970s
  12. 12. CHANGES POST APOLLO •Resisted Advancing Technology •Adopted Commercial Practices Integration & Contractor Oversight Design & Development Risk Aversion
  13. 13. SUCCESS - COLUMBIA Space Shuttle Columbia was the first space- rated orbiter in NASA's Space Shuttle fleet. It launched for the first time on April 12, 1981, the first flight of the Space Shuttle program. Over 22 years of service it completed 27 missions before disintegrating during re-entry near the end of its 28th mission, on February 1, 2003, resulting in the deaths of all seven crew members including Kalpana Chawla.
  14. 14. FAILURE - CHALLENGER The Space Shuttle Challenger disaster occurred on January 28, 1986, when the NASA Space Shuttle broke apart 73 seconds into its flight, leading to the deaths of its seven crew members.
  15. 15. WE HAVE A PROBLEM •Insufficient Risk Assessment & Planning •Inadequate Review Process •Inadequate System Engineering •Resistance to expertise •Pockets of Information •High Knowledge & Low Experience
  16. 16. AFTER CHALLENGER •O Ring or Managerial Decision Making •Confidence & Pride •Re-Centralization •Budgets + Technical Specifications Review •Endeavor Success •Hubble Failure
  17. 17. STEPS INITIATED •FBC •Workforce reduction •Decentralized •Decade vs Faster timetable •Unleash Dormant Creativity •Reduce Aversion to risk •Breaking up of large projects
  18. 18. UNKNOWN UN-KNOWNS
  19. 19. j p l . n a s a . g o v
  20. 20. j p l . n a s a . g o v
  21. 21. j p l . n a s a . g o v KEY CHALLENGES AT NASA (contd..) KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER OF LONGER DURATION PROJECTS. - HISTORY OF DESIGN DECISIONS AMALGAMATION OF DIVERSIFIED & GEOGRAPHICALLY DISTRIBUTED COMMUNITIES. RISK MANAGEMENT PRACTICES MENTORING PRACTICES
  22. 22. j p l . n a s a . g o v SYMPTOMS  Struggled to find the right balance between mission performance and cutting edge space exploration in the range of radically reduced budget.  People were retiring and experienced personnel were leaving but it has few programs to bring their wisdom into our institutional memory  The most experienced personnel become overburden so junior folks put in relatively senior positions.  Broke down lines of communication and prevented people from internalizing and applying previous lessons.
  23. 23. j p l . n a s a . g o v CAUSES  Downsizing at NASA over the last decade has resulted in an imbalance in NASA’s skill mix.  Pursuit cut costs and maximizes mission performance.  They have no formal process for transferring knowledge from people who are leaving high level management positions.  JPL’s prevailed belief is only focus on creation new knowledge and overlooking old knowledge.
  24. 24. j p l . n a s a . g o v RISK  Should we need more IT investment or stick to change culture? However, to begin the cross-agency cultural changes necessary to make this work, they will need a larger budget. And if it fails, they will lose credibility .  NASA’s already rich, explicit information. STRENGTH
  25. 25. OBSTACLE  Management decentralizes, some centers returned to their pre-Apollo technical culture.  It also sustains a culture of privatizing knowledge. Scientists and engineers sometimes don’t include material in their reports that might compromise their competitive advantage.  The project team sometimes resisted experienced personnel’s feedback.
  26. 26. j p l . n a s a . g o v KNOWLDEGE MANAGEMENT AT NASA 29  JANUARY 2000 – IMPLEMENTING KM INITIATIVES IN ALL ITS 10 CENTRES.  PRIVATIZING KNOWLEDGE COMPROMISES COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE.  IDENTIFY, CAPTURE & RECOGNIZE – REWARD KNOWLEDGE SHARING AND MENTORING.  SUCCESSION PLANNING.
  27. 27. j p l . n a s a . g o v PERFORMANCE ORIENTED KM  RIGHT INFORMATION / RIGHT PEOPLE / RIGHT TIME  ENGINEER - WITH HISTORY OF DESIGN DECISIONS ON PREVIOUS PROJECTS.  PROJECT MANAGER – BETTER RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT TOOLS.  SENIOR SCIENTIST – PROVIDING TIME TO NURTURE YOUNG STAR SCIENTIST
  28. 28. j p l . n a s a . g o v OPTION – 1 INVEST IN IT INFRASTRUCTURE  IT systems provide a platform and standards for scientists and engineers to discuss, document and share information.  Introduce collaboration tool and communication tool such as video conference Pros Cons  Enable to capture employee’s valuable knowledge and experiences.  Improving NASA and its partner’s performance.  Share information instantly.  IT system alone cannot satisfy experienced people.
  29. 29. j p l . n a s a . g o v OPTION – II REFORM KNOWLEDGE SHARING CULTURE CHANGE  Change its culture to encourage and motivate employees sharing experiences and knowledge they learned. Develop Self-Retirement Program - Maintain knowledge Incentive Senior Mentoring - Efficient coaching Develop the systematic and written process to allow organization-wide employees follow the process. Pros Cons  A higher success rate in future missions  Resolving the problems of time allocation of the employees who has complained about mentoring workload.  Changing culture is riskier than building up IT system
  30. 30. j p l . n a s a . g o v THREE INITIATIVES BY KM TEAM AT NASA 33 2001- IMPROVING DOCUMENTATION – LLIS ($150,000) MANAGERS RELUCTANT TO SHARE NEGATIVE LESSONS FUNDAMENTAL WEAKNESS IN COLLECTION AND SHARING (KSI) Expert’s Directory 2002 - ACADEMY OF PROGRAM AND PROJECT LEADERSHIP. INDIVIDUAL CAREER DEVELOPMENT OPPURTUNITIES ONLINE MANAGEMENT TOOLS (REMOTE COLLABORATION) ($800,000) 2003 - DEVELOPING WEB BASED PORTAL. INSIDE JPL & INSIDE NASA / CAPTURE DESIGN KNOWLEDGE & DECISIONS WEB BASED COLLABORATIVE ENVIRONMENTS (DOC MGR, DISCUSSION TOOL & ACTIVITY LOG)/ PROJECT LIBRARIES / DECISION TREES
  31. 31. j p l . n a s a . g o v
  32. 32. j p l . n a s a . g o v
  33. 33. j p l . n a s a . g o v
  34. 34. j p l . n a s a . g o v
  35. 35. j p l . n a s a . g o v

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • President Dwight D. Eisenhower established NASA in 1958[9] with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science. The National Aeronautics and Space Act was passed on July 29, 1958, disestablishing NASA's predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new agency became operational on October 1, 1958.

    Since that time, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, and later the Space Shuttle. Currently, NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the Space Launch System and Commercial Crew vehicles. The agency is also responsible for the Launch Services Program (LSP) which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches.

    NASA science is focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System, advancing helio-physics through the efforts of the Science Mission Directorate's Heliophysics Research Program,[13] exploring bodies throughout the Solar System with advanced robotic spacecraft missions such as New Horizons, and researching astrophysics topics, such as the Big Bang, through the Great Observatories and associated programs. NASA shares data with various national and international organizations such as from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite.
  • What makes us alive ……….?

    Similarly it’s not the m/c, buildings, manpower or assembly lines which makes an Organization alive in 21st Century…..its the DATA. And DATA without information and intelligence to give your business the competitive edge is of no value.

    During the past several years, the balance of power for business intelligence (BI) and analytics platform buying decisions has gradually shifted from IT to the business

    BI requirement has shifted from centrally provisioned, highly governed and scalable system-of-record reporting has been counterbalanced by the need for analytical agility and business user autonomy
  • What makes us alive ……….?

    Similarly it’s not the m/c, buildings, manpower or assembly lines which makes an Organization alive in 21st Century…..its the DATA. And DATA without information and intelligence to give your business the competitive edge is of no value.

    During the past several years, the balance of power for business intelligence (BI) and analytics platform buying decisions has gradually shifted from IT to the business

    BI requirement has shifted from centrally provisioned, highly governed and scalable system-of-record reporting has been counterbalanced by the need for analytical agility and business user autonomy
  • What makes us alive ……….?

    Similarly it’s not the m/c, buildings, manpower or assembly lines which makes an Organization alive in 21st Century…..its the DATA. And DATA without information and intelligence to give your business the competitive edge is of no value.

    During the past several years, the balance of power for business intelligence (BI) and analytics platform buying decisions has gradually shifted from IT to the business

    BI requirement has shifted from centrally provisioned, highly governed and scalable system-of-record reporting has been counterbalanced by the need for analytical agility and business user autonomy
  • What makes us alive ……….?

    Similarly it’s not the m/c, buildings, manpower or assembly lines which makes an Organization alive in 21st Century…..its the DATA. And DATA without information and intelligence to give your business the competitive edge is of no value.

    During the past several years, the balance of power for business intelligence (BI) and analytics platform buying decisions has gradually shifted from IT to the business

    BI requirement has shifted from centrally provisioned, highly governed and scalable system-of-record reporting has been counterbalanced by the need for analytical agility and business user autonomy
  • Modern BI will have maximum Impact in the four areas :-
    Infrastructure
    data management
    analysis and content creation
    share findings
  • This change in the focus of the BI and analytics should not be interpreted by organizations as a recommendation to immediately replace all existing reporting-based system-of-record with a modern platform. In many organizations, the existing enterprise reporting systems are integral to day to-day business processes, and these processes would be exposed to unnecessary risk if disrupted by an attempt to re-create them in a modern platform. However, the problem that most organizations have encountered with lackluster BI adoption relative to the level of investment during the past 20 years stems from the fact that virtually all BI-related work in that time frame has, until recently, been treated as system of record from inception to development to delivery.

    1. The BI and analytics platform market's multiyear shift is under progress at a rapid rate
    2. Change is from IT-led enterprise reporting to business-led self-service analytics
    3. Most new buying is of modern, business-user-centric platforms forcing a new market perspective, significantly reordering the vendor landscape.
  • This change in the focus of the BI and analytics should not be interpreted by organizations as a recommendation to immediately replace all existing reporting-based system-of-record with a modern platform. In many organizations, the existing enterprise reporting systems are integral to day to-day business processes, and these processes would be exposed to unnecessary risk if disrupted by an attempt to re-create them in a modern platform. However, the problem that most organizations have encountered with lackluster BI adoption relative to the level of investment during the past 20 years stems from the fact that virtually all BI-related work in that time frame has, until recently, been treated as system of record from inception to development to delivery.

    1. The BI and analytics platform market's multiyear shift is under progress at a rapid rate
    2. Change is from IT-led enterprise reporting to business-led self-service analytics
    3. Most new buying is of modern, business-user-centric platforms forcing a new market perspective, significantly reordering the vendor landscape.
  • This change in the focus of the BI and analytics should not be interpreted by organizations as a recommendation to immediately replace all existing reporting-based system-of-record with a modern platform. In many organizations, the existing enterprise reporting systems are integral to day to-day business processes, and these processes would be exposed to unnecessary risk if disrupted by an attempt to re-create them in a modern platform. However, the problem that most organizations have encountered with lackluster BI adoption relative to the level of investment during the past 20 years stems from the fact that virtually all BI-related work in that time frame has, until recently, been treated as system of record from inception to development to delivery.

    1. The BI and analytics platform market's multiyear shift is under progress at a rapid rate
    2. Change is from IT-led enterprise reporting to business-led self-service analytics
    3. Most new buying is of modern, business-user-centric platforms forcing a new market perspective, significantly reordering the vendor landscape.
  • This change in the focus of the BI and analytics should not be interpreted by organizations as a recommendation to immediately replace all existing reporting-based system-of-record with a modern platform. In many organizations, the existing enterprise reporting systems are integral to day to-day business processes, and these processes would be exposed to unnecessary risk if disrupted by an attempt to re-create them in a modern platform. However, the problem that most organizations have encountered with lackluster BI adoption relative to the level of investment during the past 20 years stems from the fact that virtually all BI-related work in that time frame has, until recently, been treated as system of record from inception to development to delivery.

    1. The BI and analytics platform market's multiyear shift is under progress at a rapid rate
    2. Change is from IT-led enterprise reporting to business-led self-service analytics
    3. Most new buying is of modern, business-user-centric platforms forcing a new market perspective, significantly reordering the vendor landscape.
  • This change in the focus of the BI and analytics should not be interpreted by organizations as a recommendation to immediately replace all existing reporting-based system-of-record with a modern platform. In many organizations, the existing enterprise reporting systems are integral to day to-day business processes, and these processes would be exposed to unnecessary risk if disrupted by an attempt to re-create them in a modern platform. However, the problem that most organizations have encountered with lackluster BI adoption relative to the level of investment during the past 20 years stems from the fact that virtually all BI-related work in that time frame has, until recently, been treated as system of record from inception to development to delivery.

    1. The BI and analytics platform market's multiyear shift is under progress at a rapid rate
    2. Change is from IT-led enterprise reporting to business-led self-service analytics
    3. Most new buying is of modern, business-user-centric platforms forcing a new market perspective, significantly reordering the vendor landscape.
  • This change in the focus of the BI and analytics should not be interpreted by organizations as a recommendation to immediately replace all existing reporting-based system-of-record with a modern platform. In many organizations, the existing enterprise reporting systems are integral to day to-day business processes, and these processes would be exposed to unnecessary risk if disrupted by an attempt to re-create them in a modern platform. However, the problem that most organizations have encountered with lackluster BI adoption relative to the level of investment during the past 20 years stems from the fact that virtually all BI-related work in that time frame has, until recently, been treated as system of record from inception to development to delivery.

    1. The BI and analytics platform market's multiyear shift is under progress at a rapid rate
    2. Change is from IT-led enterprise reporting to business-led self-service analytics
    3. Most new buying is of modern, business-user-centric platforms forcing a new market perspective, significantly reordering the vendor landscape.
  • This change in the focus of the BI and analytics should not be interpreted by organizations as a recommendation to immediately replace all existing reporting-based system-of-record with a modern platform. In many organizations, the existing enterprise reporting systems are integral to day to-day business processes, and these processes would be exposed to unnecessary risk if disrupted by an attempt to re-create them in a modern platform. However, the problem that most organizations have encountered with lackluster BI adoption relative to the level of investment during the past 20 years stems from the fact that virtually all BI-related work in that time frame has, until recently, been treated as system of record from inception to development to delivery.

    1. The BI and analytics platform market's multiyear shift is under progress at a rapid rate
    2. Change is from IT-led enterprise reporting to business-led self-service analytics
    3. Most new buying is of modern, business-user-centric platforms forcing a new market perspective, significantly reordering the vendor landscape.
  • This change in the focus of the BI and analytics should not be interpreted by organizations as a recommendation to immediately replace all existing reporting-based system-of-record with a modern platform. In many organizations, the existing enterprise reporting systems are integral to day to-day business processes, and these processes would be exposed to unnecessary risk if disrupted by an attempt to re-create them in a modern platform. However, the problem that most organizations have encountered with lackluster BI adoption relative to the level of investment during the past 20 years stems from the fact that virtually all BI-related work in that time frame has, until recently, been treated as system of record from inception to development to delivery.

    1. The BI and analytics platform market's multiyear shift is under progress at a rapid rate
    2. Change is from IT-led enterprise reporting to business-led self-service analytics
    3. Most new buying is of modern, business-user-centric platforms forcing a new market perspective, significantly reordering the vendor landscape.
  • This change in the focus of the BI and analytics should not be interpreted by organizations as a recommendation to immediately replace all existing reporting-based system-of-record with a modern platform. In many organizations, the existing enterprise reporting systems are integral to day to-day business processes, and these processes would be exposed to unnecessary risk if disrupted by an attempt to re-create them in a modern platform. However, the problem that most organizations have encountered with lackluster BI adoption relative to the level of investment during the past 20 years stems from the fact that virtually all BI-related work in that time frame has, until recently, been treated as system of record from inception to development to delivery.

    1. The BI and analytics platform market's multiyear shift is under progress at a rapid rate
    2. Change is from IT-led enterprise reporting to business-led self-service analytics
    3. Most new buying is of modern, business-user-centric platforms forcing a new market perspective, significantly reordering the vendor landscape.
  • This change in the focus of the BI and analytics should not be interpreted by organizations as a recommendation to immediately replace all existing reporting-based system-of-record with a modern platform. In many organizations, the existing enterprise reporting systems are integral to day to-day business processes, and these processes would be exposed to unnecessary risk if disrupted by an attempt to re-create them in a modern platform. However, the problem that most organizations have encountered with lackluster BI adoption relative to the level of investment during the past 20 years stems from the fact that virtually all BI-related work in that time frame has, until recently, been treated as system of record from inception to development to delivery.

    1. The BI and analytics platform market's multiyear shift is under progress at a rapid rate
    2. Change is from IT-led enterprise reporting to business-led self-service analytics
    3. Most new buying is of modern, business-user-centric platforms forcing a new market perspective, significantly reordering the vendor landscape.

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