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  4. CURRICULUM METHODS:  Teachers play a key role in students’ lives, so encouraging them to excel is our goal. 1. Be enthusiastic about your subject: 2. Create a pleasant, relaxed and enjoyable environment: A friendly environment + (memorize names), Praise 3. Use achievable and relevant materials- inclusive to reach all the students’ abilities. 4. Have high but attainable expectations for your students: Positive Feedback is must 5. Help students set achievable goals for themselves:  Failure of goals can frustrate kids, and can often loose motivation, so encouraging them
  5. CURRICULUM METHODS: 6. Vary teaching methods:  Teachers have to be creative and flexible, simply notes will bore the class, vary the assignments. (presentations, hands on, writing excercises, etc.)
  6. CURRICULUM METHODS: 7. Make students active participants in learning:  When given assignments make sure students are having fun, and make them brainstorm, role playing, debates, demonstrations, etc. (this way they will be involved.) 8. Give students a sense of control and responsibility: 9. Work from students’ strengths and interests: 10. Be caring and supportive:  If you are caring towards your students they will respect your values and opinions.  Developing a trust is important for a student teacher realtiomship.
  7. CURRICULUM METHODS: 11. Strengthen students’ self- confidence: 12. Be specific when giving negative feedback:  Negative feedback is a powerful toll when used correctly. If not this can lead to a negative and harmful environment.
  8. TEACHING METHODS:  A teaching method comprises the principles and methods used by teachers to enable student learning.  These reasoning and originality enhance creativity.  In Teacher- Centred Approach to Learning, teacher are the main authority in the vehicle, and students are viewed as “empty vessels”, who receive information passively.  In Student- Centred Approach to Learning, teachers and students are both authority figures, who play equal roles.  Common teaching methods include class participation, demonstration, recitation, memorization, etc.
  9. METHODS OF INSTRUCTIONS:  Lecturing: Students play a passive role, so it is important to engage them.  Demonstrating: Process of teaching through example or hands on experiments. May be used to prove a fact through evidence. This helps improve memorization skills.  Collaborating: Allows students to actively participate in the learning process by talking with each other and listening to other views. This makes them open- minded.  Classroom Discussion:
  10. METHODS OF INSTRUCTIONS:  Classroom Discussion  It is a type of collaborative method  It gives them a opportunity to interact and put forth their views  It enhances childs understanding, build confidence and broaden student perspective  Debriefing  It involves conversation, sharing after specific event has taken place.  It considers experiences and facilitates reflection and feedback  It helps them to transform
  11. METHODS OF INSTRUCTIONS:  Classroom Action Research  It is a method to check what works best in your own classroom so you can improve student learning. It is important to know their own strengths and weaknesses.
  12. EVOLUTION OF TEACHING METHODS  Ancient education  Medieval education  19th century – Compulsory education  20th century- New method that involve radio, t.v, internet etc
  13. DIFFERENT TEACHING METHODS  Cognitive development method  Affective development method  Psychomotor development method
  14. DIFFERENT TEACHING METHODS  Discussion  Questioning/Socratic  Team teaching method  Talk chalk method/Recitation method  Field trip/Escortion  Modelling  Simulation  Dramatic  Role playing Congitive method: Develop intellect Affective method: change in Interest/attitudes
  15. PSYCHO MOTOR DEVELOPMENT- ACTIVITY BASED  Inquiry  Discovery  Demonstration  Experimenting  Dalton plan  Project method
  16. WHEEL OF INSTRUCTIONAL CHOICE- METHODS  Discussion methods  Questioning- (Arouse interest and curiosity, get attention, channelise thinking)  Role Playing  Games and Simulation method  Demonstration method  Inquiry/Discovery method (Structured/Open discovery)
  17. TYPES OF QUESTIONS  Factual- yes or no  Convergent-Only one right response  Divergent- Deals with opinions, many answers  Evaluative- Limited to number of choices, Students have to make judgements  Combination: Spotting similarities and differences
  18. CRITERIA FOR SELECTING TEACHING METHODS  Subject matter- Content of subject determines the method  Instructional objectives- What teacher intends to achieve at the end of a lesson  Learner- Teacher has to know the learners previous knowledge, age, ability etc  Teacher- She should be familiar using different methods  Time: Duration of lectures in time table  Instructional materials: Eg- for biology we need a good equipped biology lab  Good classroom environment
  19. STAGES- WAY FORWARD METHOD  Stage 1- Be clear with the instructional objectives  Stage 2: Choose teaching method that best suits your objective  Stage 3: Check whether your students are comfortable with that method  Stage 4: Are you also comfortable using that method  Stage 5: Is your method chosen practical?  Stage 6: Will you be allowed to use the method chosen  Stage 7: Finally use the method chosen
  20. BACKWARD DESIGN- RAPLH TYLER  Here we set goals before we choose instructional methods and assessment. He starts to form goals, plan out assessment and then make lesson plans  3 stages:  Identify the results desired  Find out acceptable levels of evidence that support that desired results have occurred  Design activities that will make the desired results happen
  21. TRADITIONAL METHOD  Here the list of content to be taught is created or selected
  22. TYPES OF DESIGN  Act of designing  Differs from country to country  Time frame to achieve goals is set by physical age  It is a technology for developing learning experiences and environments that promote learning knowledge and skills by students  It yields faster and deeper levels of understanding Cirriculum design Instructional Design
  24. ASSESSMENT STAGE- WHERE APPROACH  W- Students should know where they are headiing, why they are heading, where they may go wrong, what is required then?  H- Hooking them on topic of study  E- Explore and experience ideas to understand the outcome  R- Provide opportunities to students to Rehearse, Revise and Refine  E- student evaluation
  25. MODEL OF INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN  ADDIE model of design  Dick and Carry model of design  Kemp instructional design model
  26. ADDIE  A- Analyse- those who make this develops an understanding of desired outcomes, learner knowledge and skills  D- Design –documents learning outcomes, assessment tools, content  D- Develop- Creates learning material  I- Implement- Materials that are created and distributed to the learners  E- Evaluate- Learning materials are assessed and documented
  27. DICK AND CAREY MODEL- SYSTEM APPROACH MODEL  It is made of 9 stages.  It focuses on interrelationship between context, content, learning and instruction and addresses instruction as entire system  All these 9 components work together
  28. DICK AND CAREY MODEL- SYSTEM APPROACH MODEL  Identify instructional goal  Conduct instructional analysis  Identify entry behaviors and learner characteristics  Write performance objectives  Develop assessment instruments  Develop instructional strategy  Develop and select instructional materials  Design and conduct formative evaluation of instruction  Design and conduct summative evaluation
  29. KEMP INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN MODEL  It is holistic and takes into account all factors of learning environment.  It mainly focuses on individual learner needs and goals and follows nine components
  30. KEMP INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN MODEL  Identify instructional problem and specify goals for designing an instructional program  Examine learner characteristics during planning  Identify subject content and analyse task components  State instructional objectives for the learner  Sequence content with each instructional unit for logical learning  Design instructional strategies so that each learner can master the objectives
  31. KEMP INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN MODEL  Plan instructional message and delivery  Develop evaluation instruments to assess objectives  Select resources to support instruction and learning activities  Kemp model is on smaller scale and focuses more on support and service for learners
  32. EXE- EXPERIMENTAL EDUCATION APPROACH  It says the economic way to assess quality of educational setting is to focus on : Degree of emotional well being of children, Level of involvement of adults  Zone of proximal development  10 actions points for EXE Teachers  Attention is paid to the interactions between teacher and children.  Sensitivity is addressed  Autonomy is given  Attention is paid to the outcome of education, so deep level learning and transfer of knowledge is very necessary
  33. EXE- EXPERIMENTAL EDUCATION APPROACH  It also focuses on value education and prevent criminal behavior  It stresses more on development of adult
  35. WHAT IS INSTRUCTIONAL PLANNING?  It means teachers make instructional plans by setting objectives and cirriculum. So cirriculum is put in practice, creating an environment that helps the children achieve the objectives
  36. TYPES OF INSTRUCTIONAL PLANS  Short term  Long term
  37. TYPES OF INSTRUCTIONAL PLANS  Yearly  Monthly  Weekly  Daily Long term Short term
  38. HOW IS A PLAN MADE? 3 ASPECT NECESSARY  Content of activities- what you hope children will experience  Objectives of cirriculum content- aspects expected to be developed through activities  Creation of environment
  39. HOW ARE PLANS FORMULATED?  Understanding of the child and child development  Aims and cirriculum content- Aim is to nurture emotions, will and attitude. Cirriculum content is developed with intention of achieving aims  Creation of an appropriate environment
  41. 4 STEPS TO APPLY WHEN PLANNING PRE PRIMARY CIRRICULUM  Conduct self evalaution  Know stake holders well  Design the cirriculum  Establish mechanism for cirriculum review and monitoring  This steps ensure that the children are provided with quality education services
  42. SELF EVALUATION- CONDITIONS, STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS  Institutional culture  Administrative and management structure  Staff management  Utilisation of resources
  43. KNOWING THE STAKE HOLDER  Children and parents
  44. DESIGNING THE CIRRICULUM  Be child centred – Meet child’s developmental needs and abilities and relate to childrens experiences and interests  Be comprehensive and well balanced: Cater to childs holsitic development in all areas  Adopt play as a learning strategy
  45. ESTABLISHING MECHANISMS FOR CIRRICULUM REVIEW AND MONITORING  Mechanism must be establised to collect feedback from :  Children  Teachers  Parents