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Football turf

A football field contains 57,600 square feet within the sidelines. The area outside the sidelines and inside the running track that surrounds most football fields contains a minimum of 30,000 square feet. Together, these two areas comprise at least 88,000 square feet, or 2 acres of turf grass.

A football field contains 57,600 square feet within the sidelines. The area outside the sidelines and inside the running track that surrounds most football fields contains a minimum of 30,000 square feet. Together, these two areas comprise at least 88,000 square feet, or 2 acres of turf grass.

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Football turf

  1. 1. R. Perumal 2016603110 M.Sc.,Floricultureandlandscaping
  2. 2. 57,600 square feet within the sidelines Contains a minimum of 30,000 square feet outside the sidelines Comprise 88,000 square feet or 2 acres of turf grass
  3. 3. Football court
  4. 4. Football Turf Establishment It is of two types : Natural turf Artificial or synthetic turf
  5. 5. Steps in Establishment Planning Designing Establishment Maintenance Steps
  6. 6. Planning Development  Cost  Period of construction  Duration of Construction Additional costs  Maintenance  Rejuvanation
  7. 7. Basic design principles  Cross falls steep – less than 1:80 – 1:100 along the line and 1:50-1:60 across the line of play  All drainage systems should be with adequate positive outfall  Drainage designed to cope with a 1 in 50 year storm Designing
  8. 8. Levels Adjustment  Minor changes (+- 50 mm), cultivation and grading within the soil profile  Greater earthworks need a cut and fill approach is generally prescribed Cut and fill works
  9. 9. Leveling
  10. 10. Drainage Un Drained Pitches : In cases where sandy soils overly gravel, limestone and chalk there have been exceptions Drained Pitches :  Pipe drained pitches  Pipe and Slit drained pitches  Sand Carpet Pitch  Suspended water table root zone pitch  Soil over drainage layer
  11. 11. Un drained pitches do not perform in the majority of cases
  12. 12. Pipe drain Pitch
  13. 13. Pipe and slit drain pitches
  14. 14. Sand Carpet Pitch
  15. 15. Soil Over Drainage Layer Pitch
  16. 16. Suspended Water Table Pitch
  17. 17. Turf Establishment Warm season grasses  Bermuda grass overseeding with Perennial Ryegrass - keep wear minimal and provide for a green field color
  18. 18. Cool Season Grasses  Kentucky Bluegrass is the dominate choice  Perennial Ryegrass is often added to blue grasses
  19. 19. Transitional zone  Tall Fescues and Bermudas are both used.  Over seeded each winter with Rye grasses to avoid playing on dormant fields  Kentucky Bluegrass is also used in the more northern parts
  20. 20. Laying methods Grass establishment  Cheapest and best way to establish a grass sward on a new pitch  Certified seed of at least 3 cultivars with high rating are used Turfing  Faster but more expensive way  Require hollow tine aeration for first two years
  21. 21. Football Turf Management Management for… Safety Playability Aesthetics
  22. 22. Weed Control  Pre-emergence herbicides should be applied the latter part of April to early May for grass weed control  Maintaining dense turfgrass will greatly reduce the weed
  23. 23. Fertilizer Applications  Shallow root systems are unable to draw upon reserves deeper within soil profiles  Nutrient uptake is also determined by the oxygen status of the root zone  The most important nutrients are nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus
  24. 24.  As nitrogen is the most important nutrient and can influence wear tolerance  The optimum values for sand ameliorated soil pitches have been determined at 160- 200 kg nitrogen/ha/year  Fertilization should be carried out three times per year CONT…..
  25. 25.  Fertilization should be carried out three times per year, applying 1800 to 2700 Kg of actual N per season for maximum results  At least one-half the N should come from controlled release forms  Potassium is required in relatively large amounts, second only to nitrogen  Phosphorous have no visual effect on grass health CONT……
  26. 26. Irrigation Irrigation application systems includes,  Fully automated pop up sprinklers  Perimeter pop up sprinklers and mobile center sprinklers  Mobile irrigators  Stationary sprinklers from hydrant points Irrigation have to provide 1.0 to 1.5 inches of precipitation per week
  27. 27. Irrigation Application in Dry Periods  Watering during the evening/night allows for minimum evaporation of water and will provide maximum benefit.  Combining watering with shallow aeration or spiking/forking allows water to penetrate the grass canopy  Dry spots in high use areas such as goal mouths will probably need more water than others
  28. 28. Making aeration Pop up irrigation system
  29. 29. Pitch maintenance and Renovations Conditions for renovations  Complete reconstruction due to irregularity in levels, heavy clay top soils, drainage issues and poor swards  Pitches did not have an adequate rest period for a spring season renovation  There was a lack of adequate irrigation systems on pitches
  30. 30. Renovation activities Level adjustments, goalmouth turfing Turfing of high wear areas i.e. goalmouths and the penalty spot Sward improvements  Soil profile improvements
  31. 31. Localized Levels Adjustment  Necessary on pitches with high levels of wear such as in goalmouth areas 1. Cleaning up the area 2. Vertidraining 3. Top-dressing 4. Fertilizer application 5. Over seeding
  32. 32. Turfing on goalmouth
  33. 33. Sward Improvements  Turfing of hard wearing grasses in bad swards  Scarifying dead grasses and unwanted sward  Over seeding and fertilization  Rest period fro 8 weeks  Regular mowing for leveled sward
  34. 34. Soil Profile Improvements Sand topdressing  Carried out during the growing season and be in combination with verti-draining  Sand to be brushed into channels and improve drainage and rooting depth  Followed by fertilizer and irrigation application
  35. 35. Aerification  Core aerification done at least twice a year I. In the spring II. Prior to the start of a game series.  Cores should either be pulverized with a power rake,  The field topdressed with the appropriate rootzone mix.  If the field needs aerification during the playing season, coring is often not desirable. Solid-tine slicing would relieve surface compaction without play disruption
  36. 36. Topdressing  The thin application of soil over the turf surface  To smooth the turf surface and fill in damaged areas  The use of soil or composts with proper biological components  Also crumb rubber will soften the soil surface and protect the grass crown from abrasive damage in high- traffic areas
  37. 37. CONT…..  When the fields are not in use for 2 days, a 1/4 inch layer can be applied, giving the grass time to recover and not hamper the skill of the players Seeding :  Seed after each aerification or topdressing
  38. 38. Mowing  Regular mowing encourages a thicker sward and improves presentation on the pitch  Rotary mowers are generally less maintenance  Cylinder mowers provides a better finish  In an ideal scenario a combination of cylinder and rotary mowing should be used
  39. 39. Performance Testing  Performance testing should be carried out by an independent agency  This can be incorporated into design and build projects.  Assessments include;  Live grass cover  Grass species composition  Rooting depth  Stud traction  Hardness  Penetration  Infiltration  Grass height Performance testing for traction
  40. 40. Artificial turf  Resistance to weather and ability to sustain more intensive use make it the best alternative to natural grass  FIFA developed a testing scheme for artificial turf  Only artificial football turf playing surfaces that have been tested in accordance with the FIFA Quality Programme test criteria in the laboratory
  41. 41. 3G Artificial turf Consists of  An artificial turf with synthetic blades  Layers of specially selected sand and performance infills  A shock-absorbing layer underneath the turf
  42. 42. HISTORY Ist Artificial turf in football The FIFA Quality Programme for Football Turf The first FIFA tournament on football turf 1980 2001 2003
  43. 43.  The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) is an association governed by Swiss law founded in 1904 and based in Zurich.  It has 211 member associations and its goal, enshrined in its Statutes, is the constant improvement of football FIFA
  44. 44. FIFA
  45. 45. FIFA Licensed manufacture of turf
  46. 46. FIFA Test
  47. 47. Ball roll test
  48. 48. Ball Rebound Test
  49. 49. Straight edge test
  50. 50. Sub base preparation Installation of e-layer Installation of infill materialPreparation of seam tape
  51. 51. Oscillating brush to make fibres upright Maintenance Basic brush to clean the turf
  52. 52. Accumulation of infill material in corner area Removing debris from turf
  53. 53. A lack of maintenance will lead to discomfort and frustration for players because of • Faster movement of the ball • Uneven roll of the ball • Variable bounce of the ball • Having to run on a hard surface • Poor grip of the surface PLAYING PERFORMANCE
  54. 54. Thank you… U CAN PLAY…

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