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Fortes degrees

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Fortes degrees

  1. 1. WebQuest – Advanced Grammar<br />Centro Universitário Anhanguera SP Brigadeiro – 2011<br /> Maira C Reis Stella e Paula C Carnasciali<br />
  3. 3. Form, Meaningand Use<br />COMPARATIVES<br />Chapter 34<br />
  4. 4. ENGLISH LANGUAGE<br />p. 718<br />Comparison using <br />degree morphemes<br /> There are languages like English, that have developed verbs, adjectives or quantifiers – words like MORE or LESS – or inflections like -ER that use these words or morphemes to directly express comparison:<br />John is taller than Jack.<br />Jack is shorter / less tall than John.<br />In suchlanguages, comparisonscanbereversed, butoneform is usuallypreferred over theother.*<br />
  5. 5. TYPICAL LEARNER PROBLEMS<br />p. 719<br />1. Omission of the comparative inflection:<br />*John is tall than Mary.<br />2. Substitution of some other function word for THAN or inappropriate use of THAN:<br />* John is taller from Mary.<br />* Paul is as tall than John.<br />3. Use of MORE where ER is required or vice versa:<br />* John is more tall than Mary.<br />* Mary is beautifuller than Karen.<br />
  6. 6. TYPICAL LEARNER PROBLEMS<br />p. 719<br />4. Use of a regular pattern when an irregular form is required:<br />* His handwriting is badder than mine.<br />5. Double marking of the comparative:<br />* Jim runs more faster than Paul.<br />* This car is more better than that one.<br />WHY ARE COMPARISONS DIFFICULT?<br />- Choosing MORE or –ER<br /> (metrical tendency based on English syllable structure)<br />- The range of construction types<br />
  7. 7. THE RANGE OF CONSTRUCTION TYPES<br />p. 719<br />COMPARISONS can be made not only by adjectives and adverbs, but by nouns and verbs as well.<br />ADJECTIVE: John is taller than Mary (is).<br />ADVERB: John runs faster than Peter (does).<br />NOUN: Jack has more money than Harry (does).<br />VERB: This book costs less than that one (does). <br />TRUE COMPARATIVES involve relative differences of degree or extent between two or more entities, sets, quantities or properties.<br />
  8. 8. VARIATIONS<br />p. 721<br />Some adjectives and adverbs can take –er or MORE<br />Use of MORE to emphasize<br />Individual variation, some speakers prefer quieter and stupider<br />-ER can be used for specific effect in literature or writing<br />
  9. 9. LESS, FEWER AND IRREGULAR FORMS<br />p. 722<br />LESS or FEWER<br />Mr. Sims has less money than I do.<br /> fewer books I?<br />me<br />IRREGULAR COMPARATIVE NOUNS<br />little – less <br />good – better <br />bad – worse <br />far – farther (distance) <br /> further (nonspatial progression)<br />old – elder (comparing aging of siblings)<br /> older (regular form used elsewhere) <br />
  10. 10. OTHER CONSTRUCTIONS<br />p. 724<br />There are 15 differentsemanticandsyntacticcombinations! Checkpages 723 and 724.<br />
  11. 11. MARKEDNESS and USE<br />p. 726<br />Whichonesoundsbetter to you?<br />“Mary is lesstallthan John.” or “Mary is shorterthan Tom.”<br />“How short are you?” orHowtall are you?”<br />Would a native speaker talklikethat?<br />“He haslesschairsthanyou do.”<br />“Out ofthe 170 millionpeople in the country, lessthan 81 millionhaveIQsthat are high.”<br />“It’seasy to catch thisdisease... It’s more easy to catch than AIDS.”<br />“I’mway more funnierthanhe is.”<br />“Shedidn’tmaketheproblemworse, shemade it better.”<br />
  12. 12. Form, Meaningand Use<br />EQUATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS<br />Chapter 34<br />
  13. 13. CONSTRUCTION TYPES<br />p. 729<br />EQUATIVES occur with all four major parts of speech.<br />ADJECTIVE: Mel is as tall as George (is).<br />ADVERB: John runs as fast as Bill (runs/does).<br />NOUN: Jack has as much money as Jack (has/does).<br />VERB: Roger weighs as much as Paul (weighs/does). <br />When we formulate an EQUATIVE construction, we presuppose a degree of similarity or identity.<br />
  14. 14. VARIATIONS<br />p. 730<br />So may replace the first as when it is preceded by negative words or preceded immediately by not:<br />Nothing is so/as exciting as this!<br />George is not so/as tall as John (is).<br />This is not possible in affirmative equatives:<br />Mary is as/so* tall as Susan (is).<br />Socan also be used if there is potential for negative (as well as positive) implication in Wh-questions and Conditionals:<br />What is so/as rare as a day in June?<br />“There is nothing so/as rare as this.”<br />I’ll be happy so/as long as I have you.<br />If I don’t have you, I won’t be happy.”<br />
  15. 15. COMPARATIVE / EQUATIVE EQUIVALENCES<br />p. 731<br />X costs more than Y<br />X costs less than Y<br />X costs no more than Y <br />X costs no less than Y<br />X doesn’t cost as much as Y<br />X costs as much as Y<br />X doesn’t cost as little as Y<br />X costs as little as Y<br />MATCH!<br />1C, 2A, <br />3D, 4B!<br />
  16. 16. COMPARATIVE / EQUATIVE EQUIVALENCES<br />p. 731<br />X costs more than Y = X doesn’t cost as little as Y<br />Wine costs more than water. = Wine doesn’t cost as little as water.<br />X costs less than Y = X doesn’t cost as much as Y<br />Water costs less than wine. = Water doesn’t cost as much as wine.<br />X costs no more than Y = X costs as little as Y<br />A blue pen costs no more than a red pen. = A blue pen costs as little as a red pen.<br />X costs no less than Y = X costs as much as Y<br />A parka costs no less than a coat. = A parka costs as much as a coat.<br />
  17. 17. MARKEDNESS and USE<br />p. 732<br />Whichonesoundsbetter to you?<br />“Mary is notso/as tall as John (is).” or “Mary is shorterthan Tom.”<br />“John doesn’trun as fast as Burt” or “John runs slowerthan Burt.”<br />Note for the ESL/EFL teacher:<br />Potentiallyquestionablesentencessuch as thosecitedaboveshouldnotbepresentedandpracticed in class as normal, preferredusage.<br />
  18. 18. Form, Meaningand Use<br />Complementsand SUPERLATIVES<br />Chapter 35<br />
  19. 19. DEGREE COMPLEMENT NOTIONS<br />p. 739<br />EXCESS – too (much/too many) + infinitive complement<br />INSUFFICIENCY– too (little/ too few) + infinitive complement<br />SUFFICIENCY– enough + infinitive complement<br />CASUALITY- so (much/many/little/few) + that clause<br />CASUALITY- such (a/an) (adj) noun + that clause<br />
  20. 20. USE of SO, TOO and VERY<br />p. 742<br />SO – Emphatic form of very or very much/many<br />TOO – Colloquial counterpart of very, usually on negative contexts.<br />Some ESL/EFL learners incorrectly extend this patter to affirmative contexts and produce errors such as this:<br />When what they mean to say is “We like you very much.”<br />
  21. 21. EXPRESSING SUPERLATIVE<br />p. 743<br /><ul><li>Most languages do not have morphologically distinct comparative and superlative forms.
  22. 22. Carla é a melhoraluna da sala.
  23. 23. Carla é melhoraluna do que Alice.
  24. 24. In languages that do have both forms, the comparative occurs more frequently than the superlative. (Jespersen, 1924)
  25. 25. English superlative may be harder to learn and the two forms will frequently be confused.
  26. 26. *I am the younger in my family.
  27. 27. *That food is worst than the food for the pig.</li></ul>(ESL errors from Neuman 1977:131)<br />
  28. 28. COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES EQUIVALENCES AND MEANING<br />p. 744<br />In terms of distribution, the –est and most behave exactly like the –er and more of the comparative.<br />big – bigger – biggest<br />comfortable – more comfortable – the most comfortable<br />Comparative form in a superlative sense.<br /> Bill is 6 feet tall and Joe is 6 feet 2 inches tall.<br /> Who’s the tallest? X Who’s the taller (of the two)?<br />The superlativeconcernsitselfwiththeextremes of a givenscalewithregard to a specific set, whereasthecomparative ignores the extremes andlooksattwopointsanywhereonthescalewith no regard to twoor more individuals, objectsandsoon.<br />
  29. 29. THE USE OF SUPERLATIVES<br />p. 747<br />MOST- intensifier, with a meaning similar to very.<br />He was a most gracious host.<br />ABBREVIATED SUPERLATIVE<br />You’re the greatest! <br />EVER – makes sentences more emphatic.<br />That book was his best ever.<br /><ul><li>Whichonesoundsbetter to you?
  30. 30. “Bob is theleasttallofallthe boys.” or “Bob is theshortestofallthe boys.”
  31. 31. “Fukushima turned into the least pleasant city in Japan.” or “Fukushima turned into the most unpleasant city in Japan.”</li></li></ul><li>HOW TO PRESENT DEGREES<br />p. 749<br />These are theauthor’s final suggestiononhow to presentcomparativesandsuperlativeswiththepurposeofavoidingteaching-learningproblemsencountered in theclassroom.<br />From a semanticpointofview, COMPARATIVES and EQUATIVES shouldbepresentedfirst – alongwithverbs, adjectives, nominalsandprepositions.<br />At some later time, SUPERLATIVES shouldbepresented in thecontextofordinalsandclassified as a typeofpostdeterminer.<br />
  32. 32. MARIANNE CELCE-MURCIA<br />DIANE LARSEN-FREEMAN<br />An ESL/EFL Teacher’sCourse – secondedition<br />