Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes
various healing approaches and therapies that originate
from around the world
Alternative medicine includes therapies and health care
practices not widely taught in most medical schools;
however, many such practices are popular, and some are
used in hospital.
Patients are most likely to seek alternative medicine for
conditions such as chronic low back pain, stress, migraine
headaches, menopausal symptoms, cancer and arthritis.
HOLISM: The idea that the whole of the sick person, including their body,
mind and way of life, should be considered when treating them, and not just
symptom of the disease.
HUMANISM: A system of thought that considers the solving of human
problems with the help of religious beliefs. It emphasizes the fact that basic
nature of humans is good.
BALANCE: A situation in which different things exist in equal, correct or
ENERGY: The ability to put effort and enthusiasm into an activity, work etc.
HEALING: The process of returning to normal function after a period of
disease or injury
5. DEFINITION OF COMPLEMENTARY &
“Complementary and alternative medicine is a
group of diverse medical and health care systems,
practices, and products that are not generally
considered part of conventional medicine”.
7. Alternative medical systems
Ayurveda is a system of healing based on homeopathy and naturopathy,
with an extensive use of herbs. Ayurveda is a system of traditional
medicine native to the Indian subcontinent originated >5000yrs ago and
practiced in the other parts of the world as a form of alternative
medicine. In Sanskrit, the word Ayurveda consists of the word ayus,
As per the Indian heritage and science, Ayurveda is an upaveda annexure
to the main four Vedas (knowledge systems) the aim is to remove the
cause of disorder’s, prevent illness and harmonize the body mind and
consciousness, Ayurveda aids in maintaining good health
8. Specific lifestyle interventions are a major preventive and
therapeutic in Ayurveda. Each person is prescribed an
individualized diet and exercise program depending on
dosha (body) type and the nature of the underlying dosha
9. 1. Terminalia Arjuna is useful in alleviating the pain of angina
pectoris and in treating heart failure and coronary artery
2. Black pepper and long pepper are combined with ginger to
form the traditional trikatu mixture in Ayurveda.
Curanderismo is a cultural healing tradition found in Latin
it utilizes western biomedical beliefs, treatment and practices,
three levels of care are practices among curanderos (men) and
13. Botanical healing
Botanical (plant) healing are used by 80% of the world’s population. These
include herbs, aromatherapy, homeopathy, and naturopathy.
Before pharmaceutical companies existed, there was herbal medicine.
In many parts of the world, treating illness with herbs is still the only
The vast majority of herbal medicine present no danger if taken
appropriately, some can how cause side effects although herbs can be
The concept of aromatherapy was first mooted by a small
number of European scientists and doctors
The use of essential oils for therapeutic, spiritual,
hygienic and ritualistic purposes goes back to a number of
ancient civilizations including the Chinese, Indians,
Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans who used them in
cosmetics, perfumes and drugs.
A French surgeon, Jean Valnet, pioneered the medicinal
uses of essential oils, which he used as antiseptics in the
treatment of wounded soldiers during World War II
16. It can be offered as a complementary
therapy or, more controversially, as form
of alternative medicine.
Aroma therapists, who specialise in the
practice of aromatherapy, utilise blends of
therapeutic essential oils that can be issued
through topical application, massage,
inhalation or water immersion to stimulate a
Because essential oils are highly concentrated they
can irritate the skin when used in undiluted
form. Therefore, they are normally diluted with a
carrier oil for topical application, such as jojoba
oil, olive oil, or coconut oil
Phototoxic reactions may occur with citrus peel oils
such as lemon or lime
Two common oils, lavender and tea tree, have been
implicated in causing gynecomastia, an abnormal
breast tissue growth,
Some very common oils like eucalyptus are
extremely toxic when taken internally
Lemon oil is said to be uplifting and to relieve
stress. In a Japanese study, lemon essential oil in
vapour form has been found to
reduce stress in mice. Research at The Ohio
State University indicates that lemon oil aroma
may enhance one's mood, and help with relaxation.
Sage oil has been suggested to boost short-term
memory performance in many using it as a dietary
Homeopathy is a self-healing system, assisted by small doses of remedies or
medicines, which is useful in a variety of acute or chronic disorder. It was
developed by Samuel Hahnemann, a German physist and schmist in 1796. The
term "homeopathy" was coined by Hahnemann and first appeared in print in
Samuel Hahnemann Monument, Washington D.C. with "Similia Similibus Curentur" -
Like cures Like.
21. Samuel Hahnemann, originator of homeopathy
Claims "Like cures like", dilution
increases potency, disease
caused by miasms.
Related fields Alternative medicine
Year proposed 1796
Original proponents Samuel Hahnemann
Subsequent proponents James Tyler
Hering, Royal S.
22. 19th century: rise to popularity and early
Homeopathy achieved its greatest popularity in
the 19th century. It was introduced to the United
States in 1825 by Hans Birch Gram, a student of
The first homeopathic school in the US opened in
1835, and in 1844, the first US national medical
association, the American Institute of
Homeopathy, was established and throughout the
23. 1857 painting by Alexander Beydeman showing historical figures and
personifications of homeopathy observing the brutality of medicine of the 19th
24. A homeopathic preparation made from marsh
tea: the "15C" dilution shown here means the
original solution was diluted to 1/1030 of its
Homeopathic preparation Rhus toxicodendron,
derived from poison ivy.
25. Mortar and pestle used for grinding insoluble solids, such as platinum, into
Traditionally, it is taught that the siddhars laid the foundation for
this system of medication. Siddhars were spiritual adepts who
possessed the ashtasiddhis, or the eight supernatural
powers. Agastya is considered the first siddha and the guru of all
siddhars; the siddha system is believed to have been handed over to
him by Murugan, son of Shiva and Parvati.
The Siddha science is a traditional treatment system generated from
Dravidian culture. The Siddha flourished in the period of Indus Valley
civilization. Palm leaf manuscripts say that the Siddha system was
first described by Lord Shiva to his wife Parvati. Parvati explained all
this knowledge to her son Lord Muruga. He taught all these knowledge
to his disciple sage Agastya. Agastya taught 18 Siddhars and they
spread this knowledge to human beings.
28. The word Siddha comes from the Sanskrit word Siddhi
which means an object to be attained perfection or heavenly
bliss. Siddha focused to "Ashtamahasiddhi," the eight
supernatural power. Those who attained or achieved the
above said powers are known as Siddhars. There were 18
important Siddhars in olden days and they developed this
system of medicine. Hence, it is called Siddha medicine.
According to the manikandan, there were 22
principal siddhars. Of these 22, Agastya is believed to be
the father of siddha medicine. Siddhars were of the concept
that a healthy soul can only be developed through a healthy
body. So they developed methods and medication that are
believed to strengthen their physical body and thereby their
souls. Men and women who dedicated their lives into
developing the system were called Siddhars
29. Concept of disease and cause
It is assumed that when the normal equilibrium of the
three humors — Vaadham, Pittham and Kabam — is
disturbed, disease is caused. The factors assumed to
affect this equilibrium are environment, climatic
conditions, diet, physical activities, and stress. Under
normal conditions, the ratio between Vaadham, Pittham,
and Kabam are 4:2:1, respectively
According to the Siddha medicine system, diet and
lifestyle play a major role in health and in curing diseases.
This concept of the Siddha medicine is termed as
pathiyam and apathiyam, which is essentially a list of "do's
The drugs used by the Siddhars could be classified into three
groups: thavaram (herbal product), thadhu (inorganic
substances) and jangamam (animal products).] The Thadhu drugs
are further classified as: uppu (water-soluble inorganic
substances or drugs that give out vapour when put into
fire), pashanam (drugs not dissolved in water but emit vapour
when fired), uparasam (similar to pashanam but differ in
action), loham (not dissolved in water but melt when
fired), rasam (drugs which are soft), and ghandhagam (drugs
which are insoluble in water, like sulphur).
The drugs used in siddha medicine were classified on the basis
properties: suvai (taste), gunam (character), veeryam (potency),
pirivu (class) and mahimai (action).
32. According to their mode of application, the siddha
medicines could be categorized into two classes:
Internal medicine was used through the oral route
and further classified into 32 categories based on
their form, methods of preparation, shelf-life, etc.
External medicine includes certain forms of drugs
and also certain applications (such as nasal, eye and
ear drops), and also certain procedures (such
as leech application). It also classified into 32
The treatment in siddha medicine is aimed at keeping the
three humors in equilibrium and maintenance of seven
elements. So proper diet, medicine and a disciplined
regimen of life are advised for a healthy living and to
restore equilibrium of humors in diseased condition.
Saint Thiruvalluvar explains four requisites of successful
treatment. These are the patient, the attendant, physician
and medicine. When the physician is well-qualified and the
other agents possess the necessary qualities, even severe
diseases can be cured easily, according to these concepts.
35. Unani and tibba
As an alternative form of medicine, unani has found
favour in Asia, especially India. India these unani
practitioners can practice as a qualified doctors, as
the Indian government approves their practice. Unani
medicine is very close to Ayurveda, both are based on
the theory of the presence of the elements (in unani
they considered to be fire, water, earth and air) in
the human body. According to followers of unani
medicine, these elements are present in different
fluids and their balance leads to health and their
imbalance leads to illness.
Naturopathic medicine is not only a system of medicine
but also a way of life with emphasis on client
responsibility, client education, and health maintaince &
disease prevention. Naturopathic medicine hold the same
view of human physiology
The goal of treatment is the restoration of health and
normal body function rather than particular therapy.
38. The term naturopathy was coined in 1895 by John
Scheel, and purchased by Benedict Lust, the "father
of U.S. naturopathy". Lust had been schooled
in hydrotherapy and other natural health practices
in Germany by Father Sebastian Kneipp; Kneipp sent
Lust to the United States to spread his drugless
Naturopathic medicine is not only a system of
medicine but also a way of life with emphasis on client
responsibility, client education, and health maintaince
& disease prevention.
It is a system of therapy based on preventive care,
and on the use of the heat, water, light, air and
massage as primary therapies for disease
39. The following therapies are considered to be of primary
importance in the naturopathic importance of disease:
a.Nutrition and dietetic.
This includes the prescription of a balanced wholesome natural
diet based on the principles advocated by naturopathic
Fasting has recently begun gain reputation as an excellent and
safe treatment for the conditions such as obesity, high blood
pressure, arthritis and rheumatism and some psychiatric
c. Structural adjustment.
The naturopathic practioners seeks to balance and integrate the
spine, muscles, ligaments, and joints of the body this is the use of
the water, both internally and externally and externally in the
form of baths, packs, compresses, sprays.
40. d. Hydrotherapy
This is the use of water, both internally and externally in the form of
baths, packs, sprays, douches. Hydrotherapy is of value in most
conditions and rightly applied can give remarkable results in the
treatment of both acute and long standing conditions.
e. Healthy lifestyle
This includes general care one’s body, the use of moderate physical
exercise, the cultivation of positive approach to life and health,
relaxation techniques, etc.
It is naturopathic philosophy it is just as important, if not more so, to
explain to the patient why disease occurs and what patient can do for
him or herself to maintain the new, improved level of health given to
them by naturopathic treatment. In this way the patient is given
responsibility for his or her health.
Alternative medicine play an important role in our day to
day lifestyle. It helps us to maintain our equilibrium by
maintain our health by prevent us from various illness