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CE-287 – Collaborative SystemsChapter 7Designing collaborative applications   Msc. Mauro Pichiliani   Email: pichilia@ita....
GOAL Present important topics about models, design,   awareness, and architectures of synchronous           collaborative ...
OVERVIEW   Models   Beyong Being There   Desining synchronous CSCW   Awareness   Approaches   Architectures   Demon...
MODELS – CSCW MATRIXTime x Space [Ellis 91]                          Time x Space x Previsibility [Grudin 94]             ...
MODELS                  3C Collaboration                            model  Prisioner’s dilemma                            ...
BEYOND BEING THERE   A seminal paper by Hollan and Stornetta [Holland and    Stornetta 91]   Question: “(…) those at a d...
DESINING – WHY CSCW APPS FAIL?   [Grudin 88] discussed problems in the design and    evalution of organizational interfac...
DESINING – COMMONCHARACTERISTICS   Synchronous CSCW has some well-know and    common characteristics [Ellis et al. 89]: ...
DESINING CSCW – 8 CHALLENGES   [Grudin 94] list 8 challenges for CSCW developers:   1. Disparity in work and benefit   ...
DESINING CSCW – APPROCHES   Ad hoc implementation   Toolkits [Greenberg & Roseman 98]   Component-based approches [Bego...
AWARENESS – EARLY STUDIES   [Heath & Luff 92] studied the coordination of    activities of London Control Rooms (trains)...
AWARENESS – SHARED WORKSPACES Awareness: “(…) understanding of the activities  of others, which provides a context for yo...
AWARENESS – WIDGETS (1)      a) Telecarets          b) Telepointers       c) Multi-user scrollbars       [Telecarets]     ...
AWARENESS – WIDGETS (2)    DragMag View [DMG]              Two-level view [TLV] Audio cues [Gaver 91], [Kansas 2008] Wid...
AWARENESS – TELEEYE    MOO [Pichiliani et al. 2008]:                                     Two users wearing the MOO eye Tr...
ARCHITECTURES “The architecture of a collaborative application is characterized by    the modules, layers, replicas, thre...
ARCHITECTURES – EXAMPLES                          PAC* architectural model                                [Galvary 97]    ...
ARCHITECTURES – DISTRIBUTION   Distributed system aspects in the architecture for    synchronous groupware [Phillips 99]:...
ARCHITECTURES – MVC ACHITECTURES   A classification of architectures in the MVC    architectural style [Suthers 2001]:   ...
APPLICATIONS – DEMONSTRATIONArgoUML [Pichiliani & Hirata 2006]          CoPhysics Illustrator [Pichiliani & Hirata 2009]  ...
CONCLUSIONS   Collaboration models help the design from the    theoretical point of view   Designers must provide more t...
REFERENCES – ITA CSCW   [Pichiliani & Hirata 2006] Pichiliani, Mauro C., Hirata, Celso M. A Guide to map application comp...
REFERENCES – GENERAL (1)   [Begole et al. 99] Begole, J. C. A., Rosson, M. B., Shaffer, C. A.: Flexible collaboration tra...
REFERENCES – GENERAL (2)   [Heath & Luff 91] Heath, C., Luff, P. Collaborative Activity and Technological Design: Task Co...
REFERENCES – GENERAL (3)   [Telecarets] Greenberg, S., Marwood, D.: Real Time Groupware as a Distributed System: Concurre...
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Chapter 7 - Desining CSCW applications

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Chapter 7 - Desining CSCW applications

  1. 1. CE-287 – Collaborative SystemsChapter 7Designing collaborative applications Msc. Mauro Pichiliani Email: pichilia@ita.br @pichiliani http://pichiliani.com.br
  2. 2. GOAL Present important topics about models, design, awareness, and architectures of synchronous collaborative applications
  3. 3. OVERVIEW Models Beyong Being There Desining synchronous CSCW Awareness Approaches Architectures Demonstrations Conclusions
  4. 4. MODELS – CSCW MATRIXTime x Space [Ellis 91] Time x Space x Previsibility [Grudin 94] Time x Space x Group size [Nunamaker 91]
  5. 5. MODELS 3C Collaboration model Prisioner’s dilemma 3C Collaboration model
  6. 6. BEYOND BEING THERE A seminal paper by Hollan and Stornetta [Holland and Stornetta 91] Question: “(…) those at a distance will be at no real disadvantage to those colocated?” Not about the quality, but about the imitation of the ‘being there’ felling Analogy: crutches (broken leg) x shoes (enhance performance) Other characteristics: anonymity, semisynchronous discussions, feedback, archiving, and others
  7. 7. DESINING – WHY CSCW APPS FAIL? [Grudin 88] discussed problems in the design and evalution of organizational interfaces: Disparity among user’s benefits and extra work Problems with intuitive decision-making (managers) Underestimating dificulty of evaluting CSCW applications
  8. 8. DESINING – COMMONCHARACTERISTICS Synchronous CSCW has some well-know and common characteristics [Ellis et al. 89]: Short response times Real-time notifications Distributed environment Volatile participation Ad hoc information access High degree of access conflicts Connection by external channel (audio or video)
  9. 9. DESINING CSCW – 8 CHALLENGES [Grudin 94] list 8 challenges for CSCW developers: 1. Disparity in work and benefit 2. Critical mass and the Prisioner’s dilemma problems 3. Disruption of social processes 4. Exception handling 5. Unobtrusive accessibility 6. Difficulty in evaluation 7. Failure of intuition 8. The adoption process
  10. 10. DESINING CSCW – APPROCHES Ad hoc implementation Toolkits [Greenberg & Roseman 98] Component-based approches [Begole et al. 99] Collaboration Transparent Systems (CTS)  Screen sharing – 1º generation [MS NetMeeting]  Intelligent Collaboration Transparency (ICT) and ICT 2 – 2º generation [Li & Li 2002] Transparent Adaptation (T.A.) [Xia et al. 2004] Mapping of Components [Pichiliani & Hirata 2006]
  11. 11. AWARENESS – EARLY STUDIES [Heath & Luff 92] studied the coordination of activities of London Control Rooms (trains) Two actors: Line controller’s and DIA Seat side by side without direct communication Awareness by indirect interation: listen to conversations, gaze direction, monitoring displays, and indirect cues Implicit actions to coordinate the tasks: unobtrusive awareness Many implications for the design of CSCW applications Social focus on communication and coordination
  12. 12. AWARENESS – SHARED WORKSPACES Awareness: “(…) understanding of the activities of others, which provides a context for your own activity.” [Dourish & Bellotti 92] Argue that the user must not explicit provide awareness information Focus on synchronous collaborative writing systems (ShrEdit) Shared feedback: Information about individual activities by presenting feedback on operations within the shared workspace [Greenberg et al. 96]
  13. 13. AWARENESS – WIDGETS (1) a) Telecarets b) Telepointers c) Multi-user scrollbars [Telecarets] [Telepointers] [MUS]d) RadarView [Radar] e) Read and Write Shadows f) FishEyeView [RWS] [FishE]
  14. 14. AWARENESS – WIDGETS (2) DragMag View [DMG] Two-level view [TLV] Audio cues [Gaver 91], [Kansas 2008] Widgets x Focus of attention Few studies about gaze awareness in CSCW. Example: [Vertegal & Ding 2002]
  15. 15. AWARENESS – TELEEYE  MOO [Pichiliani et al. 2008]: Two users wearing the MOO eye Tracker Hardware User’s A Workspace User’s B WorkspaceIris detection application
  16. 16. ARCHITECTURES “The architecture of a collaborative application is characterized by the modules, layers, replicas, threads, and processes into which the application is decomposed; the awareness in these components of collaboration functions; and the interaction among these components.” [Dewan 99] Decomposition of the system into components Synchronous, Assynchronous, Multi-synchronous and Quasi-synchronous WYSIWIS x relaxed WYSIWIS x WYSIWYG Many architectural models
  17. 17. ARCHITECTURES – EXAMPLES PAC* architectural model [Galvary 97] Clover architectural model [Laurillau 2002] Generic Collaborationarchitecture [Dewan 95]
  18. 18. ARCHITECTURES – DISTRIBUTION Distributed system aspects in the architecture for synchronous groupware [Phillips 99]: Centralized: “(…)application on a single server and only the display services are found at the users’ sites.” Replicated: “(…) all data and computation is replicated at all sites” Semi-replicated: “(…) some aspects of computation and state are replicated while others are centralized.” Flexible: “(…) adjust the run time distribution architecture to suit application needs.” Many variations of these basic distribution architectures
  19. 19. ARCHITECTURES – MVC ACHITECTURES A classification of architectures in the MVC architectural style [Suthers 2001]: Centralized architecture Replicated architecture Distributed architecture Hybrid architecture
  20. 20. APPLICATIONS – DEMONSTRATIONArgoUML [Pichiliani & Hirata 2006] CoPhysics Illustrator [Pichiliani & Hirata 2009] CoTuxGuitar [Pichiliani & Hirata 2009]
  21. 21. CONCLUSIONS Collaboration models help the design from the theoretical point of view Designers must provide more than the immitation of face to face meetings Design of synchronous applications have many challenges (and opportunities) Awareness is a central focus for communication, coordination and cooperation Different approches for developer synchronous CSCW applications Architectures help organize and distribute the components
  22. 22. REFERENCES – ITA CSCW [Pichiliani & Hirata 2006] Pichiliani, Mauro C., Hirata, Celso M. A Guide to map application components to support multi-user real-time collaboration. Second International Conference on Collaborative Computing: Networking, Applications and Worksharing (CollaborateCom 2006), Georgia, Atlanta, EUA, Novembro de 2006. [Pichiliani & Hirata 2007] Pichiliani, Mauro C., Hirata, Celso M. Multi-Level Locks to Control Collaborative Modeling Sessions. Third International Conference on Collaborative Computing: Networking, Applications and Worksharing (CollaborateCom 2007), White Plains, New York, EUA, Novembro de 2007. [Pichiliani et al. 2008] Pichiliani, Mauro C., Hirata, Celso M., Soares, Fabricio S., Forster, Carlos H. Q. TeleEye: an Awareness Widget for providing the Focus of Attention in Collaborative Editing Systems. Forth International Conference on Collaborative Computing: Networking, Applications and Worksharing (CollaborateCom 2008), Orlando, Florida, EUA, Novembro de 2008. [Pichiliani & Hirata 2009] Pichiliani, Mauro C., Hirata, Celso M. A Technical Comparison of the Existing Approaches to Support Collaboration in Non-Collaborative Applications. Proceedings of the 2009 International Symposium on Collaborative Technologies and Systems (CTS 2009), Baltimore, Maryland, EUA, Maio de 2009, pp. 314-321. [Berkenbrock et al. 2009] Berkenbrock, Carla D. M., Hirata, Celso M. , Fernandes, Clovis T., Pichiliani, Mauro C. Requisitos de Usabilidade para o Desenvolvimento e Avaliação de Aplicações Cooperativas Móveis. Artigo publicado no VI Simpósio Brasileiro de Sistemas Colaborativos (SBSC), pp.10-18, Fortaleza, Outubro de 2009. [Pichiliani & Hirata 2009] Pichiliani, Mauro C., Hirata, Celso M., A Digital Ink Sketch-Based Application for Collaborative Design and Kinematic Simulation. Artigo publicado no VI Simpósio Brasileiro de Sistemas Colaborativos (SBSC), pp. 1-9, Fortaleza, Outubro de 2009. [Pichiliani & Hirata 2009] Pichiliani, Mauro C., Hirata, Celso M. A Tabletop Groupware System for Computer-based Music Composition. Fifth International Conference on Collaborative Computing: Networking, Applications and Worksharing (CollaborateCom 2009), Washington D. C., EUA, Novembro de 2009. [Berkenbrock et al. 2010] Berkenbrock, C., Silva, A. P. C., Hirata C. M., Fernandes, C., Pichiliani, M.C. Investigando o Anonimato de Usuários num Ambiente Colocalizado utilizando um Groupware Móvel. Artigo publicado no VII Simpósio Brasileiro de Sistemas Colaborativos (SBSC), Minas Gerais, Outubro de 2010.
  23. 23. REFERENCES – GENERAL (1) [Begole et al. 99] Begole, J. C. A., Rosson, M. B., Shaffer, C. A.: Flexible collaboration transparency: supporting worker independence in replicated application sharing systems. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 6, pp. 95-132 (1999) [Ellis et al. 89] ELLIS, Clarence; GIBBS, S. J. Concurrency control in groupware system. In: Proceedings of the 1989 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of data (SIGMOD89), San Diego, Califórnia, E.U.A., p.399-407, 1989. [Ellis 91] ] ELLIS, Clarence; GIBBS, S. J; REIN, G. L. Groupware: some issues and experiences. Communications of the ACM, v.34, n.1, p.38-58, jan., 1991. [Dewan 95] DEWAN, Prasun. Multiuser architectures. In: Proceedings of the IFIP TC2/WG2.7 Working Conference on Engineering for Human-Computer Interaction, p.247-270, 1995. [Dewan 99] Dewan, P. . Computer Supported Co-Operative Work. 1, ed. Nova York: John Wiley & Sons, 1999. Chapter 7 [DMG] Gutwin, C., Greenberg, S.: Focus and Awareness in Groupware. In: Video Proceedings of the 7th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Washington, U.S.A. (1998) [FishE] Greenberg, S., Gutwin, C., Cockburn, A.: Awareness Through Fisheye Views in Relaxed-WYSIWIS Groupware. In: Proceedings of the 1996 Graphics Interface, pp. 28-38, Toronto, Canada (1996) [Galvary 97] CALVARY, Gaëlle; COUTAZ Joëlle; NIGAY, Laurence. From single-user architectural design to PAC*: A generic software architecture model for CSCW. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human factors in computing systems, p.242-249, 1997. [Gaver 91] Gaver, W. W.: Sound Support for Collaboration. In: Proceedings of the 2nd European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, pp. 293-308, Amsterdam, Netherlands (1991) [Greenberg & Roseman 98] Greenberg, S., Roseman, M.: Groupware Toolkits for Synchronous Work. John Wiley & Sons, New York (1998) [Grudin 88] Grudin, J. Why CSCW applications fail: Problems in the design and evaluation of organizational interfaces. 1988. Proc. CSCW 88, 31, 85-93. [Grudin 94] GRUDIN, Jonhatan. Computer Supported Collaborative Work: History and Focus, IEEE Computer, vol.27, n.5, p.19-26, 1994.
  24. 24. REFERENCES – GENERAL (2) [Heath & Luff 91] Heath, C., Luff, P. Collaborative Activity and Technological Design: Task Coordination in London Underground Control Rooms. Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Computer- Supported Cooperative Work, Bannon, L., Robinson, M. & Schmidt, K. (Editors) September 25-27,1991, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. [Holland and Stornetta 92] Hollan, J., Stornetta, S. Beyond being there. Proceeding CHI 92 Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems Pages 119 – 125 ACM New York, NY, USA ©1992 [Kansas 2008] The Kansas Project, http://research.sun.com/ics/kansas.html [Laurillau 2002] LAURILLAU, Yann; NIGAY, Laurence. Clover Architecture for Groupware. In: Proceedings of the 8th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW02), New Orleans, Lousiana, E.U.A., p.236-245, 2002. [Li & Li 2002] Li, D., Li, R.: Transparent sharing and interoperation of heterogeneous single-user applications. In: Proceedings of the 5th ACM CSCW Conference. New York, USA, pp. 246-255 (2002) [MS NetMeeting] Windows Meeting Space, http://windows.microsoft.com/en-US/windows-vista/What-is- Windows-Meeting-Space [MUS] Hill, J., Gutwin, C.: The MAUI Toolkit: Groupware Widgets for Group Awareness. Journal of Computer Supported Cooperative Work, vol. 13 number 5-6, 539-571 (2004) [Nunamaker 91] NUNAMAKER, Jay F; DENNIS, Alan R; VALACICH, Joseph S; VOGEL, Douglas R; GEORGE, Joey F. Electronic Meeting Systems to Support Group Work: Theory;Practice at Arizona, Communication of the ACM, vol.34, n.7, p.40-61, 1991. [Phillips 99] Phillips, W. G. Architectures for Synchronous Groupware. Technical Report 1999-425. Department of Computing and Information Science Queen’s University. [Radar] Greenberg, S., Roseman, M.: Groupware Toolkits for Synchronous Work. John Wiley & Sons, New York (1998) [RWS] Sasa, J., Dewan, P., Rui, Y.: Read, Write, and Navigation Awareness in Realistic Multi-View Collaborations. In: Proceedings of the 3nd International Conference on Collaborative Computing: Networking, Applications and Worksharing, pp. 494-503, New York, U.S.A. (2007) [Suthers 2001] SUTHERS, Daniel D. Architectures for Computer Supported Collaborative Learning. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2001), New Orleans, Lousiana, E.U.A., p.6-8, 2001.
  25. 25. REFERENCES – GENERAL (3) [Telecarets] Greenberg, S., Marwood, D.: Real Time Groupware as a Distributed System: Concurrency Control and its Effect on the Interface. In: Proceedings of the 5th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, pp. 207-217, North Caroline, U.S.A (1994) [Telepointers] Greenberg, S., Gutwin, C., Roseman, M.: Semantic Telepointers for Groupware. In: Proceedings of the 6th Australian Conference on Computer-Human Interaction, pp. 24-27, Hamilton, New Zealand (1996) [Vertegal & Ding 2002] Vertegaal, R., Ding, Y.: Explaining Effects of Eye Gaze on Mediated Group Conversations: Amount or Synchronization? In: Proceedings of the 9th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, pp. 41-48, Louisiana, U.S.A. (2002) [TLV] Greenberg, S., Roseman, M.: Groupware Toolkits for Synchronous Work. John Wiley & Sons, New York (1998) [Xia et al. 2004] Xia, S., Sun, D., Sun, C., Chen, D., Shen, H.: “Leveraging single-user applications for multi-user collaboration: the CoWord approach. In: Proceedings of 9th ACM CSCW Conference. Chicago, USA, pp. 162-171 (2004)

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