2. INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT MANAGEMENT
A project is generally initiated by a perceived need
in an organisation. Being a one off undertaking, it
will have a start and an end, constraints of
budgets, time and resources and involves a
purpose built team.
Project management is the discipline of managing
all the different resources and aspects of the
project in such a way that the resources will deliver
all the output that is required to complete the
project within the defined scope, time, and cost
3. INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT MANAGEMENT
These are agreed upon in the project initiation stage and by the time the
project begins all stakeholders and team members will have a clear
understanding and acceptance of the process, methodology and expected
4. PROJECT MANAGEMENT LIFE CYCLE
Projects are split into five phases: Project
Initiation, Project Planning, Project Execution,
Project Monitoring and control and Project
Initiation, Implementation and Closure. Each
phase then has multiple checkpoints that must
be met before the next phase begins.
The degree to which a project is managed will
depend on the size of the project. For a
complex project in a large organisation that
involves a number of people, resources, time
and money, a more structured approach is
needed, and there will be more steps built into
each stage of the project to ensure that the
project delivers the anticipated end result.
5. PROJECT INITIATION PHASE
Project initiation is the first phase of the project
management life cycle and in this stage,
companies decide if the project is needed and
how beneficial it will be for them. The two metrics
that are used to judge a proposed project and
determine the expectations from it are the
business case and feasibility study.
It explains: Why a project was undertaken, What
problems need to be addressed, specific
strategic gaps and initiatives need to be served,
needs, objectives and profits were served by this
project, are the roles and responsibilities of each
person associated with the project, project
entail, exactly delivered and left out of the
deliverables, Who are the key stakeholders,
sponsors and project team and lastly who is in
charge and authorized to run the project.
6. PROJECT PLANNING PHASE
● Planning is the second yet most important
phase in the project management life cycle.
Project planning is at the heart of the project
life cycle, and tells everyone involved where
you’re going and how you’re going to get
● The planning phase is when the project plans
are documented, the project deliverables and
requirements are defined, and the project
schedule is created.
● It involves creating a set of plans to help
guide your team through the implementation
and closure phases of the project.
● The plans created during this phase will help
you manage time, cost, quality, changes, risk,
and related issues. They will also help you
control staff and external suppliers to ensure
that you deliver the project on time, within
7. PROJECT PLANNING PHASE
● Creating a Project Plan:- The Project Plan is you project blueprint and a project
manager’s best friend. It helps the Project Manager to be in-sync with the roadmap and
maintain progress accordingly by taking informed decisions at the right time.
● Creating a Resource Plan:- A Resource Plan provides information about the level of
resources that is needed to complete a project. A properly documented Resource Plan
will specify the exact quantities of labor, equipment and materials needed to complete
your project. At here, we also consider the skill of the resources that is whether the
resources have the relevant expertise required for the project.
● Creating a Financial Plan:- A Financial Plan helps set budget for your project. To deliver
your project within budget, you need to produce the project deliverables at a total cost
which does not exceed allotted budget.
● Creating a Quality Plan:- Quality Planning is an essential part of any project. It helps
you to monitor and control the level of quality produced by the project, to ensure that
you meet the required quality targets.
8. PROJECT PLANNING PHASE
● Creating a Risk Plan:- A Risk Plan helps you to identify the potential risks and how to mitigate
them. The Risk Management Plan is created as part of the Risk Planning process. The risk plan
contains lists of all potential risks, their ranking or level and priority, the preventive actions,
along with a process for tracking them.
● Creating an Acceptance Plan:- Acceptance plan is the list of the task that is designed to meet
the customer requirement. The Acceptance Plan includes a list of the deliverables, the
acceptance test activities, the criteria and standards to be met, and the plan for their
● Creating a Communication Plan:- A communication plan describes the approach to provide
information to the stakeholders. A communication plan contains the list of information that
should be shared with the stakeholders, project members and the PMO, at what schedule and
frequency, the right means of communication (email, standup meeting, daily meeting, weekly
meeting, ppt. etc.) and how/where the relevant documents and reports can be accessed and by
● Creating a Procurement Plan:- Procurement planning is the process to decide what to buy, what
are procedure should be followed to buy and sources from which required materials to be
9. PROJECT EXECUTION MONITOR AND CONTROL PHASE
Execution relies heavily on the planning phase.
The work and efforts of the team during the
execution phase are derived from the project
The key tasks performed are:-
● Assemble Execution Phase Project Team:-
Acquiring required resources who can
work on the project.
● Team Development:- Dividing the
resources into small teams to work on
certain modules. For example, if you are
working on website development, one
team can be assigned for UI/UX design of
the website, other team for the backend
design, similar a team to perform testing
and so on.
10. PROJECT EXECUTION MONITOR AND CONTROL PHASE
● Assign Resources:- Assigned skill or expert resources to the project. Obtaining
the right resources for the project is crucial for project success. A high skill to
requirement mapping will enable smoother and timely task execution.
● Execute Project Management Plans:- Set your schedule into action.
● Direct and Manage Project Execution:- This involves leading and performing
the work defined in the project plan and implementing approved changes to
achieve the project's objectives.
● Conduct Progress Status Meetings:- Having periodic status checks helps keep
the team motivated, stay on track, address any real or perceived threats in
advance and take corrective measures as required.
11. PROJECT EXECUTION MONITOR AND CONTROL PHASE
● Update Project Schedule and Management Plans:- As the project progresses,
we must update the project schedule and plans in order to ensure the project
is set to be delivered within the agreed timelines. However, this phase is
optional if the project is already on track.
● Quality Assurance:- Review tasks and deliverables are up to the mark or not.
And what corrective actions are required to meet the defined quality
● Acceptance of Deliverables:- Verify if the developed project meets the
deliverables, fulfills all the standards and criteria set by the customer.
● Complete Execution Phase Review:- Lastly, ensure all the key execution
activities are performed properly.
12. PROJECT CLOSURE PHASE
So much time and effort is put into the planning of a
project, it is often forgotten that the end of a project
is equally important. There’s a lot of work involved
even once a project is technically complete.
You handover all deliverables to your customers,
relevant stakeholders, release the project into
business as usual and handover to the operations
team, free all your resources, return equipment and
notify all of project closure.
13. PROJECT CLOSURE PHASE
● Lessons Learnt:- Managing a project is an experience you can constantly learn from. While
you should have been learning throughout the project, now is a great time to look back
without the pressure and distractions that might have dulled your focus.
● Complete paperwork:- Acquiring required resources who can work on the project. This
includes a complete documentation of the project, approval from the stakeholders, Legal
contracts of the projects should be verified and signed up by the stakeholders. All dues
must be settled and vendor contracts must be closed before proceeding to project closure.
● Release resources:- This is a formal procedure, in which resources are assigned back to the
project pool and made available for new projects. If there were contractors involved then
they are released and the contracts cancelled post all due settlement.
● Archive documents:- Having all project documents neatly stacked on a relevant shared
portal or with the PMO is in the best interest of the organization and will also come in
handy for any issues that may arise in the future.
The Waterfall Model was the first Process Model to be
introduced. It is also referred to as a linear-
sequential life cycle model. It is very simple to
understand and use. In a waterfall model, each phase
must be completed before the next phase can begin
and there is no overlapping in the phases.
The Waterfall model is the earliest SDLC approach
that was used for software development.
The waterfall Model illustrates the software
development process in a linear sequential flow. This
means that any phase in the development process
begins only if the previous phase is complete. In this
waterfall model, the phases do not overlap.
● Requirement Gathering and analysis − All possible requirements of the system to be developed are
captured in this phase and documented in a requirement specification document.
● System Design − The requirement specifications from first phase are studied in this phase and the
system design is prepared. This system design helps in specifying hardware and system
requirements and helps in defining the overall system architecture.
● Implementation − With inputs from the system design, the system is first developed in small
programs called units, which are integrated in the next phase. Each unit is developed and tested for
its functionality, which is referred to as Unit Testing.
● Integration and Testing − All the units developed in the implementation phase are integrated into a
system after testing of each unit. Post integration the entire system is tested for any faults and
● Deployment of system − Once the functional and non-functional testing is done; the product is
deployed in the customer environment or released into the market.
● Maintenance − There are some issues which come up in the client environment. To fix those issues,
patches are released. Also to enhance the product some better versions are released. Maintenance
is done to deliver these changes in the customer environment.
The V-model is a type of SDLC model where
process executes in a sequential manner in V-
shape. It is also known as Verification and
Validation model. It is based on the association of
a testing phase for each corresponding
development stage. Development of each step
directly associated with the testing phase. The
next phase starts only after completion of the
previous phase i.e. for each development activity,
there is a testing activity corresponding to it.
Principles of V-Model:
-Large to Small: In V-Model, testing is done in a hierarchical perspective, For example, requirements
identified by the project team, create High-Level Design, and Detailed Design phases of the project.
-Data/Process Integrity: This principle states that the successful design of any project requires the
incorporation and cohesion of both data and processes. Process elements must be identified at each
and every requirements.
-Scalability: This principle states that the V-Model concept has the flexibility to accommodate any IT
project irrespective of its size, complexity or duration.
-Cross Referencing: Direct correlation between requirements and corresponding testing activity is
known as cross-referencing.
-Tangible Documentation: This principle states that every project needs to create a document. This
documentation is required and applied by both the project development team and the support team.
Documentation is used to maintaining the application once it is available in a production
● Verification: It involves static analysis technique (review) done without executing code. It
is the process of evaluation of the product development phase to find whether specified
● Validation: It involves dynamic analysis technique (functional, non-functional), testing
done by executing code. Validation is the process to evaluate the software after the
completion of the development phase to determine whether software meets the customer
expectations and requirements
● Design Phase: It involves Requirement System Design Architectural Design and Module
● Testing Phases: It includes Unit Testing- executed to eliminate bugs at code or unit
level).Integration testing- the modules are integrated and the system is tested. System
testing test the complete application with its functionality, inter dependency, and
communication. User Acceptance Testing-UAT verifies that the delivered system meets
user’s requirement and system is ready for use in real world.
19. SCRUM METHODOLOGY
Scrum as explained by Scrum Alliance is "a process
framework that has been used to manage work on
complex products since the early 1990s. Scrum is not a
process, technique, or definitive method. Rather, it is a
framework within which you can employ various
processes and techniques. Scrum makes clear the
relative efficacy of your product management and
work techniques so that you can continuously
improve the product, the team, and the working
The Major Scrum Roles are:
● The Product Owner
● The Scrum Master
● The Development Team
● The Scrum Team or the Scrum Core Team
21. ADVANTAGES SCRUM METHODOLOGY
● Scrum can help teams complete project deliverables quickly and efficiently.
● Scrum can help teams complete project deliverables quickly and efficiently
● Scrum ensures effective use of time and money
● Large projects are divided into easily manageable sprints
● Developments are coded and tested during the sprint review
● Works well for fast-moving development projects
● The team gets clear visibility through scrum meetings
● Scrum, being agile, adopts feedback from customers and stakeholders
● Short sprints enable changes based on feedback a lot more easily
● The individual effort of each team member is visible during daily scrum meetings
22. DISADVANTAGES SCRUM METHODOLOGY
● Scrum often leads to scope creep, due to the lack of a definite end-date
● The chances of project failure are high if individuals aren't very committed or
● Adopting the Scrum framework in large teams is challenging
● The framework can be successful only with experienced team members
● Daily meetings sometimes frustrate team members
● If any team member leaves in the middle of a project, it can have a huge negative
impact on the project
● Quality is hard to implement until the team goes through an aggressive testing process