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A survery of kingdom animalia

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Chordates:
 3 subphylums:
o Cephalochordata
o Urochordata
o Vertebrata, including fish
• Class Agnatha
• Class Chondricht...
№1
№2
(Головохордовые, бесчерепные)
Characteristics:
• don’t have a “head.”
• marine animals, live in the muddy ocean floo...
(make up about 4% of all described animal species, 50,000 species)
Characteristics:
• have a definite head
• nerve cord is...
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A survery of kingdom animalia

  1. 1. Chordates:  3 subphylums: o Cephalochordata o Urochordata o Vertebrata, including fish • Class Agnatha • Class Chondrichthyes • Class Osteichthyes Only subphylum Urochordata and Cephalochordata are invertebrates. All chordates have a number of structures in common: • A notochord (noto = the back; chord = string) is present in all embryos, and may be present or absent/reduced in adults. This is the structure for which the phylum was named. • A dorsal, hollow, ectodermal nerve cord typically forms by an infolding of the ectoderm tissue, which then “pinches off” and becomes surrounded by mesoderm. Spinal bifida is the failure of the nervous system to close. • The pharangeal slits (pharynx = throat) originally functioned in filter feeding: water is taken into the mouth and let out via the pharangeal slits. The slits filter out food particles and keep them in the animal’s body so they can be put into the digestive tract. In fish, these have become modified as gills, and in humans as our ears and eustachian tubes. • A postanal tail (post = behind, after; anal refers to the anus) is present and extends behind the anus in many taxa, thus the anus isn’t at posterior tip of body. In humans, the tail is present during embryonic development, but is subsequently resorbed. Subphylum Cephalochordata (cephalo = head)
  2. 2. №1 №2 (Головохордовые, бесчерепные) Characteristics: • don’t have a “head.” • marine animals, live in the muddy ocean floor • segmented • possess elongated bodies with a notochord that extends into the head, one inch long • no bones • retain the notochord throughout their lives Families: • Family Asymmetronidæ  Genus Asymmetron  Genus Epigonichthys • Family Branchiostomidæ (Ланце́тниковые)  Genus Branchiostoma (branchio = gill, fish; stoma = mouth) which was formerly know as genus Amphioxus (amphi = on both sides, double) Urochordata or subphylum Tunicata (Оболо́чники) Characteristics: • marine filter feeders with a saclike morphology • Most adult tunicates are sessile and attached to rocks or similarly suitable surfaces on the ocean floor • others such as salps, doliolids and pyrosomes swim in the pelagic zone • they do not develop very clear coelomic body-cavities if any at all • organs are enclosed in a membrane called an epicardium Classes: • Ascidiacea (Асци́дии)( Aplousobranchia №1, Phlebobranchia №2, and Stolidobranchia №3) • Thaliacea (Са́льпы)(Pyrosomida №4, Doliolida №5, and Salpida №6) • Appendicularia (Аппендикуля́рии)(Larvacea №7) • Sorberacea №8 Subphylum Vertebrata №3 №4 №5 №6 №7 №8
  3. 3. (make up about 4% of all described animal species, 50,000 species) Characteristics: • have a definite head • nerve cord is enlarged into a brain which typically consists of five vesicles • vertebrae, hollow structures which combine to make the spinal column, replaces the notochord as an axial support for muscles • a closed circulatory system with a ventral heart • have a well developed coelom which contains the viscera • excretion via kidneys • separate males and females with sexual reproduction in most Classes: • Class Agnatha (Бесчелюстные) (a- = not, without; gnatho = jaw) which is the lampreys • Class Chondrichthyes (Хрящевы́е ры́бы) (chondro = cartilage; ichthys = fish) which includes sharks and rays. • Class Osteichthyes (Ко́стные ры́бы) (osteo = bone) is the bony fish • Class Amphibia (Земново́дные) (amphi = on both sides, double; bios = life) is frogs, newts, and salamanders • Class Reptilia (reptili = creeping) is the dinosaurs: snakes, turtles, crocodiles, and lizards
  4. 4. • Class Aves (avi = a bird) is the birds Invertebrate Phyla Characteristics: • absence of a vertebral column • multicellular • generally have bodies composed of differentiated tissues • like vertebrates, most invertebrates reproduce at least partly through sexual reproduction • no cell walls • most invertebrates can move • Class Mammalia (mamma, mammil = teat, nipple) is the mammals
  5. 5. • most invertebrates are organized symmetrically • heterotrophic . Sponges are animals of the phylum Porifera (Губки) Characteristics: • Multi-celled immobile animals, heterotrophic • Lack cell walls and produce sperm cells, lack true tissues and organs, and have no body symmetry • Water intake and outlet openings connected by chambers lined with choanocytes • All known living sponges can remold their bodies; few can change from one type to another • Bodies consist of a non-living jelly-like mass sandwiched between two main layers of cells. • Sponges have no nervous systems Classes: • Calcareous sponges (Известко́вые гу́бки) are characterized by spicules (are tiny spike-like structures of diverse origin and function) made out of calcium carbonate in the form of calcite or aragonite. While the spicules in most species have three points, in some species they have either two or four points. • Hexactinellid sponges (Шестилучевые губки) are sponges with a skeleton made of four- and/or six-pointed siliceous spicules, often referred to as glass sponges. They are usually classified along with other sponges in the phylum Porifera, Mesohyl Pinacocyte Choanocyte Lophocyte Porocyte Oocyte Archeocyte Sclerocyte Spicule Water flow
  6. 6. but some researchers consider them sufficiently distinct to deserve their own phylum, Symplasma. • Demospongiae (Обыкнове́нные гу́бки) are the largest class in the phylum Porifera. Their "skeletons" are made of spicules consisting of fibers of the protein spongin, the mineral silica (silicon dioxide), or both. Where spicules of silica are present, they have a different shape from those in the otherwise similar glass sponges. The demosponges include 90% of all species of sponges and are predominantly leuconoid in structure. • Homoscleromorpha is a class of marine sponges composed of two families: Plakinidae and Oscarellidae. Phylum Cnidaria or Coelenterata (Стрека́ющие, или книда́рии) Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals. Characteristics: • More complex than sponges • They have: cells bound by inter-cell connections and carpet- like basement membranes; muscles; nervous systems; and some have sensory organs • All cnidaria are aquatic animals, and most are marine • Are symmetrical • have a single orifice and body cavity that performs digestive and respiratory functions Jellyfish or jellies (Медуза) are the major non-polyp form of individuals of the phylum Cnidaria. Classes: • Anthozoa (Кора́лловые поли́пы) Unlike other cnidarians, anthozoans do not have a medusa stage in their development. Instead, they release sperm and eggs that form a planula, which attaches to some substrate on which the cnidarian grows. Some anthozoans can also reproduce asexually through budding. More than 6,100 species have been described • Hydrozoa (hydrozoans) (Гидро́идные) Are a taxonomic class of individually very small, predatory animals, some solitary and some
  7. 7. colonial, most living in saltwater. The colonies of the colonial species can be large, and in some cases the specialized individual animals cannot survive outside the colony. A few genera within this class live in freshwater. • Cubozoa (Кубомеду́зы) Box jellyfish are distinguished by their cube-shaped medusae. Box jellyfish are known for the extremely potent venom produced by some species. Chironex fleckeri, Carukia barnesi and Malo kingi are among the most venomous creatures in the world. Stings from these and a few other species in the class are extremely painful and sometimes fatal to humans. • Stauromedusae They are unique among medusa jellyfish in that they do not have an alternation of polyp and medusa life cycle phases but are instead interpreted as an attached medusa stage, with a life style more resembling that of polypoid forms. They have a generally trumpet-shaped body, oriented upside-down in comparison with other jellyfish, with the tentacles projecting upwards, and the stalk located in the centre of the umbrella. Members of this class are commonly found in relatively cold waters, close to the shoreline. Phylum Platyhelminthes (free living flatworms) Characteristics: • unsegmented body • acoelomate • bilaterally symmetrical • flattened dorsoventrally • possess a two-way gut • move by contracting muscles (glides over rocks or undulates through water) • triploblastic Classes: • Turbellaria (Ресни́чные че́рви) • Cestoda (Ленточные черви) • Monogenea (моногенети́ческие соса́льщики)
  8. 8. • Trematoda (Дигенетические сосальщики)  Subclass Digenea (flukes) Rotifera phylum (Коловратки) Characteristics: • Body covered in an external layer of chitin called a lorica. • Has a nervous system with a brain and paired nerves. • All live in aquatic environments either free swimming or attached. • the corona, which is a retractile trochal disk • the mastax, which is a gizzard like structure derived from the modified pharynx • anterior ciliary apparatus, relating to, or resembling cilia Classes:  Subclass Aspidogastrea
  9. 9. • Class Seisonidea (most primitive) • Class Bdelloidea • Class Monogononta Phylum Nemertea (Немерти́ны) Characteristics: • Bilaterally symmetrical and dorsoventrally flattened • Body has more than two layers of cells with tissues and organs • Body has a through gut with a mouth and anus • Body has no body cavity • Has a blood system with blood vessels • Has a well developed nervous system and a brain • Most species are carnivorous and predatory • Most are aquatic and marine, there are some terrestrial and freshwater forms. Classes: • Class Anopla (Невооружённые немертины)
  10. 10. • Class Enopla (Вооружённые немертины) Phylum Nematoda (Кру́глые че́рви, или немато́ды) Characteristics: • Bilaterally symmetrical, and vermiform • Body has more than two cell layers, tissues and organs • Body cavity is a pseudocoelom, body fluid under high pressure • Body covered in a complex cuticle • Has a nervous system with pharyngeal nerve ring • Has no circulatory system (no blood system) • Live just about everywhere, many species are endoparasites Classes: • Class Adenophorea • Class Secernentea Phylum Annelida (Ко́льчатые черви, кольчецы́, или аннели́ды) Characteristics: • Segmentation • Chaetae (Hairs made of Chitin • 3 Cell Layers • True Coelom • Head develops first (Protostomal) Classes: • Class Polychaeta (Многощетинковые черви, или полихеты)  Poly = Many, Chaetae = hairs
  11. 11. • Class Oligochaeta (Малощетинковые черви)  a. Oligo = few • Class Hirudinea (Пиявки)  Leeches (Ectoparasites) Phylum Arthropoda (Членистоно́гие) ((from Greek ρθρονἄ árthron, "joint", and ποδός podós "leg", which together means "jointed leg")) Characteristics: • The segmented bodies are arranged into regions, called tagmata (e.g., head, thorax, abdomen). • The paired appendages (e.g., legs, antennae) are jointed. • They posses a chitinous exoskeletion that must be shed during growth. • They have bilateral symmetry. • The nervous system is dorsal (belly) and the circulatory system is open and ventral (back). • Molting is necessary for growth Arthropod innovations: • Exoskeleton of chitin * Hard & strong * Impermeable to water * Molting • Segmentation • Jointed appendages * “jointed feet” • efficient walking & swimming * wings in most • one of 2 phyla to fly
  12. 12. Subphylums: • Subphylum Trilobitomorpha (Трилобитообра́зные) • Subphylum Chelicerata (Хелицеровые) • Class Arachnida (Паукообра́зные) • Class Merostomata (Меростомовые) • Class Pycnogonida (Морские пауки, или многоколенчатые) • Subphylum Myriapoda (Многоножки) • Class Chilopoda (Губоно́гие) • Class Diplopoda (Двупарноногие многоножки)
  13. 13. • Class Pauropoda (Пауропо́ды) • Class Symphyla (Симфилы) • Subphylum Crustacea (Ракообра́зные) • Class Branchiopoda (Жаброногие) • Class Remipedia (Ремипедии) • Class Cephalocarida (Цефалокари́ды) • Class Maxillopoda (челюстено́гие и максиллоподы) • Class Ostracoda (Остракоды ракушниковые) • Class Malacostraca (Высшие раки) • Subphylum Hexapoda (Шестиногие)
  14. 14. • Class Insecta • Class Entognatha (Скрыточелюстные) Phylum Mollusca Characteristics: • Free living aquatic forms (freshwater or marine), some amphibious. • Body is soft and unsegmented enclosed in a glandular mantle covered by usually a shell. • Coelom is reduced to a pericardial cavity around the heart. • Digestive system is complete. • Respiratory organs are in the form of gills called ctenidia. • The body differentiated into three regions - head, visceral hump and foot. • Visceral hump is covered by a thin, fleshy fold called mantle. • Reproduction is sexual. Either unisexual or bisexual, development is direct Classes: • Class Gastropoda (Брюхоногие, или улитки) • Class Bivalvia (Двуство́рчатые,или пластинчатожа́берные) • Class Cephalopoda (Головоногие) • Class Polyplacophora (Панцирные моллюски, или хитоны) • Class Scaphopoda
  15. 15. (Лопатоногие моллюски) Phylum Echinodermata (Иглокожие) Characteristics: • Adults are radially symmetrical while larvae are bilaterally symmetrical. • Body is represented by a central disc covered by ossicles with spines called pedicellaria. • Digestive system is complete. • A unique ambulacral or water vascular system is present. • Tube feet are present for locomotion and respiration. • Nervous system has a central nerve ring with five radiating nerves. • Reproduction is sexual. Sexes are separate. Development is indirect. Subphylum: • Subphylum Blastozoa (морские бутоны) • Subphylum Crinozoa • Subphylum Echinozoa • Subphylum Asterozoa (Stelleroidea) • Subphylum Homalozoa Phylum Lophophorates Characteristics: • often horseshoe-shaped or coiled • surrounds the mouth and is an upstream collecting system for suspension feeding • tentacles are hollow with extensions of a coelomic space
  16. 16. • the gut is U-shaped • the anus, where present, is also anterior, but is dorsal to the mouth Sources: Wikipedia.com Several Power point documents http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio106/chordate.htm http://www.earthlife.net/inverts/vertebrata.html http://facstaff.cbu.edu/~seisen/Platyhelminthes/sld001.htm http://science.kennesaw.edu/~jdirnber/InvertZoo/LecPlatyhel/Platyhel.html http://www.slideshare.net/nlyzluiz/phylum-rotifera http://www2.bishopmuseum.org/HBS/invert/assorted.htm http://www.tutorvista.com/content/biology/biology-iii/animal-kingdom/phylum-mollusca.php

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