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Teaching of Poetry

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Teaching of Poetry

  1. 1. Teaching of Poetry
  2. 2. POEM The word poem has been derived from Middle French word poe‘me in 1540s (replacing the word poesy) and Latin word poema which literally means thing made or created.
  3. 3. POETRY It is not possible to define poetry in clear and final terms, because, like truth and beauty, it is an abstract term. The definitions of Poetry by various poets and critics are given below to give an idea about the real nature of Poetry :  “Poetry is metrical composition.”(Johnson)  “Poetry is musical thought.” (Carlyle)  “Poetry is the expression of supreme words in a supreme form(Coleridge)  “Poetry is the explanation of life through feelings and imagination.” (Hudson)  “Poetry is at bottom the criticism of life.” (Mathew Arnold)
  4. 4. POETRY What is poetry? Who knows? Not a rose, but the scent of a rose; Not the sky, but the light in the sky; Not the fly, but the gleam of the fly; Not the sea, but the sound of the sea; Not myself, but what makes me See, hear, and feel something that prose Can not! and what it is, who knows? By Eleanor Farjeon
  5. 5.  Acrostic  Sonnet  Limerick  Haiku  Couplet  Free verse  Ode  Ballad  Elegy  Blank verse  Visual poetry/Concrete poem TYPES OF POEMS
  6. 6. OBJECTIVES Primary Level  To enable pupils to enjoy a poem.  To enable pupils to read aloud the poem with proper rhythm and intonation.  To enable students to enjoy recitation, individual or chorus of the poem.  To develop a taste for poetry reading and writing.  To train the emotions, feelings and imagination of the students. • To entertain and extend reader’s imagination.
  7. 7. Secondary Level  To provide an opportunity to the pupils to appreciate and derive aesthetic pleasure from the poem being taught to them.  To develop the power of appreciation of beauty.  To make the students understand the thoughts and imagination contained in the poem.  To enable the students to analyse diction, tone, form, genre, theme and figure of speech.
  8. 8.  To enable the students to critically evaluate poetry.  To inspire the pupils for writing poetry.  To enable the pupils to comprehend the central idea of the poem.  To enable the pupils to appreciate the message of the poet contained in the poem.  To appreciate the music of rhyme and rhythm.  To acquaint the students with different styles of poetry.  To develop emotional, aesthetic and imaginative sides of students’ personality.
  9. 9. Poetry lifts the reader from this world to another world with an intensity that other genres may not contain in such a limited space. Teaching of poetry should be seen as a participatory experience. One of the most effective ways of helping students becoming more adept in understanding poetry is to encourage them to try their hand at composing it. How can we take the students into this world of imagination?
  10. 10.  Show them pictures like this from everyday life and give them activities based on imagination.  Each one of us has imagined various figures in the clouds.  Make them believe that imagination is natural to human beings.
  11. 11. ACROSTIC POEM An acrostic poem Creates a challenge Random words on a theme Or whole sentences that rhyme Select your words carefully To form a word from top to bottom Is the aim of this poetry style Choose a word then go!
  12. 12. POETRY “Poetry begins in delight and ends in wisdom.” __ Robert Frost  Poetry is the highest form of literary expression.  It has an aesthetic effect on human mind.  It gives details and facts in a beautiful form.
  13. 13. TECHNIQUES Poetry can not be taught, the teacher can only create situations in which a poem may have its fullest significance for the pupils reading it. As far as possible the poem should be read as a whole but in the condition that the poem is too long, it must be divided into units in such a way, so that it may not lose its rhythm, music and emotional efforts. While teaching poems, the teacher should appeal to the emotions of the students. In a poetry class, a student must enter a different world and experience a new joy.
  14. 14. TEACHING OF POETRY “The aim of teaching poetry is not so much to improve the child’s knowledge of English as to add to his joy and increase his power of appreciation of beauty.” _Menon and Patel
  15. 15. TEACHING OF POETRY Teaching of poetry is quite different from the teaching of prose. Poetry provides aesthetic pleasure to pupils and it plays a significant role in refinement of emotions. While prose sharpens the intellect of students, poetry enhances their flight of imagination.
  16. 16. STEPS OF TEACHING POETRY Pre-reading It is very important to make students ready to read the poetry. We should involve them in activities which will create the right attitude and willingness to learn.  We can ask some questions related to the theme of the poem based on the previous knowledge of the students.  We can ask the students to guess the theme of the poem just by reading the title of the poem.  We can read a poem similar in subject matter with the poem to be taught.  If the poem to be learnt is descriptive, a picture can be shown and questions based on the picture can be asked. Whatever method we employ for introduction, we should be particular about not to spoil the environment necessary for the poem.
  17. 17. While Reading  Model Reading – The teacher must recite the poem with full vigor and enthusiasm using proper rhythm, pauses and intonation. This helps the pupils to follow the tone and rhythm of the poem and learn the pronunciation of new words.  Meaning of new words and phrases should be explained by the teacher as they may create hindrance in the comprehension of the poem.
  18. 18.  The teacher must bring out the beauty of the figures of speech and throw light on the ideas or references involved.  Imitation Reading – After reading the teacher should ask some pupils to read the poem one by one. She should help them to recite it with effect, taking care of their pronunciation and intonation.
  19. 19. FIGURES OF SPEECH • Alliteration • Simile • Metaphor • Personification • Onomatopoeia • Oxymoron • Synecdoche • Irony • Pun • Antithesis • Assonance • Transferred epithet • Hyperbole • Imagery
  20. 20. ALLITERATION - The repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of the words. SIMILE - A comparison between two distinctly different things is indicated by the word ‘like’ or ‘as’. METAPHOR - A word or expression that in literal usage denotes one kind of thing is applied to a distinctly different kind of thing, without asserting a comparison. PERSONIFICATION – Human characteristics and sensibilities are attributed to inanimate objects, natural forces or abstract ideas. ONOMATOPOEIA – The use of words whose sound imitates the sound of the thing being named. OXYMORON – Two contradictory words or phrases are combined in a single expression.
  21. 21. SYNECDOCHE – A part of something stands for the whole thing. IRONY – The meaning which the speaker applies differs sharply from the meaning that is ostensibly expressed. PUN – A play on a word with two or more meanings. IMAGERY – The pictorial quality achieved through a collection of images which appeals to the sense of taste, smell, hearing and touch. ANTITHESIS – Opposing or contrasting ideas are balanced against each other. ASSONANCE – The repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds. TRANSFERRED EPITHET – An adjective linked to a noun that it would not normally modify. HYPERBOLE – An extravagant exaggeration of fact or of possibility.
  22. 22. POST READING Comprehension questions  The purpose of these questions is to know if the meaning of the poem is clear to the students.  They also help in making certain ideas more clear in the minds of the reader.  These questions should be simple and should not break the continuity of the poem.  The number of such questions asked depends upon the length and ideas of the poem.
  23. 23. Appreciation questions  These questions test appreciation of beauty of thought, images and emotions.  They also let the students know more about the beauty of style and language.
  24. 24. CHORAL RECITATION The pupils should be made to recite the poem in chorus. Later on they can recite it independently. It also heightens aural effect which is necessary for appreciation. After this a creative assignment related to the poem can be given.
  25. 25. “Read each poem twice, give the children time to form their own impressions, invite them to criticize and help them in doing so. Let the poetry period be, as far as possible, a period of joy, a period of pondering over things they love already. Let them choose for themselves the poems they are to learn by heart, each choosing his/her own favourites. Thus, only then can we develop a taste for poetry and train their ear to the variety of beautiful sounds. Thus, only can we rouse in them some idea of the wealth of poetry that lies before them. Remember that we must aim at turning out readers of poetry, not students of poetry.” _Alexander Haddow
  26. 26. AFFECTIVE FALLACY W.K.Wimsatt and M.C.Beardsley introduced affective fallacy to describe the critical approach of evaluating a work of literature by the emotional effect it produces upon the reader. Proponents of new criticism regard such an approach as misguided because they feel it confuses the work with its result, what it is with what it does.
  27. 27. INTENTIONAL FALLACY The term proposed by Wimsatt and Beardsley signifies what is claimed to be the error of interpreting and evaluating a literary work by reference to evidence, outside the text itself, for the intention – the design and purposes – of its author. The objective theory holds that a literary work is separate, a thing in itself, and should not be judged by external evidence – by letters of the author, by introductions, by conversations.
  28. 28. Thank You

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