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Storage Interfaces
SATA
2
Where ATA Resides in the PC Architecture
CD
HD
SATA
SATA
3
History of Parallel ATA
Generation Standard Year Speed Key features
IDE 1986 Pre-standard
ATA 1994
PIO modes 0-2, multiw...
4
• Bandwidth limited to 133 MB/s
• Cyclic Redundancy Checking (CRC) for data but not commands
• Support attachment of 2 d...
5
Benefits of Serial Based Storage
• Frame-based transaction protocol (OSI model)
– Small, inexpensive connectors and cabl...
6
PATA and SATA Comparisons
Source: SATA Working
Group
7
History of serial ATA
Generation Standard Year Speed Key features
Serial ATA ATA/ATAPI-7 2002 150 MB/sec
Serial ATA II A...
8
SATA Technology Today
• SATA has been the most successful recent new storage interface
– It has been a multi billion dol...
9
SATA Layer Architecture
10
SATA Layer Architecture
Connectivity
• Serial ATA is point-to-point topology
– Hosts can support multiple devices but requires
multiple links
– 10...
Link Characteristics
• SATA uses full-duplex links
– Protocol only permits frame transfer in one
direction at a time
– Eac...
Power Management
• SATA has
– Phy Ready – Capable of sending and receiving data. Main
phase locked loop are on and active
...
SATA Architectural Model
Device Control Software
Buffer Memory
DMA management
Serial digital transport control
Serial digi...
15
Physical Layer - Summary
• Defines the connectors and cabling used to
transmit and receive SATA signaling and data
info...
16
Physical Layer - SATA Device Connector
Serial ATA
signal
connector
(pin S1)
Appearance of Serial ATA Connectors
(Drawin...
17
Physical Layer - SATA Cabling
Graphics courtesy of
Molex
SATA to SATA
(1), CO, ST
The most
common
internal for
SATA (an...
18
Physical Layer - Summary
• OOB (Out of Band) Signaling
• Speed Negotiations
• Byte/dword synchronization
19
Phy Layer - (OOB)
• Most primitive level of communication is OOB
• They are pattern of idle times and burst times, dist...
20
Phy Layer - (OOB)
• COMINIT/COMRESET and COMWAKE are bursts of 6 ALIGN (0) separated by
IDLEs
• Length of the idle time...
21
Phy Layer - OOB COMWAKE
22
Phy Layer - OOB COMINIT/COMRESET
Electrically, COMINIT and COMRESET appear exactly the same, the only
difference is the...
23
SATA Power-On Initialization
• Starts with the assertion of hardware reset
• Begins Out-Of-Band (OOB) signaling
• Allow...
24
Power-On Initialization Process
Host Device
25
SATA Power-On Initialization
26
Error Situation
Example: Host and Device are unable to establish a
connection. Continuous transmission errors are seen ...
27
Primitive Handshaking
Sender Receiver
X_RDY
R_RDY
SOF
Frame
.
.
.
EOF
R_IP
R_OK
WTRM
28
Primitive Handshaking
Example: Host sends commands but commands
are not completed
Trace indicates that Host is not prop...
29
SATA Speed Negotiation
• Fast to slow progression
– SATA target device sends ALIGN primitives at the
fastest supported ...
30
SATA Speed Negotiation
• When host replies with ALIGNs, it has locked at the current
frequency and negotiation is compl...
Out of Band
• Part of normal power on sequence
• Allows host to issue a device hard reset
• Allows device to request a har...
Out of Band Signals (cont.)
• COMWAKE
– Can be originated by either host or device
– Used as final phase of OOB initializa...
Out of Band Signal Forms
COMRESET / COMINIT
COMWAKE
106.7 ns
106.7 ns 106.7 ns
320 ns
Out of Band Signaling Protocol
Host Device
SATA Port Model
Clock & Data
Recovery
Serializer
Deserializer
AnalogFrontEnd
OOB Detect
COMRESET /
COMINIT
COMWAKE
Data Ou...
SATA Architectural Model
Device Control Software
Buffer Memory
DMA management
Serial digital transport control
Serial digi...
Link Layer
• 8b / 10b encoding
• Scrambles and descrambles data and control
words
• Converts data from transport layer int...
Encoding Concepts
• All 32 bit Dwords are encoded for SATA
– 32 bits data = 40 bits of transmission
• Provides sufficient ...
Current Running Disparity (CRD)
• As each character is encoded a count is maintained
of the number of 0’s and 1’s being tr...
CRD+ & CRD- Encoded Characters
0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1
8b Character 0x3F
This 10b Characte...
SATA Primitives
• Convey real-time state information
• Control transfer of information between host
and device
• Provide h...
SATA Primitives
• ALIGN – Speed negotiation and at least every
256 Dword
• SYNC – Used when in idle to maintain bit
synchr...
SATA Primitives
• X_RDY
• R_RDY
• R_IP
• R_OK
• R_ERR
SOF
EOF
HOLD
HOLDA
SATA Frame Structure
• All SATA frames consist of:
– A start of frame (SOF) delimiter
– A payload – transport layer inform...
Link Layer Protocol (1)
SYNCSYNCSYNCSYNCSYNCSYNC
SYNC SYNCSYNCSYNCSYNCSYNC
Host Device
Link Layer Protocol (2)
SYNCSYNCX_RDYX_RDYX_RDYX_RDY
SYNC SYNCSYNCSYNCSYNCSYNC
Host Device
Link Layer Protocol (3)
X_RDYX_RDYX_RDYX_RDYX_RDYX_RDY
SYNC R_RDYR_RDYR_RDYR_RDYSYNC
Host Device
Link Layer Protocol (4)
X_RDYX_RDYSOFDATADATADATA
R_RDY R_RDYR_RDYR_RDYR_RDYR_RDY
Host Device
Link Layer Protocol (5)
DATADATADATADATADATADATA
R_RDY R_IPR_IPR_IPR_IPR_RDY
Host Device
Link Layer Protocol (6)
DATADATACRCEOFWTRMWTRM
R_IP R_IPR_IPR_IPR_IPR_IP
Host Device
Link Layer Protocol (7)
CRCEOFWTRMWTRMWTRMWTRM
R_IP R_IPR_IPR_IPR_IPR_IP
Host Device
Link Layer Protocol (8)
WTRMWTRMWTRMWTRMWTRMWTRM
R_IP R_OKR_OKR_OKR_OKR_IP
Host Device
Link Layer Protocol (9)
WTRMWTRMSYNCSYNCSYNCSYNC
R_OK R_OKR_OKR_OKR_OKR_OK
Host Device
Link Layer Protocol (last)
SYNCSYNCSYNCSYNCSYNCSYNC
R_OK SYNCSYNCSYNCSYNCR_OK
Host Device
SATA Architectural Model
Device Control Software
Buffer Memory
DMA management
Serial digital transport control
Serial digi...
Transport Layer
• Responsible for the management of Frame
Information Structures (FIS)
• At the command of Application lay...
Frame Information Structure (FIS)
• A FIS is a mechanism to transfer information
between host and device application layer...
FIS types
FIS TYPE
CODE
Description Direction
27h Register transfer host to device H D
34h Register transfer device to hos...
Register – Host to Device FIS
Byte 3 Byte 2 Byte 1 Byte 0
Dword 0 Features Command Reserved FIS TYPE
(27h)
Dword 1 Dev/Hea...
BIST Activate FIS
Byte 3 Byte 2 Byte 1 Byte 0
0 Reserved [ TASLFPRV ] Reserved FIS Type 58h
1 Data [31:24] Data [23:16] Da...
Data FIS
Byte 3 Byte 2 Byte 1 Byte 0
Dword 0 Reserved Reserved Reserved FIS TYPE
(46h)
Dword 1
N Dwords of Data
Minimum 1 ...
SATA Architectural Model
Device Control Software
Buffer Memory
DMA management
Serial digital transport control
Serial digi...
Command / Application Layer
• Defined using a series of state diagrams
– Register H  D
– Register D  H
– DMA data in
– D...
Compatibility SATA
• PCI SATA controller card
• Windows 2000/XP/2003/Vista
• Integrated SATA CRC on both levels of
command...
SATA Protocol
SATA Protocol
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SATA Protocol

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SATA Protocol

  1. 1. Storage Interfaces SATA
  2. 2. 2 Where ATA Resides in the PC Architecture CD HD SATA SATA
  3. 3. 3 History of Parallel ATA Generation Standard Year Speed Key features IDE 1986 Pre-standard ATA 1994 PIO modes 0-2, multiword DMA 0 EIDE ATA-2 1996 16 MB/sec PIO modes 3-4, multiword DMA modes 1-2, LBAs ATA-3 1997 16 MB/sec SMART ATA/ATAPI-4 1998 33 MB/sec Ultra DMA modes 0- 2, CRC, overlap, queuing, 80- wire Ultra DMA 66 ATA/ATAPI-5 2000 66 MB/sec Ultra DMA mode 3-4 Ultra DMA 100 ATA/ATAPI-6 2002 100 MB/sec Ultra DMA mode 5, 48-bit LBA Ultra DMA 133 ATA/ATAPI-7 2003 133 MB/sec Ultra DMA mode 6
  4. 4. 4 • Bandwidth limited to 133 MB/s • Cyclic Redundancy Checking (CRC) for data but not commands • Support attachment of 2 devices per cable • Small switch or jumper for drive selection • High pin count on signaling interface adds cost to cables, connectors and components • Wide cables are cumbersome and inhibit airflow making cooling more difficult and expensive • Connectors hard to insert and remove • Prone to bent pins Limitations of Parallel ATA
  5. 5. 5 Benefits of Serial Based Storage • Frame-based transaction protocol (OSI model) – Small, inexpensive connectors and cables • Legacy support - ATA stack in SATA • Ease of integration – cabling, jumpers • Point-to-point connections (expanders, port multipliers) • Pathway to higher data rates; 6 Gb/s is on the roadmap • Improve bandwidth – Wide ports permit several simultaneous connections, allowing for link aggregation (SAS) • Lower cost
  6. 6. 6 PATA and SATA Comparisons Source: SATA Working Group
  7. 7. 7 History of serial ATA Generation Standard Year Speed Key features Serial ATA ATA/ATAPI-7 2002 150 MB/sec Serial ATA II ATA/ATAPI-8 2005 300 MB/sec Native Command Queuing Serial ATA III ATA/ATAPI-9? ? 600 MB/sec
  8. 8. 8 SATA Technology Today • SATA has been the most successful recent new storage interface – It has been a multi billion dollar market for several years – In 2006 over 300 million hard disk drives will have SATA interfaces • 400 Million Shipped in 2005 (source: Gartner) – Market Leader – Seagate 40% share – SATA has also made its appearance in solid state disks, DVD drives and tape drives • In Desktop, notebooks, Consumer Products - DVR • In the Enterprise! (thanks to STP) – Challenges SAS in the enterprise – Non-critical data – Near-line and offline storage – FC, SAS, and SATA will co-exist offering consumers with a choice of flexible storage options at varying price-points
  9. 9. 9 SATA Layer Architecture
  10. 10. 10 SATA Layer Architecture
  11. 11. Connectivity • Serial ATA is point-to-point topology – Hosts can support multiple devices but requires multiple links – 100% available link bandwidth – Failure of one device or link does not affect other links
  12. 12. Link Characteristics • SATA uses full-duplex links – Protocol only permits frame transfer in one direction at a time – Each link consists of a transmit and a receive pair • SATA uses low voltage levels – Nominal voltage +/-250mV differential
  13. 13. Power Management • SATA has – Phy Ready – Capable of sending and receiving data. Main phase locked loop are on and active – Partial – Physical layer is powered but in a reduced state. Must be able to return to Phy Ready within 10 us. – Slumber – Physical layer is powered but in a reduced state. Must be able to return to Phy Ready within 10 ms. • ATA also defines IDLE, STANDBY, and SLEEP • Necessary for newer laptop & mobile devices
  14. 14. SATA Architectural Model Device Control Software Buffer Memory DMA management Serial digital transport control Serial digital link control Serial physical interface Device Layers Host Control Software Buffer Memory DMA management Host Layers Serial digital transport control Serial digital link control Serial physical interface Application Transport Link Physical
  15. 15. 15 Physical Layer - Summary • Defines the connectors and cabling used to transmit and receive SATA signaling and data information
  16. 16. 16 Physical Layer - SATA Device Connector Serial ATA signal connector (pin S1) Appearance of Serial ATA Connectors (Drawing courtesy of Molex) parallel ATA signals 4-pin power 3.5” Parallel power signal 2.5" Serial Device connector sizes and locations Device plug connector Host receptacle connector power signal 3.5” Serial Legacy Power (vendor specific) Serial ATA power connector (pin P1) (5.25” form factor also defined for devices like tape drives and DVDs) in comparison… Graphics courtesy of the SCSI Trade Association and HP
  17. 17. 17 Physical Layer - SATA Cabling Graphics courtesy of Molex SATA to SATA (1), CO, ST The most common internal for SATA (and SAS); 1 meter maximum length SATA Power To provide legacy power support eSATA Power (2m) External SATA; designed for use with external storage products; bypasses the USB route
  18. 18. 18 Physical Layer - Summary • OOB (Out of Band) Signaling • Speed Negotiations • Byte/dword synchronization
  19. 19. 19 Phy Layer - (OOB) • Most primitive level of communication is OOB • They are pattern of idle times and burst times, distinguished by length of time between idles – Idle time (and negation time) are when there are voltage levels • Also known as DC idle – Burst time is during the transmission of the ALIGN primitives – Since byte sync has not occurred yet, the actual bits sent are not relevant – 40 bits will always been detected and consider an ALIGN
  20. 20. 20 Phy Layer - (OOB) • COMINIT/COMRESET and COMWAKE are bursts of 6 ALIGN (0) separated by IDLEs • Length of the idle time determines the type of OOB signal • Senders sends 6 – receiver only need to detect 4 (per spec) • COMRESET are sent by hosts • COMINIT are sent by devices OOB Signal Idle Time Negation Time COMWAKE 55 to 175 ns > 175 ns COMINIT/COMRESET 175 to 525 ns > 525 ns
  21. 21. 21 Phy Layer - OOB COMWAKE
  22. 22. 22 Phy Layer - OOB COMINIT/COMRESET Electrically, COMINIT and COMRESET appear exactly the same, the only difference is the direction in which the ALIGN patterns are being sent. Host to device: COMRESET; device to host: COMINIT
  23. 23. 23 SATA Power-On Initialization • Starts with the assertion of hardware reset • Begins Out-Of-Band (OOB) signaling • Allows host and device to initialize link communications • Ends with successful transmission of ALIGN primitives • Then speed negotiations
  24. 24. 24 Power-On Initialization Process Host Device
  25. 25. 25 SATA Power-On Initialization
  26. 26. 26 Error Situation Example: Host and Device are unable to establish a connection. Continuous transmission errors are seen from both the Host and Device. No COMINITs present. Indicates problem with Device connection
  27. 27. 27 Primitive Handshaking Sender Receiver X_RDY R_RDY SOF Frame . . . EOF R_IP R_OK WTRM
  28. 28. 28 Primitive Handshaking Example: Host sends commands but commands are not completed Trace indicates that Host is not properly handling primitive handshaking and is not receiving frames
  29. 29. 29 SATA Speed Negotiation • Fast to slow progression – SATA target device sends ALIGN primitives at the fastest supported rate – Waits for host to reply with ALIGNs – If no reply after sending 2048 (i.e., the host doesn’t support this speed), step down to next slower speed and try again
  30. 30. 30 SATA Speed Negotiation • When host replies with ALIGNs, it has locked at the current frequency and negotiation is complete Speed Negotiation
  31. 31. Out of Band • Part of normal power on sequence • Allows host to issue a device hard reset • Allows device to request a hard reset • Brings device out of low power state
  32. 32. Out of Band Signals (cont.) • COMWAKE – Can be originated by either host or device – Used as final phase of OOB initialization – Used to bring out of low power & test states • Exit Partial • Exit Slumber • Exit BIST
  33. 33. Out of Band Signal Forms COMRESET / COMINIT COMWAKE 106.7 ns 106.7 ns 106.7 ns 320 ns
  34. 34. Out of Band Signaling Protocol Host Device
  35. 35. SATA Port Model Clock & Data Recovery Serializer Deserializer AnalogFrontEnd OOB Detect COMRESET / COMINIT COMWAKE Data Out RX Clock Port Control Logic Tx Clock Align Generator Data In Phy Reset Phy Ready Slumber Partial SPD Mode System Clock SPD Select Tx + Tx - Rx - Rx +
  36. 36. SATA Architectural Model Device Control Software Buffer Memory DMA management Serial digital transport control Serial digital link control Serial physical interface Device Layers Host Control Software Buffer Memory DMA management Host Layers Serial digital transport control Serial digital link control Serial physical interface Application Transport Link Physical
  37. 37. Link Layer • 8b / 10b encoding • Scrambles and descrambles data and control words • Converts data from transport layer into frames • Conduct CRC generation and checking • Provides frame flow control
  38. 38. Encoding Concepts • All 32 bit Dwords are encoded for SATA – 32 bits data = 40 bits of transmission • Provides sufficient transition density – Guarantees transition (0s and 1s) even if data is 0x00 or 0xFF • Provides an easy way to detect transmission error
  39. 39. Current Running Disparity (CRD) • As each character is encoded a count is maintained of the number of 0’s and 1’s being transmitted – More 1’s than 0’s give positive disparity – More 0’s than 1’s gives negative disparity – Same number gives neutral disparity • Only valid values of CRD are -1 and 1 – Any other value indicates that a transmission error has occurred
  40. 40. CRD+ & CRD- Encoded Characters 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 8b Character 0x3F This 10b Character transmitted when CRD negative This 10b Character transmitted when CRD positive This character 6 ones 4 zeros Disparity +2 This character 4 ones 6 zeros Disparity -2
  41. 41. SATA Primitives • Convey real-time state information • Control transfer of information between host and device • Provide host/device coordination
  42. 42. SATA Primitives • ALIGN – Speed negotiation and at least every 256 Dword • SYNC – Used when in idle to maintain bit synchronization • CONT – Used to suppress repeated primitives
  43. 43. SATA Primitives • X_RDY • R_RDY • R_IP • R_OK • R_ERR SOF EOF HOLD HOLDA
  44. 44. SATA Frame Structure • All SATA frames consist of: – A start of frame (SOF) delimiter – A payload – transport layer information – A Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) – An end of frame (EOF) delimiter SOF CRC EOFPayload Data
  45. 45. Link Layer Protocol (1) SYNCSYNCSYNCSYNCSYNCSYNC SYNC SYNCSYNCSYNCSYNCSYNC Host Device
  46. 46. Link Layer Protocol (2) SYNCSYNCX_RDYX_RDYX_RDYX_RDY SYNC SYNCSYNCSYNCSYNCSYNC Host Device
  47. 47. Link Layer Protocol (3) X_RDYX_RDYX_RDYX_RDYX_RDYX_RDY SYNC R_RDYR_RDYR_RDYR_RDYSYNC Host Device
  48. 48. Link Layer Protocol (4) X_RDYX_RDYSOFDATADATADATA R_RDY R_RDYR_RDYR_RDYR_RDYR_RDY Host Device
  49. 49. Link Layer Protocol (5) DATADATADATADATADATADATA R_RDY R_IPR_IPR_IPR_IPR_RDY Host Device
  50. 50. Link Layer Protocol (6) DATADATACRCEOFWTRMWTRM R_IP R_IPR_IPR_IPR_IPR_IP Host Device
  51. 51. Link Layer Protocol (7) CRCEOFWTRMWTRMWTRMWTRM R_IP R_IPR_IPR_IPR_IPR_IP Host Device
  52. 52. Link Layer Protocol (8) WTRMWTRMWTRMWTRMWTRMWTRM R_IP R_OKR_OKR_OKR_OKR_IP Host Device
  53. 53. Link Layer Protocol (9) WTRMWTRMSYNCSYNCSYNCSYNC R_OK R_OKR_OKR_OKR_OKR_OK Host Device
  54. 54. Link Layer Protocol (last) SYNCSYNCSYNCSYNCSYNCSYNC R_OK SYNCSYNCSYNCSYNCR_OK Host Device
  55. 55. SATA Architectural Model Device Control Software Buffer Memory DMA management Serial digital transport control Serial digital link control Serial physical interface Device Layers Host Control Software Buffer Memory DMA management Host Layers Serial digital transport control Serial digital link control Serial physical interface Application Transport Link Physical
  56. 56. Transport Layer • Responsible for the management of Frame Information Structures (FIS) • At the command of Application layer: – Format the FIS – Make frame transmission request to Link layer – Pass FIS contents to Link layer – Receive transmission status from Link layer and reports to Application layer
  57. 57. Frame Information Structure (FIS) • A FIS is a mechanism to transfer information between host and device application layers – Shadow Register Block contents – ATA commands – Data movement setup information – Read and write data – Self test activation – Unique FIS Type Code
  58. 58. FIS types FIS TYPE CODE Description Direction 27h Register transfer host to device H D 34h Register transfer device to host D H A1h Set Device bits D H 39h DMA Activate D H 41h DMA Setup D H 58h BIST Activate D H 5Fh PIO Setup D H 46h Data D H
  59. 59. Register – Host to Device FIS Byte 3 Byte 2 Byte 1 Byte 0 Dword 0 Features Command Reserved FIS TYPE (27h) Dword 1 Dev/Head Cyl High Cyl Low Sector Number Dword 2 Features (exp) Cyl High (exp) Cyl Low (exp) Sector Number Dword 3 Control Reserved Sector Count Sector Count Dword 4 Reserved Reserved Reserved Reserved
  60. 60. BIST Activate FIS Byte 3 Byte 2 Byte 1 Byte 0 0 Reserved [ TASLFPRV ] Reserved FIS Type 58h 1 Data [31:24] Data [23:16] Data [15:8] Data [7:0] 2 Data [31:24] Data [23:16] Data [15:8] Data [7:0] T - Far end transmit only – transmit Dwords defined in words 1 & 2 A - No ALIGN transmission (valid only with T) S - Bypass scrambling (valid only with T) L - Far end retimed loopback with ALIGN insertion F - Far end analog loopback P - Transmit primitives defined in words 1 & 2 of the FIS R - Reserved V - Vendor Unique Test Mode – other bits undefined
  61. 61. Data FIS Byte 3 Byte 2 Byte 1 Byte 0 Dword 0 Reserved Reserved Reserved FIS TYPE (46h) Dword 1 N Dwords of Data Minimum 1 Dword Maximum 2048 Dwords Dword 2 . . . Dword N
  62. 62. SATA Architectural Model Device Control Software Buffer Memory DMA management Serial digital transport control Serial digital link control Serial physical interface Device Layers Host Control Software Buffer Memory DMA management Host Layers Serial digital transport control Serial digital link control Serial physical interface Application Transport Link Physical
  63. 63. Command / Application Layer • Defined using a series of state diagrams – Register H  D – Register D  H – DMA data in – DMA data out • Host command layer may be the same but may only support legacy commands
  64. 64. Compatibility SATA • PCI SATA controller card • Windows 2000/XP/2003/Vista • Integrated SATA CRC on both levels of command and data packets

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