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DISASTER MANAGEMENT – BASIC
CONCEPTS & FRAMEWORK



                Dr. A.D. Kaushik
   National Institute of Disaster Man...
W hat makes South Asia
        unique?
DEFINITION OF DISASTER
A SERIOUS DISRUPTION OF THE
FUNCTIONING OF A SOCIETY,
CAUSING WIDESPREAD HUMAN,
MATERIAL, OR ENVIRO...
Contd...

• THE UNITED NATION DEFINES
  DISASTER AS “THE
  OCCURRENCE OF A SUDDEN OR
  MAJOR MISFORTUNE WHICH
  DISRUPTS T...
DEFINITION OF HAZARD
A RARE OR EXTREME NATURAL
OR HUMAN-MADE EVENT THAT
THREATENS    TO   ADVERSELY
AFFECT HUMAN LIFE, PRO...
Risk
 Risk is a measure of the expected
 losses due to a hazard event of a
 particular magnitude occurring in
 a given are...
Vulnerability of India
    Indian sub-continent is amongst
    the world’s most disaster
    vulnerable areas with:
•    5...
Types of Vulnerability

•   Physical Vulnerability
•   Social Vulnerability.
•   Economic Vulnerability
•   Political
Vulner ability


                  Capacity to Cope
                    High           Low
Exposure
to Hazard High       L...
DISASTER
MANAGEMENT CYCLE
                                   Disaster

   Preparedness



                                ...
A DISASTER AS THE INTERFACE BETWEEN
     NATURAL HAZARDS AND VULNERABLE
     CONDITIONS
                               Dis...
Type of Disasters
 High Powered Committee (HPC)
 identified 33 disasters in the
 country, categorized into five sub
 group...
DISASTERS IDENTIFIED BY HPC
I.   WATER AND CLIMATE RELATED DISASTERS
1. Floods
2. Cyclones
3. Tornadoes
4. Hailstorm
5. Cl...
II. GEOLOGICALLY RELATED
DISASTERS

1. Landslides and Mudflows
2. Earthquakes
3. Dam Failures/ Dam Bursts
4. Mine Fires

I...
IV. ACCIDENT RELATED
DISASTERS

  1. For est Fir es
  2. Urban Fir es
  3. Mine Flooding
  4. Oil Spill
  5. Major Buildin...
V. BIOLOGICALLY RELATED DISASTERS


   1. Biological Disasters and Epidemics
   2. Pest Attacks
   3. Cattle Epidemics
   ...
DM POLICY FRAMEWORK:
PARADIGM SHIFT (Yokohama 1994)

• Change from response & relief centric to
  mitigation & preparednes...
NODAL MINISTRIES
• Natural Disasters (Flood, Tsunami, Cyclone,
  Earthquake etc.)- Ministry of Home Affairs
  (MHA)
• Drou...
INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISM AT
NATIONAL LEVEL
• In the event of a disaster of a severe nature, National
  Crisis Management Co...
INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISM AT
STATE LEVEL
• A State level Crisis Management Committee
  under the Chairmanship of Chief Secre...
DISASTER MANAGEMENT ACT 2005
 • The Disaster Management Act was enacted on 23rd
   December,2005. The Act provides for est...
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT
AUTHORITY (NDMA)

  National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)
   headed by the Prime Min...
NDMA Cont.

• Lay down the policies, plans and guidelines for disaster
  management.
• The National Executive Committee sh...
STATE DISASTER MANAGEMENT
AUTHORITY (SDMA)

 SDMA with eight members to be nominated by the
  Chief Minister and the Chai...
DISTRICT DISASTER MANAGEMENT
AUTHORITY (DDMA)
 The State Government shall establish a District
  Disaster Management Auth...
LOCAL AUTHORITY

 The Local Authority shall ensure training of its officers
  and employees and maintenance of resources ...
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF DISASTER
MANAGEMENT (NIDM)

The Central Government shall constitute the National
Institute of Disast...
NATIONAL DISASTER RESPONSE
FORCE (NDRF)

 A National Disaster Response Force shall be constituted
  for specialist respon...
NDRF         Cont.

 , Biological and Chemical Disasters 8 Battalion (8x
  1158) of National Response Force raised
 Each...
NATIONAL POLICY ON
DISASTER MANAGEMENT
 The National Policy on Disaster Management
  (2009) has been finalized and approv...
OBJECTIVES OF NATIONAL POLICY
    ON DISASTER MANAGEMENT
•   A holistic and pro-active approach for prevention, mitigation...
National Policy Cont.
•   Community involvement and awareness generation, particularly that
    of the vulnerable segments...
NP on DM                       Cont.
•   Standard operating procedures and disaster management plans at
    state and dist...
NATIONAL DISASTER
MANAGEMENT
STRUCTURE
MAJOR PHASES OF DISASTER
MANAGEMENT CYCLE

                                      Disaster

      Preparedness



         ...
LINKING DISASTERS AND
DEVELOPMENT
• The cause and effect relationship
  between disasters and development
  has been ignor...
The Relationship Between
Disasters and Development



       Development      Development
       can increase     can redu...
IMPACT OF DISASTER ON
DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS
               • Loss of resources
               • Interruption of
           ...
Development
can increase
vulnerability
Disaster can
provide
development
opportunities
AIMS OF DISASTER
MANAGEMENT

 • Reduce (avoid, if possible)
   the potential losses from
   hazards
 • Assure prompt and
 ...
ELEMENTS OF DISASTR
MANAGEMENT
• Disaster preparedness planning
  - Vulnerability and risk assessment
• Disaster response
...
DISASTER
 PREPAREDNESS
AIMS :
• To minimize the adverse effects of
  a hazard
• Through effective precautionary
  actions
...
DISASTER PREPAREDNESS
FRAMEWORK

Vulnerability                      Institutional
                   Planning
 Assessment ...
Hyogo Framework for
Action
• Three main Strategic Goals
 • Integration DRR in Sustainable
   Development
 • Capacity Build...
Five Action Points of
HFA
• Make DRR a priority
• Know the risk and take action
• Build Understanding and
  Awareness
• Re...
Linking issues of forestry
sector in DM
• Planning for management of forests and natural
  resources aimed at
  sustainabl...
Issues………….cont.
• Introduction and background to Global Warming &
  Climate Change
• Forest carbon stock assessment
• Man...
Major Disasters in Forests
     Forest Fire
     Epidemics
     Pest Attack
     Invasive species
     Man animal con...
Forest Fire – A Major
Disaster
INDIA
• Total Forest Area –
  77.47 m ha (FSI,
  2005)
• 3.73 m ha annually
  affected by f...
Need of Institutional Setup for For est Fir e
Mana gement (FFM) and Stakeholder s
coor dination
 National level
 •   Inspe...
T ANK
 H
 YOU
adkaushik@gmail.com
Disaster management basic concepts
Disaster management basic concepts
Disaster management basic concepts
Disaster management basic concepts
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Disaster management basic concepts

  1. 1. DISASTER MANAGEMENT – BASIC CONCEPTS & FRAMEWORK Dr. A.D. Kaushik National Institute of Disaster Management Ministry of Home Affairs, Govt. of India New Delhi-110002 adkaushik@gmail.com
  2. 2. W hat makes South Asia unique?
  3. 3. DEFINITION OF DISASTER A SERIOUS DISRUPTION OF THE FUNCTIONING OF A SOCIETY, CAUSING WIDESPREAD HUMAN, MATERIAL, OR ENVIRONMENTAL LOSSES WHICH EXCEED THE ABILITY OF THE AFFECTED SOCIETY TO COPE USING ONLY ITS OWN RESOURCES
  4. 4. Contd... • THE UNITED NATION DEFINES DISASTER AS “THE OCCURRENCE OF A SUDDEN OR MAJOR MISFORTUNE WHICH DISRUPTS THE BASIC FABRIC AND NORMAL FUNCTIONING OF A SOCIETY (COMMUNITY).”
  5. 5. DEFINITION OF HAZARD A RARE OR EXTREME NATURAL OR HUMAN-MADE EVENT THAT THREATENS TO ADVERSELY AFFECT HUMAN LIFE, PROPERTY OR ACTIVITY TO THE EXTENT OF CAUSING A DISASTER
  6. 6. Risk Risk is a measure of the expected losses due to a hazard event of a particular magnitude occurring in a given area over a specific time period. The level of risk depends upon: • Nature of the hazard. • Vulnerability of affected elements. • Economic value of affected elements.
  7. 7. Vulnerability of India Indian sub-continent is amongst the world’s most disaster vulnerable areas with: • 57% area to earthquake. • 28% to drought. • 8% to cyclones and • 12% to floods. • 18% to landslides • 50% area to forest fire
  8. 8. Types of Vulnerability • Physical Vulnerability • Social Vulnerability. • Economic Vulnerability • Political
  9. 9. Vulner ability Capacity to Cope High Low Exposure to Hazard High Low High Vulnerability Vulnerability Low Very Low Low Vulnerability Vulnerability
  10. 10. DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE Disaster Preparedness Relief Mitigation Rehabilitation Reconstruction
  11. 11. A DISASTER AS THE INTERFACE BETWEEN NATURAL HAZARDS AND VULNERABLE CONDITIONS Disaster The Progression of Vulnerability Hazard 1 2 3 Underlying Causes Dynamic pressures Unsafe conditions Lack of Poverty •Local institutions Fragile physical Trigger events Limited access to •education environment •Power structures •training •dangerous locations Disaster •Earthquake •resources •appropriate skills •dangerous buildings = •High winds •local investment and infrastructure Ideologies •local markets Vulnerability •Flooding Fragile local + •Volcanic eruption Economic systems •press freedom economy Hazard •Landslide General pre- Macro-forces •livelihoods at risk •Drought •population expansion •War, civil conflict conditioning •urbanization •low income levels •Technological factors •environmental Public actions accident •degradation
  12. 12. Type of Disasters High Powered Committee (HPC) identified 33 disasters in the country, categorized into five sub groups: • Water and Climate related disasters. • Geologically related disasters. • Chemical, Industrial & Nuclear related disasters. • Accident related disasters. • Biologically related disasters.
  13. 13. DISASTERS IDENTIFIED BY HPC I. WATER AND CLIMATE RELATED DISASTERS 1. Floods 2. Cyclones 3. Tornadoes 4. Hailstorm 5. Cloud Burst 6. Heat Wave and Cold Wave 7. Snow Avalanches 8. Droughts 9. Sea Erosion 10. Thunder and Lightning 11. Tsunami (added ?)
  14. 14. II. GEOLOGICALLY RELATED DISASTERS 1. Landslides and Mudflows 2. Earthquakes 3. Dam Failures/ Dam Bursts 4. Mine Fires III. CHEMICAL, INDUSTRIAL AND NUCLEAR • Chemical and Industrial Disasters • Nuclear Disasters
  15. 15. IV. ACCIDENT RELATED DISASTERS 1. For est Fir es 2. Urban Fir es 3. Mine Flooding 4. Oil Spill 5. Major Building Collapse 6. Serial Bomb Blasts 7. Festival r elated disaster s 8. Electrical Disaster s and Fir es 9. Air, Road and Rail Accidents 10. Boat Capsizing 11. V illa ge Fir e
  16. 16. V. BIOLOGICALLY RELATED DISASTERS 1. Biological Disasters and Epidemics 2. Pest Attacks 3. Cattle Epidemics 4. Food Poisoning
  17. 17. DM POLICY FRAMEWORK: PARADIGM SHIFT (Yokohama 1994) • Change from response & relief centric to mitigation & preparedness • Multi dimensional , multi sectoral and Multi Tier approach with emphasis on incorporating risk reduction measures in development planning
  18. 18. NODAL MINISTRIES • Natural Disasters (Flood, Tsunami, Cyclone, Earthquake etc.)- Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) • Drought-Ministry of Agriculture • Biological Disasters-Ministry of Health and Family Welfare • Chemical Disasters-Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) • Forest related Disasters- MoEF • Nuclear Disasters-Ministry of Atomic Energy • Air Accidents-Ministry of Civil Aviation • Railway Accidents-Ministry of Railways….
  19. 19. INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISM AT NATIONAL LEVEL • In the event of a disaster of a severe nature, National Crisis Management Committee under Cabinet Secretary gives policy directions and guidelines to the Crisis Management Group where national/international efforts are required. • Crisis Management Group in MHA reviews the situation in Inter-Ministerial meetings to coordinate various emergency support functions for the affected States. • Union Cabinet may set up a Cabinet Committee/Task Force/GoM for effective coordination of relief measures in the wake of calamities of severe nature.
  20. 20. INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISM AT STATE LEVEL • A State level Crisis Management Committee under the Chairmanship of Chief Secretary is responsible for emergency management • The committee comprises of concerned functionaries in various State Departments and representatives of Central Organizations located in the State. • State Relief/Disaster Management Commissioner is the Nodal Officer for Coordinating the activities for relief operations in the event of natural disasters
  21. 21. DISASTER MANAGEMENT ACT 2005 • The Disaster Management Act was enacted on 23rd December,2005. The Act provides for establishment of • NDMA (National Disaster Management Authority) • SDMA (State Disaster Management Authority) • DDMA (District Disaster Management Authority) • Act provides for constitution of Disaster Response Fund and Disaster Mitigation Fund at National, State and District level. • Establishment of NIDM and NDRF. • Provides penalties for obstruction, false claims, misappropriation etc. • There shall be no discrimination on the ground of sex, caste, community, descent or religion in providing compensation and relief.
  22. 22. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY (NDMA)  National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) headed by the Prime Minister with up to a maximum of nine members nominated by Prime Minister.  The Authority may constitute an Advisory Committee consisting of experts in the field of disaster management.  The Authority shall be assisted by a National Executive Committee of Secretaries to be constituted by Central Government.
  23. 23. NDMA Cont. • Lay down the policies, plans and guidelines for disaster management. • The National Executive Committee shall prepare a National Disaster Management Plan in consultation with the State Governments. • The National Plan shall include measures for • prevention and mitigation of disasters, • integration of mitigation measures in the plans, • preparedness and capacity building. • NDMA shall recommend guidelines for the minimum standards of relief provided to persons affected by disaster
  24. 24. STATE DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY (SDMA)  SDMA with eight members to be nominated by the Chief Minister and the Chairperson of the State Executive Committee.  One of the members may be designated as the Vice- Chairperson of the State Authority by the Chief Minister.  SDMA may constitute an Advisory Committee of experts, as and when necessary.
  25. 25. DISTRICT DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY (DDMA)  The State Government shall establish a District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA) in each district.  The District Authority will be headed by District Magistrate and shall consist of members, not exceeding seven, as may be prescribed by the State Government.  The District Authority shall act as the district planning, coordinating and implementing body for disaster management.
  26. 26. LOCAL AUTHORITY  The Local Authority shall ensure training of its officers and employees and maintenance of resources so as to be readily available for use in the event of a disaster.  Ensure that all construction projects under it conform to the standards and specifications laid down.  Carry out relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction activities in the affected area within its jurisdiction.
  27. 27. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT (NIDM) The Central Government shall constitute the National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) , Chapter 7 of DM Act NIDM shall:  plan and promote training and research in disaster management  Start documentation, development of national level information base of disaster management policies, prevention mechanisms, mitigation measures.  Networking
  28. 28. NATIONAL DISASTER RESPONSE FORCE (NDRF)  A National Disaster Response Force shall be constituted for specialist response.  The general superintendence and direction of the Force shall be vested in and exercised by the National Authority.  Command and supervision of the Force shall vest in an officer to be appointed by the Central Government as the Director General of the NDRF
  29. 29. NDRF Cont.  , Biological and Chemical Disasters 8 Battalion (8x 1158) of National Response Force raised  Each battalion consist of 18 specialist response team besides other supporting staff  Each Specialist Response Team of 45 persons comprising 4 SAR Team 1 Medical Support Team 1 Technical Support Team 1 Dog Squad  Each battalion to have 1 diving and 1 Water Rescue Team  Four of these battalion to specialize on Nuclear
  30. 30. NATIONAL POLICY ON DISASTER MANAGEMENT  The National Policy on Disaster Management (2009) has been finalized and approved by Home Minister.  Inter-Ministerial consultation process has been completed.  The Policy is now under consideration of NDMA.  Draft Policy lays down the roadmap/direction for all Government endeavors.
  31. 31. OBJECTIVES OF NATIONAL POLICY ON DISASTER MANAGEMENT • A holistic and pro-active approach for prevention, mitigation and preparedness will be adopted for disaster management. • Each Ministry/Department of the Central/State Government will set apart an appropriate quantum of funds under the Plan for specific schemes/projects addressing vulnerability reduction and preparedness. • Where there is a shelf of projects, projects addressing mitigation will be given priority. Mitigation measures shall be built into the on-going schemes/programmes • Each project in a hazard prone area will have mitigation as an essential term of reference. The project report will include a statement as to how the project addresses vulnerability reduction
  32. 32. National Policy Cont. • Community involvement and awareness generation, particularly that of the vulnerable segments of population and women has been emphasized as necessary for sustainable disaster risk reduction. This is a critical component of the policy since communities are the first responders to disasters and, therefore, unless they are empowered and made capable of managing disasters, any amount of external support cannot lead to optimal results. • There will be close interaction with the corporate sector, nongovernmental organizations and the media in the national efforts for disaster prevention/vulnerability reduction. • Institutional structures/appropriate chain of command will be built up and appropriate training imparted to disaster managers at various levels to ensure coordinated and quick response at all levels; and development of inter-State arrangements for sharing of resources during emergencies. • A culture of planning and preparedness is to be inculcated at all levels for capacity building measures.
  33. 33. NP on DM Cont. • Standard operating procedures and disaster management plans at state and district levels as well as by relevant central government departments for handling specific disasters will be laid down. • Construction designs must correspond to the requirements as laid down in relevant Indian Standards. • All lifeline buildings in seismic zones III, IV & V – hospitals, railway stations, airports/airport control towers, fire station buildings, bus stands major administrative centre will need to be evaluated and, if necessary, retro-fitted. • The existing relief codes in the States will be revised to develop them into disaster management codes/manuals for institutionalizing the planning process with particular attention to mitigation and preparedness.
  34. 34. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE
  35. 35. MAJOR PHASES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE Disaster Preparedness Relief Mitigation Rehabilitation Reconstruction
  36. 36. LINKING DISASTERS AND DEVELOPMENT • The cause and effect relationship between disasters and development has been ignored • Disasters were seen in the context of emergency response • Development programs were not assessed in the context of disasters • Communities under disaster stress were seen as too turbulent for development initiatives
  37. 37. The Relationship Between Disasters and Development Development Development can increase can reduce vulnerability vulnerability Disaster can Disaster set back can provide development development opportunities
  38. 38. IMPACT OF DISASTER ON DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS • Loss of resources • Interruption of programs • Negative impact on investment Disaster can climate set back • Disruption of the development non-formal sector • Political destabilization
  39. 39. Development can increase vulnerability
  40. 40. Disaster can provide development opportunities
  41. 41. AIMS OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT • Reduce (avoid, if possible) the potential losses from hazards • Assure prompt and appropriate assistance to victims when necessary • Achieve rapid and durable recovery
  42. 42. ELEMENTS OF DISASTR MANAGEMENT • Disaster preparedness planning - Vulnerability and risk assessment • Disaster response - Disaster assessment • Rehabilitation & reconstruction • Disaster mitigation
  43. 43. DISASTER PREPAREDNESS AIMS : • To minimize the adverse effects of a hazard • Through effective precautionary actions • To ensure timely, appropriate, and efficient organization and delivery of relief
  44. 44. DISASTER PREPAREDNESS FRAMEWORK Vulnerability Institutional Planning Assessment Framework Information Resource Warning Systems Base Systems Response Public Education Rehearsals Mechanisms and Training
  45. 45. Hyogo Framework for Action • Three main Strategic Goals • Integration DRR in Sustainable Development • Capacity Building-Resilience to hazards • Systematic incorporation of risk reduction approaches in to the emergency preparedness, response and recovery programmes
  46. 46. Five Action Points of HFA • Make DRR a priority • Know the risk and take action • Build Understanding and Awareness • Reduce Risk • Be prepared and Ready to Act
  47. 47. Linking issues of forestry sector in DM • Planning for management of forests and natural resources aimed at sustainable development • Ecosystem approach to resource management • Public participation and partnerships in natural resource management • Non-timber forest produce management • Poverty Alleviation and addressing livelihood concerns through forestry • Co-op Management, Micro-enterprises functioning, Micro-credit and Institutional finance • Forestry Extension
  48. 48. Issues………….cont. • Introduction and background to Global Warming & Climate Change • Forest carbon stock assessment • Managing forestry eco-system as carbon pool • Carbon mitigation potential- case studies from farm/forest lands • Preparation and Development of Clean Development Mechanisms Projects under Kyoto Protocol • Trees outside forests : Agro-forestry, Urban Forestry, Landscape planning and management • Damage assessment to disasters in forestry sector (flood, landslide,forest fire, avalanches, tsunami, pest attack and sea erosion)
  49. 49. Major Disasters in Forests  Forest Fire  Epidemics  Pest Attack  Invasive species  Man animal conflict  Climate change induced disaster s  Gre garious flowering of bamboo ???  Ear thquake  Landslide  Floods / Flash flood  Drought  Cloudbur st / Hailstor ms  Avalanches
  50. 50. Forest Fire – A Major Disaster INDIA • Total Forest Area – 77.47 m ha (FSI, 2005) • 3.73 m ha annually affected by fire • Almost 50% of area prone to fire • 0.84% - very heavy fire • 0.14% - heavy fire • 5.16% - frequent fire • 43.06% - occasional fire
  51. 51. Need of Institutional Setup for For est Fir e Mana gement (FFM) and Stakeholder s coor dination National level • Inspector General Forest Fire be assisted by- • International organisations • NDMA • DM Division, GOI • FSI • FRI • DIG & AIG Forest Fire • AIG – Air operation Wing & • Regional offices of MoEF State level • CCF (CCFF – State) be assisted by – • FSI • SDMA & DM Department • DDMA • CF (Forest Fire) • Divisional Forest Officer & Range Officer
  52. 52. T ANK H YOU adkaushik@gmail.com
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