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Projects are planned and implemented in terms of their Goals and Objectives set by the Project Champion and StakeholdersGoals and Objectives must be clearly defined and established at the outset.Goals are outcomes whilst Objectives are activities that will result in the desired outcome
Goal and Objectives can be seen as a contractbetween the project manager and sponsors(Watson, 1998).not set in stone and can be changed with theagreement of those involved should the projectrequirements change during the processall changes must be agreed upon between theproject manager and sponsors, andcommunicated to project team.
what are Project Goals and Objective?To answer this question three interrelatedqueries need to be identified:• What are the project objectives?• What are the outputs from project?• What are the criteria for assessing project success?Bee and Bee (1997) argue that the answer to abovequeries provide the vital foundation for successfulcompletion of all subsequent project stages
Project Objectives need to be aligned with organisational,team, and individual Objectives to ensure that commonfocus is set on common goals (Bee and Bee, 1997). To ensure successful alignment following issues need to be considered: •Organisational objectives •Team Objectives •Individual ObjectivesOrganisational Objectives are outcomes that the Firm wantto achieve. Project Objectives are the activities involved inachieving the Firm’s goals (Field and Keller, 1998).
Objectives are the underlying basis for the projectactivities and express goals in SMART termsThey specify what the outcome will be and whatactivities are required for agreed gaolsThey state final outcomes in terms of improvedpercentages/ratios, or new products/processesObjectives help define the project in terms of itspurpose and perceived benefits, therefore it need tocontain both quantitative and qualitative information(Turner, 1997).
Objectives need to be SMART: •Specific: clearly stated with specific outcomes. •Measureable: so the end of each objective can be identified and measured against success criteria •Achievable: attainable given the available resources, time, and technology, in accordance with required quality. •Realistic: sensible, pragmatic, and prioritised activities for achieving set goals. •Timely: planned and attained tasks according to base line and prioritisation of hierarchy of needs.
Objectives are developed within the limits set by the project tripleconstraints – also known as primary objectives - of time,resources, and scope, in accordance with required quality forproject output Cost Quality Time ScopeSmith (2008) argues that satisfying all three primary objectives infull is almost impossible. Preferences must be applied in decidingthe relative importance of each constraint in relation to goals.
Goals are desired outcomes whilst Objectives are a set of activitiesfor achieving goals.They need to be developed and established at the outset andcommunicated to everyone involved.Project goals and objectives must be aligned with organisationalgoals and objectives in order to gain approval and contribute tooverall organisational strategy.Objectives should be SMART and set within the limits of tripleconstraint.Goals are broad long term outcomes and objectives are specificmeasurable short term activities that will articulate project goals.
Defining Project Objectives:http://www.projectsmart.co.uk/defining-project-goals-and-objectives.htmlhttp://www.projectsmart.co.uk/use-smart-objectives-to-focus-goals-plans-and-performance.htmlhttp://www.ehow.com/how_8689923_write-project-objectives.htmlOpen learn information for Objectives:http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=403254§ion=2.5Using aims and objectives to create a business strategyhttp://businesscasestudies.co.uk/kelloggs/using-aims-and-objectives-to-create-a-business-strategy/introduction.html#ixzz25ai9PacIVideo Tutorials for Setting SMART Goals:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uThBb3kGf4k&feature=related
ReferencesBee, R, and Bee, F, 1997, Project Management The People Challenge,London, Cromwell PressField, M, and Keller L, 1998, Project Management, London,International Thomson Business PressMeredith, J. R., and Mantel, S. J., 1995, Project Management AManagerial Approach, 3rd Ed, USA, Wiley and Sons. Inc.Smith, N. J., 2008, Engineering Project Management, Oxford, 3rd Ed,Blackwell Publishing LtdTurner, J. R., 1997, The Handbook of Project-Based Management,Maidenhead, McGraw-Hill Publishing CompanyWatson, M, 1998, Managing Small Projects, Wokingham, ProjectManager Today Publications