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Solar pannels 2

  2. WHAT IS SOLAR PV SYSTEM ? • In a solar PV System the photovoltaic (PV) cells capture the sun’s energy that convert sunlight into electricity using semi conducting materials. • Can be used to run household appliances and lighting. • PV installations may be ground-mounted, rooftop mounted or wall mounted. The mount may be fixed, or use a solar tracker to follow the sun across the sky. • Generally, Solar PV system works more efficiently from 9am to 4 pm (in presence of sun’s energy).
  3. SOLAR PANNEL  Solar Panel is a main component of this system that is responsible to collect solar radiations and transform it into electrical energy (DC – Direct Current).  Solar Panel is an array of several solar cells (Photovoltaic cells) formed by connecting them in parallel or series connection depending upon the energy required.
  4. TYPES OF SOLAR PV PANELS ` Monocrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Thin Film Panels Type Module efficiency 15 % - 18% 14% - 16% max. 12%. Manufactured by from single Si crystal. fusing different crystals of Si. depositing 1 or more layers of PV material on Performance best at standard temperature. moderately high temp. high temperatures. At high temperatures Efficiency is reduced Efficiency is not reduced good Surface area required for producing1kWp 7-9 msq. (least area) 8 – 9 msq. (less area) 9 – 11 msq. (large area) Price per kWp (Watt peak) Rs 75,000 – 1,00,000 Rs 50,000 – 75,000 Rs 40,000 – 55,000 Best suitable for Limited space (peak efficiency can be improved) Most cases (fast return of investment)
  5. Optional conventional resources TYPES OF SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) SYSTEM There are three main types of solar PV and storage systems: • Off-grid. • Grid tied • Grid/hybrid  Off grid system: • installed on a Stand alone basis with out any support from the grid power. • mostly used in remote areas with an advantage of storing energy battery or could work directly using the solar energy available in the day times. • This PV system includes batteries, which are an expensive part of the system and these would need replacement every few years (4-7 years). Indicates - Not used in this system • Typically for this system, 1kW capacity generates 4-5 units per day which is apprx. costs Rs 92,000. Note : units produced per day is the energy generated in sun shine hours ie., 9am – 4pm (7 hours) Bi-Directional meter
  6. • Wiring system Stores solar electricity for future use. Converts DC electricity to AC electricity same quality as the utility electricity and regulates AC charge to the batteries from the utility or the generator source. To the Household appliances Regulates the charge of solar electricity to batteries. Converts solar energy into DC electricity In the presence of solar energy, the electricity produced by it is used & in its absence, then the electricity stored in batteries is used. IN CASE WHEN SOLAR FAILS IN CASE OF SOLAR ENERGY + POSITIVE - NEGATIVE DC DC DC AC
  7. Optional conventional resources  Grid tied : • basically solar installation that uses a standard grid-tied inverter • perfect for customers who are already on the grid and want to add solar to their house. • Connection to the local electricity network allows selling to the local distributor of electric energy any excess of electricity generated and not used in the household consumption. • To sell the surplus electricity, the state should have ‘Net metering policy’. • Typically for this system, 1kW capacity generates 4-5 units per day which is apprx. costs Rs 75,000 – Rs 90,000 Indicates - Not used in this system Bi-Directional meter Note : units produced per day is the energy generated in sun shine hours ie., 9am – 4pm (7 hours)
  8.  Hybrid systems: • system can be combined with other energy sources, such as biomass generator, wind turbines, diesel generator • to ensure a constant and sufficient supply of electricity, since all renewable energy sources, including photovoltaic systems, are not constant in energy production. • The hybrid system can be connected to a network • Use batteries to store energy for later use. Optional conventional resources Bi-Directional meter
  9. • Hybrid inverters : This system also allows choosing whether electricity from photovoltaic panels should be stored or consumed through an internal intelligent apparatus control unit. This is possible through a technique that adds different energy sources (phase coupling: on-grid or grid-tie techniques) and the management of stored electricity in the battery (off grid technology). Hybrid inverters therefore operate on grid (grid-tie) as well as off-grid, hybrid (both on-grid and off-grid grid at the same time) and Backup (in case of a black out). COST - 24,000 – 28,000 Rs
  10. Charge controller - Regulates the charge of solar electricity to batteries. Batteries - Stores solar electricity for future use. Inverter - Converts DC electricity to AC electricity same quality as the utility electricity and regulates AC charge to the batteries from the utility or the generator source. To the Household appliances In the presence of solar energy, the electricity produced by it is used & in its absence, then the utility power is used. In absence of both, e energy stored in batteries is used. • Wiring system Bi- directional meter – it reads the readings of both energy consumed from the utility and units sold back to grid ie., net metering. Utility power Solar panel Supplies energy in DC + POSITIVE - NEGATIVE Net metering AC DC
  11. SOME APPLAINCES AND THEIR CONSUMPRION IN WATTS S.NO APPLIANCE MINIMUM MAXIMUM 1 100W light bulb (Incandescent) 100W 100W 2 25" colour TV 150W 150W 3 3" belt sander 1000W 1000W 4 60W light bulb (Incandescent) 60W 60W 5 9" disc sander 1200W 1200W 6 Ceiling Fan 25W 75W 7 Clock radio 1W 2W 8 Clothes Dryer 1000W 4000W 9 Coffee Maker 800W 1400W 10 Cordless Drill Charger 70W 150W 11 Desktop Computer 100W 450W 12 Dishwasher 1200W 1500W 13 Electric Blanket 200W 200W 14 Electric Heater Fan 2000W 3000W 15 Electric Kettle 1200W 3000W 16 Electric Mower 1500W 1500W 17 Electric Shaver 15W 20W 18 Food Blender 300W 400W 19 Fridge / Freezer 150W 400W 20 Game Console 120W 200W 21 Hair Blow dryer 1800W 2500W 22 Home Air Conditioner 1000W 4000W 23 Home Internet Router 5W 15W
  12. S.NO APPLIANCE MINIMUM MAXIMUM 24 Inverter Air conditioner 1300W 1800W 25 Iron 1000W 1000W 26 Laptop Computer 50W 100W 27 Lawnmower 1000W 1400W 28 LED Light Bulb 7W 10W 29 Microwave 600W 1700W 30 Oven 2150W 2150W 31 Power Shower 7500W 10500W 32 Rice Cooker 200W 250W 33 Scanner 10W 18W 34 Smart Phone Charger 4W 7W 35 Strimmer 300W 500W 36 Submersible Water Pump 400W 400W 37 Table Fan 10W 25W 38 Tablet Charger 10W 15W 39 Tablet Computer 5W 10W 40 Toaster 800W 1800W 41 TV (19" colour) 40W 100W 42 Vacuum Cleaner 200W 700W 43 Washing Machine 500W 500W 44 Water Feature 35W 35W 45 Water Filter and Cooler 70W 100W 46 Inkjet Printer 20W 30W
  13. ENERGY CONSUNPTION BY A TYPICAL HOUSEHOLD APPLAINCE WATTS NO.S HOURS WATTS X HOURS /1000 UNITS/DAY 1. CFL Bulb 15 5 4 300 3000/1000 0.3 2. Ceiling fan 100 4 8 3200 32000/1000 3.2 3. Bulb 60 2 3 360 360/1000 0.36 4. Fridge 250L 4* 24 1.37 5. TV 32 inch LED 40 1 4 160 160/1000 0.16 6. Micro wave 700 1 0.5 350 350/1000 0.35 7. Split A.C 1.5 ton 1 1 1.17 8. Computer + Monitor 120+15 0 1 3 810 810/1000 0.81 9. Washing machine 512 1 0.5 256 256/1000 0.256 7.97 units 7.97 Units is power consumption for a single day. To Calculate monthly consumption = 7.97 X 30 = 239 units Wattage X Hours used per day / 1000 = Daily Kilowatt Hour 1kWh = 1Unit ( 1kiloWatt = 1000Watts)
  14. SUN INSTALATION • To collect maximum sunlight the ideal orientation of a Solar Panel is towards south. • 45-degree east or west of south can also work. • Tilt at which the solar panel is installed is also an important consideration. It is important that the tilt of the solar panel is the same as the latitude of your location. Eg. Visakhapatnam lies in latitude of 17.6868° N so hence panels are angled at 17 ° to the ground so that it is perpendicularly incident to the sun’s rays. • It is recommended to change the angle of panel minimum twice a year with respect to the chance of climate for better efficiency. • The mount may be fixed, or use a solar tracker to follow the sun across the sky.
  15. MAINTAINANCE WARRANTY : • If purchased under NSM a Solar PV module comes with a warranty of 25 years from the date of supply. • A solar home lighting system (with inverter) comes with a warranty of 5 years and • the batteries if sealed maintenance free come with 2 years warranty and • lead acid flooded type battery comes with 5 year warranty. • A solar PV system does not require a lot of maintenance but it is good to clean the system of dust and bird droppings regularly to maintain its efficiency. • If it is a maintenance free battery then need not be worry about the battery, else the battery will need regular maintenance.
  16. TYPES OF METERING POLICY  Gross metering : • entire energy generated by the solar PV system is fed back directly into the utility grid. • the owner gets incentives based on feed-in tariffs proportional to the energy fed back to the grid.  Net metering : • an agreement that allows the solar PV system owner to sell excess solar energy to the utility company using a meter to track this energy exchange. • Produce more today, use that tomorrow Eg. If in summer, solar power generates 100 units and load requirement is 80 units, then 20 units can be fed back to the grid. In winter, solar power generates only 60 units and load requirement is 80 units, then 20 units can be taken from the grid. Thus, overall excess generation from solar power system is taken care of and net units consumed from the grid becomes zero.
  17. Bi – Directional Meter Eg. During peak sunshine hours (afternoon) Case 1 Power generated is less than the load required Energy is taken from the main grid The owner is charged for the units consumed from the main grid The meter runs forward as usual Eg. During early morning or during late evening/night. Case 2 Power generated is more than the load required Energy is fed back to the main grid The system owner gets credits The meter runs backward In case of 2 - the owner is either paid back or the surplus units are added for the next use. For more details, kindly refer your state policy/utility company policy for more information about tariff or visit : various-states-in-india.html The term bi-directional metering refers to the fact that the meter can measure the flow of electricity in two directions that is energy from the solar and energy used from the utility power.
  18. CHARGE CONTROLLER  A charge controller or battery charger, is only necessary in systems with battery back-up.  The primary function of a charge controller is to prevent overcharging of the batteries.  Mostly also include a low- voltage disconnect that prevents over-discharging batteries. The Disconnect may also have integrated circuit breakers or fuses to protect against power surges.  In addition, charge controllers prevent charge from draining back to solar modules at night.
  19. BATTERIES Lead-Acid Batteries – Lead-acid batteries are most common in PV systems in general  Sealed lead acid batteries are most commonly used in grid-connected system. Sealed batteries are spill-proof and do not require periodic maintenance.  Flooded lead- acid batteries are usually the least expensive but require adding distilled water at least monthly to replenish water lost during the normal charging process.  Gel-cell batteries, designed for freeze-resistance, are generally a poor choice because any overcharging will permanently damage the battery. Alkaline Batteries –  Because of their relatively high cost, alkaline batteries are only recommended where extremely cold temperatures (-50oF or less) are anticipated or for certain commercial or industrial applications  These advantages include tolerance of freezing or high temperatures, low maintenance requirements, and the ability to be fully discharged or over-charged without harm.
  20. SIZING A SOLAR PV SYSTEM • Before buying a system, it is very important to size your solar system properly. • Sizing will depend on the load requirements in your setup. • It is important to note that a Solar system is good for operating low wattage appliances like lights, fans, TV, etc. • High wattage appliances like Air Conditioners and Water Heaters cannot be operated using solar PV system (in fact solar water heaters and solar air conditioners are available separately). • assess the amount of sunlight available at the location where a solar PV system is being installed. • system should be placed so that there is no obstruction of trees or adjoining building. • load carrying capacity of the roof where the solar panels are to be installed should also be done • Solar Panel structure typically weight 15kg per sq meter. OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
  21. METHODS OF GROUND MOUNTING SOLAR PV SYSTEMS Ground mounted PV systems are usually large ,utility-scale photovoltaic power stations. There are two basic types. STANDARD GROUND MOUNTS : In this the metal frames are driven into the ground to hold solar panels up at a fixed angle. Some of these arrays can be adjusted manually. POLE MOUNTS : In this systems, a single pole consists of multiple solar panels at higher level than standard ground . These are often incorporate with tracking systems for sun light STANDARD GROUND MOUNTSPOLE MOUNT
  22. WALL MOUNTING SOLAR PV SYSTEMS If south – facing roof is lacking and having a south – facing wall but an east-west roofline, a wall-mount is a great option. Structural design : • Channels along the length of the rails and the fixtures allow lots of adjustments in all axis. • Engineered design is structural, making it very strong. • Can resist heavy winds up to 120 MPH (193 km/h).
  23.  Window shading : Manages the building temperature by setting up at different tilt angles to optimize window shading during the year.  BIPV : Façade • can be set on a building façade for an elegant and seamless building integration. • Residential and commercial.
  24. SUBSIDY • As per the MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy) notice, CFA (Central Finance Assistance) or subsidy is available for Solar Roof top PV implementations. For residence subsidy is 30% • MNRE has set up a Nodal Agency (or Energy Development Agency) in every state, for instance, in Maharashtra, it is MEDA (Maharashtra Energy Development Agency), in Andhra Pradesh it is NEDCAP (Non- Conventional Energy Development Corporation of Andhra Pradesh (NEDCAP) Ltd.). For more details and how to apply for subsidy visit the list of all State Nodal Agencies and their contact address/phone/website is available on this link on MNRE website: • In case of Indians - panels have to be Made in India to get subsidy. To get subsidy - have to apply for it with State Nodal Agency with all the relevant details about the project. The details include all technical and financial aspects of the project (a sample form available on this link). Must take help from system integrator to fill in all the details (you will get all the technical data about panels, inverters, etc). Once you fill in appropriate details, you need to put in an application with the State Nodal Agency. The agency will evaluate the proposals and estimate the level of subsidy that can be provided to a project. After nodal agency evaluation, the project is forwarded to MNRE for final consideration and approval. Note: If you are planning to get a subsidy, your project should not start execution till there is approval from nodal agency. But then you should also not wait for the final subsidy to be disbursed as it can take quite a lot of time. So the project execution starts after nodal agency approval and before MNRE makes final decision.
  25. COST AND ECONOMICS WORK OUT 5 kW Energy needed to produce 5 kWp System needed to install Rs 3,75,000 Rough estimation Rs 60,000 to 90,000 per kWp Generate1300 to 1400 units/year About 6500 units Deducted from electricity bill Rs 45,500 per year If Rs 7 per unit Savings per year Recovery cost of project With subsidy Without subsidy 5 years 8 years Note : This is only when the batteries are kept aside