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Innate immunity

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Immunology topic on innate immunity

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Innate immunity

  1. 1. INNATE IMMUNITY Presented By: Preety Sweta Hembrom Subject- Immunology M.Sc. Genomic Science Central University Of Kerala
  2. 2. IMMUNE SYSTEM  The immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism and protects against attacks by foreign invaders.  These invaders are primarily microbes.  The human body provides an ideal environment for many microbes.
  3. 3. IMMUNITY:  Immunity is the state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, diseases or other unwanted biological invasion.  It is the capability of the body to resist harmful microbes from entering it.  Immunity involves both specific and non-specific components.
  4. 4. CONTD…  The mechanism of immunity can be achieved by two types of immune response: 1. Cell- mediated immune response 2. Humoral immune response
  5. 5. COMPONENTS OF IMMUNITY:  Contains two major components: 1. Innate Immunity (Non-specific) 2. Adaptive Immunity (Specific)
  6. 6. Innate ImmunIty
  7. 7. INNATE IMMUNITY:  The innate immune system, also known as non-specific immune system.  Innate immune systems provide immediate defense against infection, and are found in all classes of plant and animal life.
  8. 8. DEFENSIVE BARRIERS OF INNATE IMMUNITY: Innate Immune system First line Second line 1) Anatomic barriers A) cells 2) Chemical & biochemical inhibitors 1- Natural killer 3) Normal flora 2- Phagocytes B) Soluble factors C) Inflammatory
  9. 9. FIRST LINE: 1) Anatomic barriers:  Intact skin  Mucous coat  Mucous secretion  Blinking reflex and tears  The hair at the nares  Coughing and sneezing reflex
  10. 10. CONTD: 2) Chemical & biochemical inhibitors  Sweat and sebaceous secretion  Hydrolytic enzymes in saliva  HCl of the stomach  Proteolytic enzyme in small intestine  Lysozyme in tears  Acidic pH in the adult vagina
  11. 11. CONTD: 3) Normal bacterial flora:  Competition for essential nutrients  Production of inhibitory substances
  12. 12. SECOND LINE: 1. CELLS: a) Natural Killer Cells (NK):  Effectors of innate immunity  Cytotoxic lymphocyte  Differentiate and mature in the bone marrow, lymph node, spleen, tonsils and thymus.
  13. 13. FUNCTIONS:  Cytolytic Granule Mediated Cell Apoptosis.  Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC).  Cytokine induced NK and CTL activation  Tumor cell surveillance
  14. 14. Immune System - Natural Killer Cell.mp4
  15. 15. CONTD: b) Phagocytes:  Cells that protect the body by ingesting harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells.  The professional phagocytes include cells called neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, de ndritic cells, and mast cells.
  16. 16. PHAGOCYTOSIS:  Elle Mechnikov was the first to observe phagocytosis by white blood cells. I. Chemo taxis & attachment: a- Attraction by chemo tactic substances (microbes, damaged tissues) b- Attachment by receptors( such as TLRs ) on surfaces of phagocytes.
  17. 17. CONTD: II. Ingestion: * Phagocyte pseudopodia surround organism forming phagosome. * Opsonin and co-factors enhance phagocytosis. * Fusion with phagocyte granules and release digestive, toxic contents
  18. 18. CONTD: III. Killing :  Digestion and killing by Lysozyme.
  19. 19. 2. SOLUBLE FACTORS:  Acute phase protein (Plasma protein, CRP=C reactive protein, Fibrin.)  Complement (proteins in serum, body fluids)  Interferon (Proteins against viral infections)  Properdin (Complement activation)  Lactoferrrin, Transferrin (Iron binding protein)  Lactoperoxidase (Saliva & Milk)  Lysozyme (Hydrolyze cell wall)
  20. 20. 3. INFLAMMATORY BARRIERS:  Tissue damage caused by a wound or by an invading pathogenic microorganism induces a complex sequence of events collectively known as Inflammatory response.  Inflammation is stimulated by chemical factors released by injured cells and serves to establish a physical barrier against the spread of infection, and to promote healing of any damaged tissue following the clearance of pathogens.  Chemical factors produced during inflammation are histamine, bradykinin, serotonin, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins.
  21. 21. The Inflammatory Response.mp4