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ISBN 978-9934-18-481-9
Innovations,
Technologies and
Research in Education
Proceedings of ATEE Spring Conference
2019
Proceedings
of
ATEE
Spring
Conference
Innovations,
Technologies
and
Research
in
Education,
2019
PROCEEDINGS OF ATEE SPRING CONFERENCE
INNOVATIONS,
TECHNOLOGIES AND
RESEARCH IN EDUCATION,
2019
University of Latvia Press
Innovations, Technologies and Research in Education, 2019. Rīga,
University of Latvia, 2019. 718 lpp.
EDITOR
Linda Daniela – University of Latvia, Latvia
SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE
Irēna Žogla – University of Latvia, Latvia
Zanda Rubene – University of Latvia, Latvia
Marta Kowalczuk-Waledziak – University of Białystok, Poland
Austra Avotiņa – University of Latvia, Latvia
Maurice Schols – Fontys University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands
Elin Birkeland Markestad – Inland University of Applied Sciences,
Norway
Bashar Zogheib – American University of Kuwait, Kuwait
Maria Giulia Ballatore – Politecnico di Torino, Italy
Otilia Clipa – Stefan cel Mare University Suceava, Romania
Francesco Maiorana – Kansas State University, USA; University
of Catania, Italy
Xhevdet Thaqi – Public University “Kadri Zeka” Gjilan, Kosovo
William Nketsia – School of Education, Western Sydney University,
Australia
Gunta Silina-Jasjukevica – University of Latvia, Latvia
Daiga Kalnina – University of Latvia, Latvia
Asta Rauduvaitė – Vytautas Magnus University, Education Academy,
Lithuania
Joseph George Mallia – Institute for Tourism Studies, Malta
Liat Shalev – Levinsky College of Education, Israel
Rudīte Andersone – University of Latvia, Latvia
Arta Rūdolfa – University of Latvia, Latvia
Santa Dreimane – University of Latvia, Latvia
© University of Latvia, 2019
https://doi.org/10.22364/atee.2019.itre
ISBN 978-9934-18-481-9
Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Neus Lorenzo Galés, Ray Gallon
Integrating Education, Technology, and SDG’s:
a three-pronged collaboration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Lana Frančeska Dreimane
Understanding the Educational Rationale Behind Learning
in Virtual Reality: a Historical Development Vignette . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Francesco Maiorana
Interdisciplinary Computing for Ste(a)m: a Low Floor
High Ceiling Curriculum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Bashar Zogheib
Using Structural Equation Modelling to Study the Influence
of Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Compatibility
on Students’ Attitudes Towards Using Ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Daiga Kalnina, Armands Kalnins
Interactions Between Parenting Style in the Family and
the Use of Smartphones and Tablets of 2–3 Years Old Children . . . . . 67
Irēna Žogla, Svetlana Ušča, Mihails Kijaško
Focus on Curriculum Transformation Through Educator
and Student Attitude Development to Digital Competence . . . . . . . . . 82
Santa Dreimane
Technology-Enhanced Learning for the Development
of Learning Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Anna Vulāne, Elita Stikute
The Importance of Digital Resources in the Instruction
of Modern Latvian Language and Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Annika Käck
The Use of Digital Technologies in Swedish Teacher Education:
Experiences by Migrant Teachers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Ragmi Mustafa, Kujtim Mustafa, Xhevdet Thaqi,
Basri Ahmedi, Ekrem Halimi
Digitalization as a Process of Assistance in the Transparency
of University Teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Maria Giulia Ballatore, Igor Simone Stievano, Anita Tabacco
Teach-Gym: Grow Your Methodologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Elin Birkeland Markestad, Bjørg Herberg Gloppen
Technology and Relationships in the Guidance Context:
an Article Based on a Study of Sustainable Relationships in
Guidance Situations Between Teachers and Students
in Higher Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Andis Āriņš
Blockchain Arhitecture in Smart Pedagogy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Jevgenija Dehtjare, Jekaterina Korjuhina,
Ilona Gehtmane-Hofmane
An Application of the Modern Technological
Solutions in an Order to Enhance the Process of
Distance Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Edmunds Vanags, Pavels Pestovs
Development of Metacognition Awareness Scale
for 10th
–12th
Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Anda Priedite
Enhancing Students’ Metacognition in the Classroom . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Manuel Joaquín Fernández González
Character Growth Mindset Enhancement in Extracurricular
Activities: an International Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
William Nketsia, Maxwell Peprah Opoku,
Eric Lawer Torgbenu
Teacher Trainees’ Experiences of Inclusive Practices
During Teaching Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
Otilia Clipa, Valentina Juravle
The Roles of the Online Environment in School–Family
Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Gunta Siliņa-Jasjukeviča, Ilze Briška
Reflection of Preservice Teacher Professional Performance
for Promoting Transdisciplinary Learning in Primary
School Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
Daiga Celmiņa
Artistic Cognition in Secondary School Literature Lessons . . . . . . . . . 312
5
Innovations, Technologies and Research in Education, 2019
Antra Ozola, Andrejs Geske
What Do Teachers Do to Promote Students’ Reading
Literacy at 4th
Grade? – Evidence From Iea Pirls 2016 Study . . . . . . . 323
Liene Ozoliņa
The Students` Visual Literacy for Knowledge Construction
in the History of Latvia and the World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
Nijolė Bražienė, Daiva Grakauskaitė-Karkockienė
Writing (Text Creation) Development of Primary Students
at their Mother Tongue Lessons: Teachers’ Attitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
Sandrita Škėrienė
The Integration of Problem Solving and Value Approach:
the Shift Toward How to Think . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
Pavels Pestovs, Dace Namsone
National Level Large-Scale Assessment Data for Instructional
Planning in Classroom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
Lūcija Anoško
Fine Motor Skills Development in Preschool-Age Children
with Speech and Language Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Zanda Rubene, Artis Svece
Development of Critical Thinking in Education of Latvia:
Situation Analysis and Optimisation Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
Kristine Jozauska
The Concept of Power in Teacher Talk in Contextuality
of Teacher’s Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
Araromi Maxwell Olakunle
Attitude and Vocabulary Knowledge as Predictors of Senior
Secondary School Students’ Achievement in French Reading
Comprehension in Selected Secondary Schools in
Ibadan Metropolis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
Zanda Rubene, Gunita Elksne
The Contribution of Transnational Learning to
the Professional Development of Teachers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
Ilze Šūmane, Baiba Martinsone, Dita Nīmante,
Malgožata Raščevska, Solvita Umbraško
Support Team for Children With Special Needs
in Latvian Schools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
6 Innovations, Technologies and Research in Education, 2019
Ilona Gehtmane-Hofmane
Grounded Theory Methodology for Understanding
How Equine Assisted Learning Contributes to Adult Learning . . . . . . 464
Irēna Andersone, Guntars Bernāts
Collective Music Making as a Developer of a Teenage
Personality as a Whole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
Ilze Saleniece, Dace Namsone, Līga Čakāne,
Anete Butkēviča
Towards a Context-Specific School Leadership Competence
Framework: a Case Study of Latvia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
Normunds Rečs, Andrejs Geske
The Professional Learning Community as an Organizational
System for School Staff Development, School Change and
Improvement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498
Asta Rauduvaitė, Greta Šadeikytė
The Aspects of Improving Teacher’s Professional Activity
Oriented Towards the Learner’s Wellbeing and Success . . . . . . . . . . . 511
Līva Goba-Medne
Shifting the Focus of Professional Development: from
Individual Teachers’ Competences to a System of
Contextual Professional Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527
Anete Butkēviča, Līga Čakāne, Inese Dudareva,
Dace Namsone
Piloting a Teacher Competence Management Model in Schools . . . . . 536
Oskars Kaulens
Informal Learning for Teachers’ Professional Development
at School: Opportunities and Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553
Liat Biberman-Shalev
Rereading Freshman-Year Blogs: Third-Year Pre-Service
Student Teachers Review Their First-Year Reflective Blogs . . . . . . . . . 570
Dita Nīmante, Maija Kokare
Teacher’s Motivation for Master Degree Program
in Educational Sciences in Latvia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581
Dace Medne, Nora Jansone Ratinika
Professional Mastery of Academics in Higher Education:
the Case of Latvia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591
7
Innovations, Technologies and Research in Education, 2019
Beatrix Fűzi, Erzsébet Jármai
The Features and Types of University Students’ From
the Viewpoint of Teachers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601
Juris Porozovs
Latvia Students’ Interest in Different Science Subject Topics . . . . . . . 621
Anna Stavicka, Indra Odiņa, Anna Sedova
The Impact of Native Language and Culture on Foreign
Language Learning: the Case of Chinese Students Learning
the Latvian Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633
Jelena Stepanova
Team-Based Learning in Business English in Latvia and EU . . . . . . . . 645
Olga Zvereva
Approaches to Embedding Global Dimension in Adult
Education Curriculum by the Case Study of the Hospitality
Business Toolkit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658
Austra Avotina
The Cultural Competence Portfolio as a Long-Term Innovation
for All Levels of Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 680
Rudīte Koka, Nora Jansone-Ratinika, Tatjana Koķe,
Matīss Sīlis, Raimonds Strods
Mapping as a Tool for Biomaterials Study Content
Harmonization With Significant Research Findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 691
Reinis Upenieks
Exploring Possibilities of Transformative Learning
in Continuing Medical Education: a Literature Review . . . . . . . . . . . . 703
10 Innovations, Technologies and Research in Education, 2019
INTEGRATING EDUCATION,
TECHNOLOGY, AND SDG’S:
A THREE-PRONGED COLLABORATION
Neus Lorenzo Galés
Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, Spain
Ray Gallon
Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
ABSTRACT
Social and technological evolutions are forcing changes in education worldwide. An
important guide for such changes are the sustainable development goals (SDG’s) adopted
by the United Nations. SDG 17 calls for partnerships built on shared vision and goals. In
this study, statistics reveal the need, in adult education, for more strategic transversal
skills, such as communication, interaction, networking, global international communication,
and social participation skills, rather than formal instruction. A case study is presented
illustrating a real example of how a tripartite collaboration between schools, institutions,
and enterprises can work to engage students around the SDGs. The project was a virtual
reality exploration of the planet Mars, in which young adult students at risk of exclusion
were engaged to collaborate, solve problems, and work toward gender equality. The authors
correlate the case study activities to several learning taxonomies, and propose the basis of
an action-oriented framework for developing a smart pedagogy of digital transformation.
Keywords: Smart pedagogy, Adult education, Sustainable development, Lifelong learning,
Education technology, Artificial intelligence, Virtual reality, Serious games.
Introduction
Clearly, we are in a period of significant educational change. The social
and technological evolution of this second decade of the 21st
century is
obliging us to re-examine our understanding of learning, and to modify
our teaching processes accordingly. For the first time, we have access to
a large body of analytics data that can actually give us a concrete measure
of where we are succeeding, and where we need improvement. The advent
of artificial intelligence (AI) as an educational tool will provide us with
much faster feedback than we have ever had before, but it will also render
the data we use much more complex. It will also provide the possibility
https://doi.org/10.22364/atee.2019.itre.01
11
Neus Lorenzo Galés, Ray Gallon. Integrating Education, Technology, and SDG’s ...
of a very fine-grained level of personalisation, in both the learning offer
provided to students, and the feedback data received by educators. As an
example, AI-driven facial recognition software is already being used in
schools, both for security (Tate, 2019) and to monitor student engagement
(Krithika & Lakshmi Priya, 2016).
The ubiquitous availability of information using Internet search engines
has already begun changing the role of teachers from source of subject
matter information to guide and facilitator through the complex maze of
today’s information-rich and technologically complex world. A valuable
model to help teachers with this daunting responsibility is the set of
17 sustainable development goals (SDG’s) for 2030 adopted by the United
Nations (United Nations, 2015). SDG 4 focuses on quality education, but
to achieve this quality, it is necessary to teach about all the other SDG’s.
In May 2019 the authors had the opportunity to present this study at
the Spring Conference of the Association for Teacher Education in Europe
(ATEE) in Riga. The data and reflections included here are the result of their
previous research, and call upon a case study on Catalan education (Spain).
The project in the study was designed to detect educational needs among
youngsters and illustrate how to respond to those needs, via a tripartite
partnership between schools, institutions, and private enterprise (SDG 17)
to foster the educational objectives of SDG 4 and all the other SDG’s.
SDG 17: Partnerships
The text of SDG 17 includes the following:
A successful sustainable development agenda requires partnerships
between governments, the private sector and civil society… These inclusive
partnerships, built upon principles and values, a shared vision, and shared
goals that place people and the planet at the centre, are needed at the global,
regional, national and local level (United Nations, 2015).
The shared vision and goals referred to in the text are the heart of
the ensemble of SDG’s. If we want to optimize education to include them
all, a tripartite partnership facilitates the task greatly. Each member of
the triad carries with it a set of “natural” SDG’s:
• Schools:
o SDG 4 – Quality Education
o SDG 5 – Gender Equality
o SDG 10 – Reduced Inequalities
• Institutions (e.g. ministries, government agencies, NGO’s):
o SDG 3 – Good Health and Well-Being
o SDG 11 – Sustainable Cities and Communities
12 Innovations, Technologies and Research in Education, 2019
o SDG 16 – Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions
• Private enterprise:
o SDG 7 – Affordable and Clean Energy
o SDG 8 – Decent Work and Economic Growth
o SDG 9 – Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure
Of course, responsibility is shared across the board, with the above
list indicating the lead sector. The remaining SDG’s can be dealt with
in education through the synergy that comes from these three sectors’
collaboration.
Demand for 21st
Century Skills
Although there is no real consensus on which 21st century skills should
be taught at school, there is a wide agreement that those should be more
than mere “school subjects.” They must be understood as real “transversal
competences” for solving complex problems and living together in
a hyperconnected world (OECD, 2017).
Communication, creativity and collaboration are among the most well-
accepted characteristics of the future digital citizen. When comparing
the skills that the World Economic Forum defended in 2016 as essential
in our modern world and the skills that The Catalan College of Economists
proposed for empowering the next generations of workers, we find several
correlations, as shown in Table 1:
Table 1. Comparison among skills defended by The World Economic Forum and
The Catalan College of Economists, as competences in demand (2016–2017).
Comparison by the authors
World Economic Forum
2016
Col·legi d’Economistes de Catalunya
2017
Complex problem-solving Creativity
Critical thinking Complex problem-solving
Creativity Decision-making
Human Resources management Human Resources management
Coordination & Networking Emotional intelligence
Emotional intelligence Cognitive flexibility
Decision-making Service orientation
This double list includes skills connected to high level thinking processes
(such as critical thinking and decision making), emotional and social
growth (emotional intelligence and networking), and strategic behaviour
(human resources management). These are skills in demand both for
13
Neus Lorenzo Galés, Ray Gallon. Integrating Education, Technology, and SDG’s ...
lifelong learning and labour markets, and they are part of the transversal
personal and professional abilities that the new generations should have
in their curricula. Often, this demand is not met through official adult
education courses, and it can produce disaffection for lifelong learning and
low demand for traditional adult education.
In Catalonia, public adult education schools offer formal, certified
studies. This includes basic literacies, levels of primary and secondary
studies for young adults who didn’t succeed in regular schools, and courses
for immigrants who did not complete studies in their home countries.
Adult education institutions also offer studies for students to prepare
the secondary education certificate, and the access exam for vocational
education. There is, however, no clear offer of transversal studies where
adult learners can develop global skills, learn how to organise personal
networking, or practice decision making. The authors of this article have
reviewed the official data for adult education in Catalonia, and compared
the specific demand for instructional education, cross curricular learning,
and global skills for lifelong learning. Data for adult education in Catalonia
is public and available on the Statistics web of the Department of
Education, for courses from 1998 to 2018 (Departament d’Educació, 2019).
The result is clear: the current general formal education offer is far from
Figure 1. Students in adult education, in Catalonia. Source: Departament
d’Ensenyament. Subdirecció General d’Organització, Coneixement i Sistemes
d’Informació. School Year 2017–2018 (publicly available data)
http://ensenyament.gencat.cat/ca/departament/estadistiques/estadistiques-
ensenyament/cursos-anteriors/curs-2017-2018/formacio-persones-adultes/
14 Innovations, Technologies and Research in Education, 2019
including the most demanded competences for the new labour markets.
This is not limited to adult education; universities are also trying to adapt
to changing needs by collaborating with private enterprises (Gallon &
Lorenzo, 2014, p. 132).
In the school year 2017–2018, the overall global demand for adult
education in Catalonia came from a total of 61.859 student (37% from
immigrant students and 63% from local students). This represents a clear
decrease from 2016–2017 (64.332 students), 2015–2016 (68.005 students)
and 2014–2015 (72.824 students). Figure 1 shows a clear decline of interest
in official studies for adult education in Catalonia.
In 2017–2018, the demand for general studies and access to compulsory
education was only 27% of the total request. This includes official training
Figure 2. Demand for cross-professional and social skills by young adults
in Catalonia. Source: Departament d’Ensenyament. Subdirecció General
d’Organització, Coneixement i Sistemes d’Informació. School Year 2017–2018
(publicly available data)
http://ensenyament.gencat.cat/ca/departament/estadistiques/estadistiques-
ensenyament/cursos-anteriors/curs-2017-2018/formacio-persones-adultes/
15
Neus Lorenzo Galés, Ray Gallon. Integrating Education, Technology, and SDG’s ...
for access to different vocational education studies and levels, together with
preparation for the selective exams required to access other official studies.
At the same time, 65% of the total demand was for more transversal studies
such as cross-professional and communicative strategies. As Figure 1 shows,
38% included foreign languages and digital competences, and 35% were
studies related to cohesion and social participation skills, including local
language (Catalan), instrumental language (Spanish), and instrumental
learning (competences at primary education level). These ratios show
how strategic studies in communication, interaction, networking, global
international communication, and social participation skills seem more
attractive to young adults, and represent two thirds of the total demand
(Figure 2).
Figure 3 breaks the demand down by segment. It clearly shows that
the combined interest in transversal and social studies for lifelong learning
far outstrips the demand for traditional instructional learning and access to
university studies.
Figure 3. Demand for studies in adult education in Catalonia (segmented).
Source: Departament d’Ensenyament. Subdirecció General d’Organització,
Coneixement i Sistemes d’Informació. School Year 2017–2018 (publicly
available data).
http://ensenyament.gencat.cat/ca/departament/estadistiques/
estadistiques-ensenyament/cursos-anteriors/curs-2017-2018/
formacio-persones-adultes/
16 Innovations, Technologies and Research in Education, 2019
In response to this demand, the Department of Education in Catalonia
is exploring different strategies to present alternative content with digital
methodologies. In the 2018–2019 school year, the department started
a series of case studies, collaborating with government agencies and private
industry, to motivate students, favour engagement, and develop lifelong
learning skills. They included workshops for vulnerable students using
virtual reality (VR) and gamified activities.
These activities were organised by the educational service devoted to kids
with social needs, in vulnerable situations, and at risk of marginalisation.
Case Study
Activity: Workshop based on an adventure in a 3D videogame.
The mission of the participants is to recuperate a technological artefact
that has fallen on the surface of the planet Mars. To accomplish this,
teams must take into account the hostile atmosphere, questions of survival,
management of technology, and their dependency on one another in
this environment. They must organise itineraries, solve problems, and
take collective decisions about tasks related to basic skills and literacies
(e.g. plurilingual communication, maths, map-reading, collaborative
problem-solving).
Participants: Students at risk of exclusion (one group of 16–18-year-olds,
at low secondary level at a state school, and one group of 18–23-year-olds,
in a state penitentiary school).
Languages of research: Catalan and English.
Place: A public secondary school, and a penitentiary school in Barcelona
(Catalonia, Spain),
Coordinating Institution: Subdirecció general de Tranformació Educativa,
Direcció General d’Innovació, Recerca i Cultura Digital. (Catalan
Department of Education).
Provider enterprises: NetLanguages (experts in foreign language teaching),
Humantiks (experts in Serious Games), and International House (expert
organization in language teacher training and professional development).
Other partners: Schools, Department of Justice (Catalonia).
Overview: This experience represents a tripartite partnership, where
responsibility between schools and institutional administration is also
shared with private enterprises, as outlined in SDG 17 of the 2030 Agenda.
Teaching and Learning techniques: Collaborative work, task-oriented
approach, problem-solving adventure, gamified routines in a 3D virtual
reality.
Hypothesis: The educational adventure, designed as a serious game, can
empower gender equity (SDG 5) and it activates the leadership role of girls
17
Neus Lorenzo Galés, Ray Gallon. Integrating Education, Technology, and SDG’s ...
in promoting peace and justice within the team (SDG 16). It demonstrates
the risk to life on land (SDG 15) and it allows students to explore ways
to assure good health and well-being (SDG 3), among other UN-2030
sustainable development goals.
Assessment: Participants and researchers applied qualitative analysis
and action-reflection (satisfaction surveys, and interviews with students
and teachers), and quantitative gender comparison of interests and skill
development consciousness.
Results of Research: Data shows that girls left the initial leadership to
boys, but once engaged in the game, girls are willing to accept team-
leadership to advise and direct the boys from a distance. Girls were initially
reluctant to use the VR glasses, and boys were more adventurous when
using them to navigate on Mars. Girls were more creative when exploring
possible solutions for specific tasks. When using basic literacies and skills
to solve the given tasks, gender seems to have a meaningful impact on
different levels and kinds of assertive behaviour. Full collaboration is better
accepted in mixed gender teams than in mono-gender teams. Teachers
detected different patterns of self-regulation during the 3D-game than in
ordinary classes. Both boys and girls declared that they were aware of how
important it is for them to learn new digital technologies as preparation for
future jobs. Both boys and girls were equally sensitive to issues of climate
change and social inclusion, during and after the game.
This type of activity provides multiple paths for exploring and
implementing the UN-2030 SDG’s in an educational context. It can also
offer excellent opportunities for research. It helps teachers and institutions
detect adolescents’ interest in learning about technology, it promotes digital
professional development among educators, it generates initial analysis of
gender preferences and attitudinal tendencies during collective debates,
and it favours action-oriented team mediation among young citizens.
These and other 21st
century skills are widely demanded in the labour
market, and they are necessary in adult schools, and very well considered
by the students themselves.
More experiences should be developed in different educational
ecosystems, and more studies of digital psycho-pedagogy and educational
technology are necessary to develop a proper knowledge base of the state-
of-the-art in smart pedagogy, related to readiness and acceptance of
VR, and other emerging digital technologies at school, among teachers,
families, and students (Lorenzo & Gallon, 2019) (Borawska-Kalbarczyk,
Tołwińska, & Korzeniecka-Bondar, 2019)
18 Innovations, Technologies and Research in Education, 2019
Theoretical Correlations
The study of the oretical correlations between different cognitive
paradigms can help develop a framework for smart pedagogy and digital
transformation. The most common pyramid of cognitive processes
(Bloom, Engelhart, Furst, Hill, & Krathwohl, 1956) is widely used in
education to explain high level thinking processes, to plan activities, and
analyse educational proposals, in six levels of complexity (knowledge,
comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation). The revision
of these levels, almost half a century later, presented a more dynamic
approach, transforming nouns to verbs and changing the tip of the pyramid:
remember, understand, apply, analyse, evaluate, create (Anderson, et al.,
2001).
Comparing those two cognitive continua with more a modern pyramid
of gamification, the highest concepts in the pyramid show similar levels of
complexity (Werbach & Hunter, 2012). The alignment between these learning
levels can create an interesting analytical paradigm for educators, that
provides reflection space for academia: a first level of explicit components
(objects, ideas, elements), a second level of mechanics (relationships,
dependences and organic relevance) and a third level of dynamics (social
transformation, integral changes and ethical evolution). These three levels
correlate with explicit, implicit and meta-cognitive information, and can be
used to describe assessment levels and evaluation challenges.
Assessing and classifying personal experience and decision making using
serious games (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990) already provides a potentially useful
way to develop social behaviour studies in virtual spaces. New sequences
of activities and new pedagogical ideas can emerge when exploring
teaching and learning hierarchies in correlation with ethical behaviour
and well-being in the digital world (Marope, Griffin, & Gallagher, 2017).
Marope’s UNESCO team has developed a well-adapted representation of
the information continuum in education, that can be integrated into real
life when learning about the world:
1. Remember Data
2. Understand Technology
3. Apply knowledge
4. Analise skills
5. Evaluate values
6. Create attitudes.
A transversal overview these different learning taxonomies can offer
interesting correlations, as shown in Figure 4.
A complete chart would integrate artificial intelligence by adding
the micro level of machine learning, and the meso level of smart technologies
19
Neus Lorenzo Galés, Ray Gallon. Integrating Education, Technology, and SDG’s ...
to explain, apply, and transform future technology development in education.
Table 2 presents the authors’ proposed basic framework for developing
a smart pedagogy of digital transformation, following the three domains of
social cognitive development: explicit information, implicit knowledge, and
abstract meta-reflection (Lorenzo Galés & Gallon, 2018, p. 26).
Figure 4. Correlation between cognitive taxonomies and learning theories
Table 2. Proposals for a smart pedagogy framework – correlation between
teaching and learning goals for transforming education. Source: the authors
Smart Pedagy for
Digital
Transformation
Students’
Cognitive
Processes
Teaching and
Learning
Paradigms
Ethical challenges
Level 3:
To evaluate and
encourage the transfer
of sustainable
transforming practices
Create Creating attitudes
Monitoring
AI Dynamics
(promoting Ethics)
Evaluate Evaluating values
Level 2:
To facilitate processes
and develop
networks for building
transformational
education
Analyse Analysing results Appropriate mechanics
of Smart Technology
(personalising teaching
and learning processes)
Apply
Applying
technology
Level 1:
To identify digital
learning goals
for transforming
educational ecosystems
Understand
Understanding
information
Exploring
the components of
Machine Learning
(avoiding bias, spotting
defective algorithms)
Remember Remembering data
20 Innovations, Technologies and Research in Education, 2019
Future Challenges
We should want to have AI behave at our best, not copy our worst.
Martin Ciupa
Throwing technology at educational processes will not give us
a pedagogy that can claim to be “smart.” If we aren’t capable of coupling
higher level thinking, serious analysis, and value-oriented actions to it,
we’ll just have proliferation of means without meaning.
The technologies that define the fourth industrial revolution, especially
artificial intelligence, are so powerful that their deployment at great scale
automatically implies equally great social and economic changes. As
educators, we have a responsibility to help our students understand the role
of these technologies, how they fit into a changing world, and their use for
achieving the greater good.
This means that to identify truly transformative digital learning goals,
we must be ready to face questions of cognitive bias in AI algorithms.
For example, how should we intervene on an unjust algorithm? If it used
statistical analysis to decide who would be a successful coder, an AI agent
would most likely never pick a woman, because of the gender biases that
exist today. This would not be a desired outcome for SDG 5’s aim of gender
equality. Can we develop both algorithms and human methodologies for
detection and verification of fake news? The processes inside deep learning
algorithms are invisible, even for the programmers who created them. Can
we instruct an algorithm to reveal its processes, so that we can maintain
traceability, and through it, accountability?
Our facilitating processes must help us to personalise teaching and
learning without isolating students in a solitary digital bubble. If an
algorithm is constantly encouraging a student to work on problem areas,
might it not miss an opportunity to facilitate the student’s work in areas
of strength and ability? We human educators must ensure that over-
automation does not lead to systemic damage, simply because no one
questioned the decisions of an AI agent.
One of our greatest challenges, then, will be to offer students the wealth
of potential empowerment that AI represents, and at the same time help
them develop the critical thinking that will allow them to remain vigilant
on questions of human-machine collaboration, the balance between
personalisation and community needs and values, or responsibility issues.
Above all, it is important that the use of these technologies, in
education as in other aspects of professional and personal life, be imbued
with a humanistic, ethical purpose, connected to notions of sustainable
development at individual and collective levels.
21
Neus Lorenzo Galés, Ray Gallon. Integrating Education, Technology, and SDG’s ...
A smart pedagogy for the digital age is one with head in the sky, and
feet on the ground. It’s a pedagogy that helps students acquire the skills
they need to thrive in 21st
century society, regardless of what professions or
interests they pursue. And it’s a pedagogy that adapts to new relationships
between humans and machines in a way that reminds us of our own best
qualities, and encourages us to realise our greatest human potentials.
References
Anderson, L., Krathwohl, D., Airasian, P., Cruikshank, K., Mayer, R., Pintrich, P., . . .
Wittrock, M. (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of
Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon.
Bloom, B., Engelhart, M., Furst, E., Hill, W., & Krathwohl, D. (1956). Taxonomy of
Educational Objectives, Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. (B. Bloom, Ed.) New York:
David McKay Co Inc.
Borawska-Kalbarczyk, K., Tołwińska, B., & Korzeniecka-Bondar, A. (2019). From Smart
Teaching to Smart Learning in the Fast-Changing Digital World. In L. Daniela (Ed.),
Didactics of Smart Pedagogy (pp. 23–40). Cham: Springer Nature.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow. The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York:
Harper-Row.
Departament d’Educació. (2019). Estadistica de l’Ensenyament: Cursos anteriors. Retrieved
June 16, 2019, from Generalitat de Catalonia: http://ensenyament.gencat.cat/ca/
departament/estadistiques/estadistiques-ensenyament/cursos-anteriors/.
Gallon, R., & Lorenzo, N. (2014). Higher education and Globalization. In F. M. Ribeiro,
Y. Politis, & B. Culum (Eds.), New Voices in Higher Education Research and Scholarship
(pp. 114–147). Hershey: IGI Global.
Krithika, L., & Lakshmi Priya, G. (2016, June). Student Emotion Recognition System
(SERS) for e-learning Improvement Based on Learner Concentration Metric. Procedia
Computer Science, 85, 767–776. Retrieved June 15, 2019, from Science Direct: https://
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877050916306147.
Lorenzo Galés, N., & Gallon, R. (2018). A Social Constructionist Model for Human-
Machine Ecosystems. In L. Daniela (Ed.), Learning Strategies and Constructionism in
Modern Education Settings (pp. 25–50). Hershey, PA, USA: IGI Global.
Lorenzo, N., & Gallon, R. (2019). Smart Pedagogy for Smart Learning. In L. Daniela
(Ed.), Didactics of Smart Pedagogy (pp. 41–69). Cham: Springer Nature.
Marope, M., Griffin, P., & Gallagher, C. (2017). Future Competences and the Future of
Curriculum: A Global Reference for Curricula Transformation. Paris: IBE-UNESCO Global
Curriculum Network.
OECD. (2017, July). PISA 2015 Collaborative Problem Solving Framework (Revised).
Retrieved June 16, 2019, from oecd.org: https://www.oecd.org/pisa/pisaproducts/
Draft%20PISA%202015%20Collaborative%20Problem%20Solving%20Framework%
20.pdf.
Tate, E. (2019, January 31). With Safety in Mind, Schools Turn to Facial Recognition
Technology. But at What Cost. Retrieved June 15, 2019, from Edsurge: https://www.
edsurge.com/news/2019-01-31-with-safety-in-mind-schools-turn-to-facial-recognition-
technology-but-at-what-cost.
22 Innovations, Technologies and Research in Education, 2019
United Nations. (2015, October 21). Transforming our world : the 2030 Agenda for
Sustainable Development. Retrieved March 30, 2019, from United Nations: https://
sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/21252030%20Agenda%20for%20
Sustainable%20Development%20web.pdf.
Werbach, K., & Hunter, D. (2012). For the Win: How Game Thinking Can Revolutionize
Your Business. Philadelphia: Wharton Digital Press.
Innovations, Technologies and Research in Education, 2019
Izdevējs: LU Akadēmiskais apgāds
Aspazijas bulv. 5–132, Rīga, LV-1050
www.apgads.lu.lv

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Integrating Education Technology and SDGs

  • 1. 9 7 8 9 9 3 4 1 8 4 8 1 9 ISBN 978-9934-18-481-9 Innovations, Technologies and Research in Education Proceedings of ATEE Spring Conference 2019 Proceedings of ATEE Spring Conference Innovations, Technologies and Research in Education, 2019
  • 2. PROCEEDINGS OF ATEE SPRING CONFERENCE INNOVATIONS, TECHNOLOGIES AND RESEARCH IN EDUCATION, 2019 University of Latvia Press
  • 3. Innovations, Technologies and Research in Education, 2019. Rīga, University of Latvia, 2019. 718 lpp. EDITOR Linda Daniela – University of Latvia, Latvia SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE Irēna Žogla – University of Latvia, Latvia Zanda Rubene – University of Latvia, Latvia Marta Kowalczuk-Waledziak – University of Białystok, Poland Austra Avotiņa – University of Latvia, Latvia Maurice Schols – Fontys University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands Elin Birkeland Markestad – Inland University of Applied Sciences, Norway Bashar Zogheib – American University of Kuwait, Kuwait Maria Giulia Ballatore – Politecnico di Torino, Italy Otilia Clipa – Stefan cel Mare University Suceava, Romania Francesco Maiorana – Kansas State University, USA; University of Catania, Italy Xhevdet Thaqi – Public University “Kadri Zeka” Gjilan, Kosovo William Nketsia – School of Education, Western Sydney University, Australia Gunta Silina-Jasjukevica – University of Latvia, Latvia Daiga Kalnina – University of Latvia, Latvia Asta Rauduvaitė – Vytautas Magnus University, Education Academy, Lithuania Joseph George Mallia – Institute for Tourism Studies, Malta Liat Shalev – Levinsky College of Education, Israel Rudīte Andersone – University of Latvia, Latvia Arta Rūdolfa – University of Latvia, Latvia Santa Dreimane – University of Latvia, Latvia © University of Latvia, 2019 https://doi.org/10.22364/atee.2019.itre ISBN 978-9934-18-481-9
  • 4. Contents Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Neus Lorenzo Galés, Ray Gallon Integrating Education, Technology, and SDG’s: a three-pronged collaboration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Lana Frančeska Dreimane Understanding the Educational Rationale Behind Learning in Virtual Reality: a Historical Development Vignette . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Francesco Maiorana Interdisciplinary Computing for Ste(a)m: a Low Floor High Ceiling Curriculum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Bashar Zogheib Using Structural Equation Modelling to Study the Influence of Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Compatibility on Students’ Attitudes Towards Using Ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Daiga Kalnina, Armands Kalnins Interactions Between Parenting Style in the Family and the Use of Smartphones and Tablets of 2–3 Years Old Children . . . . . 67 Irēna Žogla, Svetlana Ušča, Mihails Kijaško Focus on Curriculum Transformation Through Educator and Student Attitude Development to Digital Competence . . . . . . . . . 82 Santa Dreimane Technology-Enhanced Learning for the Development of Learning Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Anna Vulāne, Elita Stikute The Importance of Digital Resources in the Instruction of Modern Latvian Language and Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Annika Käck The Use of Digital Technologies in Swedish Teacher Education: Experiences by Migrant Teachers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Ragmi Mustafa, Kujtim Mustafa, Xhevdet Thaqi, Basri Ahmedi, Ekrem Halimi Digitalization as a Process of Assistance in the Transparency of University Teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
  • 5. Maria Giulia Ballatore, Igor Simone Stievano, Anita Tabacco Teach-Gym: Grow Your Methodologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Elin Birkeland Markestad, Bjørg Herberg Gloppen Technology and Relationships in the Guidance Context: an Article Based on a Study of Sustainable Relationships in Guidance Situations Between Teachers and Students in Higher Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Andis Āriņš Blockchain Arhitecture in Smart Pedagogy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Jevgenija Dehtjare, Jekaterina Korjuhina, Ilona Gehtmane-Hofmane An Application of the Modern Technological Solutions in an Order to Enhance the Process of Distance Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Edmunds Vanags, Pavels Pestovs Development of Metacognition Awareness Scale for 10th –12th Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Anda Priedite Enhancing Students’ Metacognition in the Classroom . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Manuel Joaquín Fernández González Character Growth Mindset Enhancement in Extracurricular Activities: an International Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 William Nketsia, Maxwell Peprah Opoku, Eric Lawer Torgbenu Teacher Trainees’ Experiences of Inclusive Practices During Teaching Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 Otilia Clipa, Valentina Juravle The Roles of the Online Environment in School–Family Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 Gunta Siliņa-Jasjukeviča, Ilze Briška Reflection of Preservice Teacher Professional Performance for Promoting Transdisciplinary Learning in Primary School Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 Daiga Celmiņa Artistic Cognition in Secondary School Literature Lessons . . . . . . . . . 312
  • 6. 5 Innovations, Technologies and Research in Education, 2019 Antra Ozola, Andrejs Geske What Do Teachers Do to Promote Students’ Reading Literacy at 4th Grade? – Evidence From Iea Pirls 2016 Study . . . . . . . 323 Liene Ozoliņa The Students` Visual Literacy for Knowledge Construction in the History of Latvia and the World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 Nijolė Bražienė, Daiva Grakauskaitė-Karkockienė Writing (Text Creation) Development of Primary Students at their Mother Tongue Lessons: Teachers’ Attitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 Sandrita Škėrienė The Integration of Problem Solving and Value Approach: the Shift Toward How to Think . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364 Pavels Pestovs, Dace Namsone National Level Large-Scale Assessment Data for Instructional Planning in Classroom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 Lūcija Anoško Fine Motor Skills Development in Preschool-Age Children with Speech and Language Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 Zanda Rubene, Artis Svece Development of Critical Thinking in Education of Latvia: Situation Analysis and Optimisation Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 Kristine Jozauska The Concept of Power in Teacher Talk in Contextuality of Teacher’s Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 Araromi Maxwell Olakunle Attitude and Vocabulary Knowledge as Predictors of Senior Secondary School Students’ Achievement in French Reading Comprehension in Selected Secondary Schools in Ibadan Metropolis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 Zanda Rubene, Gunita Elksne The Contribution of Transnational Learning to the Professional Development of Teachers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445 Ilze Šūmane, Baiba Martinsone, Dita Nīmante, Malgožata Raščevska, Solvita Umbraško Support Team for Children With Special Needs in Latvian Schools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
  • 7. 6 Innovations, Technologies and Research in Education, 2019 Ilona Gehtmane-Hofmane Grounded Theory Methodology for Understanding How Equine Assisted Learning Contributes to Adult Learning . . . . . . 464 Irēna Andersone, Guntars Bernāts Collective Music Making as a Developer of a Teenage Personality as a Whole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473 Ilze Saleniece, Dace Namsone, Līga Čakāne, Anete Butkēviča Towards a Context-Specific School Leadership Competence Framework: a Case Study of Latvia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483 Normunds Rečs, Andrejs Geske The Professional Learning Community as an Organizational System for School Staff Development, School Change and Improvement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498 Asta Rauduvaitė, Greta Šadeikytė The Aspects of Improving Teacher’s Professional Activity Oriented Towards the Learner’s Wellbeing and Success . . . . . . . . . . . 511 Līva Goba-Medne Shifting the Focus of Professional Development: from Individual Teachers’ Competences to a System of Contextual Professional Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527 Anete Butkēviča, Līga Čakāne, Inese Dudareva, Dace Namsone Piloting a Teacher Competence Management Model in Schools . . . . . 536 Oskars Kaulens Informal Learning for Teachers’ Professional Development at School: Opportunities and Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553 Liat Biberman-Shalev Rereading Freshman-Year Blogs: Third-Year Pre-Service Student Teachers Review Their First-Year Reflective Blogs . . . . . . . . . 570 Dita Nīmante, Maija Kokare Teacher’s Motivation for Master Degree Program in Educational Sciences in Latvia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581 Dace Medne, Nora Jansone Ratinika Professional Mastery of Academics in Higher Education: the Case of Latvia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591
  • 8. 7 Innovations, Technologies and Research in Education, 2019 Beatrix Fűzi, Erzsébet Jármai The Features and Types of University Students’ From the Viewpoint of Teachers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601 Juris Porozovs Latvia Students’ Interest in Different Science Subject Topics . . . . . . . 621 Anna Stavicka, Indra Odiņa, Anna Sedova The Impact of Native Language and Culture on Foreign Language Learning: the Case of Chinese Students Learning the Latvian Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633 Jelena Stepanova Team-Based Learning in Business English in Latvia and EU . . . . . . . . 645 Olga Zvereva Approaches to Embedding Global Dimension in Adult Education Curriculum by the Case Study of the Hospitality Business Toolkit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658 Austra Avotina The Cultural Competence Portfolio as a Long-Term Innovation for All Levels of Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 680 Rudīte Koka, Nora Jansone-Ratinika, Tatjana Koķe, Matīss Sīlis, Raimonds Strods Mapping as a Tool for Biomaterials Study Content Harmonization With Significant Research Findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 691 Reinis Upenieks Exploring Possibilities of Transformative Learning in Continuing Medical Education: a Literature Review . . . . . . . . . . . . 703
  • 9. 10 Innovations, Technologies and Research in Education, 2019 INTEGRATING EDUCATION, TECHNOLOGY, AND SDG’S: A THREE-PRONGED COLLABORATION Neus Lorenzo Galés Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, Spain Ray Gallon Universitat de Barcelona, Spain ABSTRACT Social and technological evolutions are forcing changes in education worldwide. An important guide for such changes are the sustainable development goals (SDG’s) adopted by the United Nations. SDG 17 calls for partnerships built on shared vision and goals. In this study, statistics reveal the need, in adult education, for more strategic transversal skills, such as communication, interaction, networking, global international communication, and social participation skills, rather than formal instruction. A case study is presented illustrating a real example of how a tripartite collaboration between schools, institutions, and enterprises can work to engage students around the SDGs. The project was a virtual reality exploration of the planet Mars, in which young adult students at risk of exclusion were engaged to collaborate, solve problems, and work toward gender equality. The authors correlate the case study activities to several learning taxonomies, and propose the basis of an action-oriented framework for developing a smart pedagogy of digital transformation. Keywords: Smart pedagogy, Adult education, Sustainable development, Lifelong learning, Education technology, Artificial intelligence, Virtual reality, Serious games. Introduction Clearly, we are in a period of significant educational change. The social and technological evolution of this second decade of the 21st century is obliging us to re-examine our understanding of learning, and to modify our teaching processes accordingly. For the first time, we have access to a large body of analytics data that can actually give us a concrete measure of where we are succeeding, and where we need improvement. The advent of artificial intelligence (AI) as an educational tool will provide us with much faster feedback than we have ever had before, but it will also render the data we use much more complex. It will also provide the possibility https://doi.org/10.22364/atee.2019.itre.01
  • 10. 11 Neus Lorenzo Galés, Ray Gallon. Integrating Education, Technology, and SDG’s ... of a very fine-grained level of personalisation, in both the learning offer provided to students, and the feedback data received by educators. As an example, AI-driven facial recognition software is already being used in schools, both for security (Tate, 2019) and to monitor student engagement (Krithika & Lakshmi Priya, 2016). The ubiquitous availability of information using Internet search engines has already begun changing the role of teachers from source of subject matter information to guide and facilitator through the complex maze of today’s information-rich and technologically complex world. A valuable model to help teachers with this daunting responsibility is the set of 17 sustainable development goals (SDG’s) for 2030 adopted by the United Nations (United Nations, 2015). SDG 4 focuses on quality education, but to achieve this quality, it is necessary to teach about all the other SDG’s. In May 2019 the authors had the opportunity to present this study at the Spring Conference of the Association for Teacher Education in Europe (ATEE) in Riga. The data and reflections included here are the result of their previous research, and call upon a case study on Catalan education (Spain). The project in the study was designed to detect educational needs among youngsters and illustrate how to respond to those needs, via a tripartite partnership between schools, institutions, and private enterprise (SDG 17) to foster the educational objectives of SDG 4 and all the other SDG’s. SDG 17: Partnerships The text of SDG 17 includes the following: A successful sustainable development agenda requires partnerships between governments, the private sector and civil society… These inclusive partnerships, built upon principles and values, a shared vision, and shared goals that place people and the planet at the centre, are needed at the global, regional, national and local level (United Nations, 2015). The shared vision and goals referred to in the text are the heart of the ensemble of SDG’s. If we want to optimize education to include them all, a tripartite partnership facilitates the task greatly. Each member of the triad carries with it a set of “natural” SDG’s: • Schools: o SDG 4 – Quality Education o SDG 5 – Gender Equality o SDG 10 – Reduced Inequalities • Institutions (e.g. ministries, government agencies, NGO’s): o SDG 3 – Good Health and Well-Being o SDG 11 – Sustainable Cities and Communities
  • 11. 12 Innovations, Technologies and Research in Education, 2019 o SDG 16 – Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions • Private enterprise: o SDG 7 – Affordable and Clean Energy o SDG 8 – Decent Work and Economic Growth o SDG 9 – Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure Of course, responsibility is shared across the board, with the above list indicating the lead sector. The remaining SDG’s can be dealt with in education through the synergy that comes from these three sectors’ collaboration. Demand for 21st Century Skills Although there is no real consensus on which 21st century skills should be taught at school, there is a wide agreement that those should be more than mere “school subjects.” They must be understood as real “transversal competences” for solving complex problems and living together in a hyperconnected world (OECD, 2017). Communication, creativity and collaboration are among the most well- accepted characteristics of the future digital citizen. When comparing the skills that the World Economic Forum defended in 2016 as essential in our modern world and the skills that The Catalan College of Economists proposed for empowering the next generations of workers, we find several correlations, as shown in Table 1: Table 1. Comparison among skills defended by The World Economic Forum and The Catalan College of Economists, as competences in demand (2016–2017). Comparison by the authors World Economic Forum 2016 Col·legi d’Economistes de Catalunya 2017 Complex problem-solving Creativity Critical thinking Complex problem-solving Creativity Decision-making Human Resources management Human Resources management Coordination & Networking Emotional intelligence Emotional intelligence Cognitive flexibility Decision-making Service orientation This double list includes skills connected to high level thinking processes (such as critical thinking and decision making), emotional and social growth (emotional intelligence and networking), and strategic behaviour (human resources management). These are skills in demand both for
  • 12. 13 Neus Lorenzo Galés, Ray Gallon. Integrating Education, Technology, and SDG’s ... lifelong learning and labour markets, and they are part of the transversal personal and professional abilities that the new generations should have in their curricula. Often, this demand is not met through official adult education courses, and it can produce disaffection for lifelong learning and low demand for traditional adult education. In Catalonia, public adult education schools offer formal, certified studies. This includes basic literacies, levels of primary and secondary studies for young adults who didn’t succeed in regular schools, and courses for immigrants who did not complete studies in their home countries. Adult education institutions also offer studies for students to prepare the secondary education certificate, and the access exam for vocational education. There is, however, no clear offer of transversal studies where adult learners can develop global skills, learn how to organise personal networking, or practice decision making. The authors of this article have reviewed the official data for adult education in Catalonia, and compared the specific demand for instructional education, cross curricular learning, and global skills for lifelong learning. Data for adult education in Catalonia is public and available on the Statistics web of the Department of Education, for courses from 1998 to 2018 (Departament d’Educació, 2019). The result is clear: the current general formal education offer is far from Figure 1. Students in adult education, in Catalonia. Source: Departament d’Ensenyament. Subdirecció General d’Organització, Coneixement i Sistemes d’Informació. School Year 2017–2018 (publicly available data) http://ensenyament.gencat.cat/ca/departament/estadistiques/estadistiques- ensenyament/cursos-anteriors/curs-2017-2018/formacio-persones-adultes/
  • 13. 14 Innovations, Technologies and Research in Education, 2019 including the most demanded competences for the new labour markets. This is not limited to adult education; universities are also trying to adapt to changing needs by collaborating with private enterprises (Gallon & Lorenzo, 2014, p. 132). In the school year 2017–2018, the overall global demand for adult education in Catalonia came from a total of 61.859 student (37% from immigrant students and 63% from local students). This represents a clear decrease from 2016–2017 (64.332 students), 2015–2016 (68.005 students) and 2014–2015 (72.824 students). Figure 1 shows a clear decline of interest in official studies for adult education in Catalonia. In 2017–2018, the demand for general studies and access to compulsory education was only 27% of the total request. This includes official training Figure 2. Demand for cross-professional and social skills by young adults in Catalonia. Source: Departament d’Ensenyament. Subdirecció General d’Organització, Coneixement i Sistemes d’Informació. School Year 2017–2018 (publicly available data) http://ensenyament.gencat.cat/ca/departament/estadistiques/estadistiques- ensenyament/cursos-anteriors/curs-2017-2018/formacio-persones-adultes/
  • 14. 15 Neus Lorenzo Galés, Ray Gallon. Integrating Education, Technology, and SDG’s ... for access to different vocational education studies and levels, together with preparation for the selective exams required to access other official studies. At the same time, 65% of the total demand was for more transversal studies such as cross-professional and communicative strategies. As Figure 1 shows, 38% included foreign languages and digital competences, and 35% were studies related to cohesion and social participation skills, including local language (Catalan), instrumental language (Spanish), and instrumental learning (competences at primary education level). These ratios show how strategic studies in communication, interaction, networking, global international communication, and social participation skills seem more attractive to young adults, and represent two thirds of the total demand (Figure 2). Figure 3 breaks the demand down by segment. It clearly shows that the combined interest in transversal and social studies for lifelong learning far outstrips the demand for traditional instructional learning and access to university studies. Figure 3. Demand for studies in adult education in Catalonia (segmented). Source: Departament d’Ensenyament. Subdirecció General d’Organització, Coneixement i Sistemes d’Informació. School Year 2017–2018 (publicly available data). http://ensenyament.gencat.cat/ca/departament/estadistiques/ estadistiques-ensenyament/cursos-anteriors/curs-2017-2018/ formacio-persones-adultes/
  • 15. 16 Innovations, Technologies and Research in Education, 2019 In response to this demand, the Department of Education in Catalonia is exploring different strategies to present alternative content with digital methodologies. In the 2018–2019 school year, the department started a series of case studies, collaborating with government agencies and private industry, to motivate students, favour engagement, and develop lifelong learning skills. They included workshops for vulnerable students using virtual reality (VR) and gamified activities. These activities were organised by the educational service devoted to kids with social needs, in vulnerable situations, and at risk of marginalisation. Case Study Activity: Workshop based on an adventure in a 3D videogame. The mission of the participants is to recuperate a technological artefact that has fallen on the surface of the planet Mars. To accomplish this, teams must take into account the hostile atmosphere, questions of survival, management of technology, and their dependency on one another in this environment. They must organise itineraries, solve problems, and take collective decisions about tasks related to basic skills and literacies (e.g. plurilingual communication, maths, map-reading, collaborative problem-solving). Participants: Students at risk of exclusion (one group of 16–18-year-olds, at low secondary level at a state school, and one group of 18–23-year-olds, in a state penitentiary school). Languages of research: Catalan and English. Place: A public secondary school, and a penitentiary school in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain), Coordinating Institution: Subdirecció general de Tranformació Educativa, Direcció General d’Innovació, Recerca i Cultura Digital. (Catalan Department of Education). Provider enterprises: NetLanguages (experts in foreign language teaching), Humantiks (experts in Serious Games), and International House (expert organization in language teacher training and professional development). Other partners: Schools, Department of Justice (Catalonia). Overview: This experience represents a tripartite partnership, where responsibility between schools and institutional administration is also shared with private enterprises, as outlined in SDG 17 of the 2030 Agenda. Teaching and Learning techniques: Collaborative work, task-oriented approach, problem-solving adventure, gamified routines in a 3D virtual reality. Hypothesis: The educational adventure, designed as a serious game, can empower gender equity (SDG 5) and it activates the leadership role of girls
  • 16. 17 Neus Lorenzo Galés, Ray Gallon. Integrating Education, Technology, and SDG’s ... in promoting peace and justice within the team (SDG 16). It demonstrates the risk to life on land (SDG 15) and it allows students to explore ways to assure good health and well-being (SDG 3), among other UN-2030 sustainable development goals. Assessment: Participants and researchers applied qualitative analysis and action-reflection (satisfaction surveys, and interviews with students and teachers), and quantitative gender comparison of interests and skill development consciousness. Results of Research: Data shows that girls left the initial leadership to boys, but once engaged in the game, girls are willing to accept team- leadership to advise and direct the boys from a distance. Girls were initially reluctant to use the VR glasses, and boys were more adventurous when using them to navigate on Mars. Girls were more creative when exploring possible solutions for specific tasks. When using basic literacies and skills to solve the given tasks, gender seems to have a meaningful impact on different levels and kinds of assertive behaviour. Full collaboration is better accepted in mixed gender teams than in mono-gender teams. Teachers detected different patterns of self-regulation during the 3D-game than in ordinary classes. Both boys and girls declared that they were aware of how important it is for them to learn new digital technologies as preparation for future jobs. Both boys and girls were equally sensitive to issues of climate change and social inclusion, during and after the game. This type of activity provides multiple paths for exploring and implementing the UN-2030 SDG’s in an educational context. It can also offer excellent opportunities for research. It helps teachers and institutions detect adolescents’ interest in learning about technology, it promotes digital professional development among educators, it generates initial analysis of gender preferences and attitudinal tendencies during collective debates, and it favours action-oriented team mediation among young citizens. These and other 21st century skills are widely demanded in the labour market, and they are necessary in adult schools, and very well considered by the students themselves. More experiences should be developed in different educational ecosystems, and more studies of digital psycho-pedagogy and educational technology are necessary to develop a proper knowledge base of the state- of-the-art in smart pedagogy, related to readiness and acceptance of VR, and other emerging digital technologies at school, among teachers, families, and students (Lorenzo & Gallon, 2019) (Borawska-Kalbarczyk, Tołwińska, & Korzeniecka-Bondar, 2019)
  • 17. 18 Innovations, Technologies and Research in Education, 2019 Theoretical Correlations The study of the oretical correlations between different cognitive paradigms can help develop a framework for smart pedagogy and digital transformation. The most common pyramid of cognitive processes (Bloom, Engelhart, Furst, Hill, & Krathwohl, 1956) is widely used in education to explain high level thinking processes, to plan activities, and analyse educational proposals, in six levels of complexity (knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation). The revision of these levels, almost half a century later, presented a more dynamic approach, transforming nouns to verbs and changing the tip of the pyramid: remember, understand, apply, analyse, evaluate, create (Anderson, et al., 2001). Comparing those two cognitive continua with more a modern pyramid of gamification, the highest concepts in the pyramid show similar levels of complexity (Werbach & Hunter, 2012). The alignment between these learning levels can create an interesting analytical paradigm for educators, that provides reflection space for academia: a first level of explicit components (objects, ideas, elements), a second level of mechanics (relationships, dependences and organic relevance) and a third level of dynamics (social transformation, integral changes and ethical evolution). These three levels correlate with explicit, implicit and meta-cognitive information, and can be used to describe assessment levels and evaluation challenges. Assessing and classifying personal experience and decision making using serious games (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990) already provides a potentially useful way to develop social behaviour studies in virtual spaces. New sequences of activities and new pedagogical ideas can emerge when exploring teaching and learning hierarchies in correlation with ethical behaviour and well-being in the digital world (Marope, Griffin, & Gallagher, 2017). Marope’s UNESCO team has developed a well-adapted representation of the information continuum in education, that can be integrated into real life when learning about the world: 1. Remember Data 2. Understand Technology 3. Apply knowledge 4. Analise skills 5. Evaluate values 6. Create attitudes. A transversal overview these different learning taxonomies can offer interesting correlations, as shown in Figure 4. A complete chart would integrate artificial intelligence by adding the micro level of machine learning, and the meso level of smart technologies
  • 18. 19 Neus Lorenzo Galés, Ray Gallon. Integrating Education, Technology, and SDG’s ... to explain, apply, and transform future technology development in education. Table 2 presents the authors’ proposed basic framework for developing a smart pedagogy of digital transformation, following the three domains of social cognitive development: explicit information, implicit knowledge, and abstract meta-reflection (Lorenzo Galés & Gallon, 2018, p. 26). Figure 4. Correlation between cognitive taxonomies and learning theories Table 2. Proposals for a smart pedagogy framework – correlation between teaching and learning goals for transforming education. Source: the authors Smart Pedagy for Digital Transformation Students’ Cognitive Processes Teaching and Learning Paradigms Ethical challenges Level 3: To evaluate and encourage the transfer of sustainable transforming practices Create Creating attitudes Monitoring AI Dynamics (promoting Ethics) Evaluate Evaluating values Level 2: To facilitate processes and develop networks for building transformational education Analyse Analysing results Appropriate mechanics of Smart Technology (personalising teaching and learning processes) Apply Applying technology Level 1: To identify digital learning goals for transforming educational ecosystems Understand Understanding information Exploring the components of Machine Learning (avoiding bias, spotting defective algorithms) Remember Remembering data
  • 19. 20 Innovations, Technologies and Research in Education, 2019 Future Challenges We should want to have AI behave at our best, not copy our worst. Martin Ciupa Throwing technology at educational processes will not give us a pedagogy that can claim to be “smart.” If we aren’t capable of coupling higher level thinking, serious analysis, and value-oriented actions to it, we’ll just have proliferation of means without meaning. The technologies that define the fourth industrial revolution, especially artificial intelligence, are so powerful that their deployment at great scale automatically implies equally great social and economic changes. As educators, we have a responsibility to help our students understand the role of these technologies, how they fit into a changing world, and their use for achieving the greater good. This means that to identify truly transformative digital learning goals, we must be ready to face questions of cognitive bias in AI algorithms. For example, how should we intervene on an unjust algorithm? If it used statistical analysis to decide who would be a successful coder, an AI agent would most likely never pick a woman, because of the gender biases that exist today. This would not be a desired outcome for SDG 5’s aim of gender equality. Can we develop both algorithms and human methodologies for detection and verification of fake news? The processes inside deep learning algorithms are invisible, even for the programmers who created them. Can we instruct an algorithm to reveal its processes, so that we can maintain traceability, and through it, accountability? Our facilitating processes must help us to personalise teaching and learning without isolating students in a solitary digital bubble. If an algorithm is constantly encouraging a student to work on problem areas, might it not miss an opportunity to facilitate the student’s work in areas of strength and ability? We human educators must ensure that over- automation does not lead to systemic damage, simply because no one questioned the decisions of an AI agent. One of our greatest challenges, then, will be to offer students the wealth of potential empowerment that AI represents, and at the same time help them develop the critical thinking that will allow them to remain vigilant on questions of human-machine collaboration, the balance between personalisation and community needs and values, or responsibility issues. Above all, it is important that the use of these technologies, in education as in other aspects of professional and personal life, be imbued with a humanistic, ethical purpose, connected to notions of sustainable development at individual and collective levels.
  • 20. 21 Neus Lorenzo Galés, Ray Gallon. Integrating Education, Technology, and SDG’s ... A smart pedagogy for the digital age is one with head in the sky, and feet on the ground. It’s a pedagogy that helps students acquire the skills they need to thrive in 21st century society, regardless of what professions or interests they pursue. And it’s a pedagogy that adapts to new relationships between humans and machines in a way that reminds us of our own best qualities, and encourages us to realise our greatest human potentials. References Anderson, L., Krathwohl, D., Airasian, P., Cruikshank, K., Mayer, R., Pintrich, P., . . . Wittrock, M. (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon. Bloom, B., Engelhart, M., Furst, E., Hill, W., & Krathwohl, D. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. (B. Bloom, Ed.) New York: David McKay Co Inc. Borawska-Kalbarczyk, K., Tołwińska, B., & Korzeniecka-Bondar, A. (2019). From Smart Teaching to Smart Learning in the Fast-Changing Digital World. In L. Daniela (Ed.), Didactics of Smart Pedagogy (pp. 23–40). Cham: Springer Nature. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow. The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: Harper-Row. Departament d’Educació. (2019). Estadistica de l’Ensenyament: Cursos anteriors. Retrieved June 16, 2019, from Generalitat de Catalonia: http://ensenyament.gencat.cat/ca/ departament/estadistiques/estadistiques-ensenyament/cursos-anteriors/. Gallon, R., & Lorenzo, N. (2014). Higher education and Globalization. In F. M. Ribeiro, Y. Politis, & B. Culum (Eds.), New Voices in Higher Education Research and Scholarship (pp. 114–147). Hershey: IGI Global. Krithika, L., & Lakshmi Priya, G. (2016, June). Student Emotion Recognition System (SERS) for e-learning Improvement Based on Learner Concentration Metric. Procedia Computer Science, 85, 767–776. Retrieved June 15, 2019, from Science Direct: https:// www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877050916306147. Lorenzo Galés, N., & Gallon, R. (2018). A Social Constructionist Model for Human- Machine Ecosystems. In L. Daniela (Ed.), Learning Strategies and Constructionism in Modern Education Settings (pp. 25–50). Hershey, PA, USA: IGI Global. Lorenzo, N., & Gallon, R. (2019). Smart Pedagogy for Smart Learning. In L. Daniela (Ed.), Didactics of Smart Pedagogy (pp. 41–69). Cham: Springer Nature. Marope, M., Griffin, P., & Gallagher, C. (2017). Future Competences and the Future of Curriculum: A Global Reference for Curricula Transformation. Paris: IBE-UNESCO Global Curriculum Network. OECD. (2017, July). PISA 2015 Collaborative Problem Solving Framework (Revised). Retrieved June 16, 2019, from oecd.org: https://www.oecd.org/pisa/pisaproducts/ Draft%20PISA%202015%20Collaborative%20Problem%20Solving%20Framework% 20.pdf. Tate, E. (2019, January 31). With Safety in Mind, Schools Turn to Facial Recognition Technology. But at What Cost. Retrieved June 15, 2019, from Edsurge: https://www. edsurge.com/news/2019-01-31-with-safety-in-mind-schools-turn-to-facial-recognition- technology-but-at-what-cost.
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  • 22. Innovations, Technologies and Research in Education, 2019 Izdevējs: LU Akadēmiskais apgāds Aspazijas bulv. 5–132, Rīga, LV-1050 www.apgads.lu.lv