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Cyanobacteria lecture

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Cyanobacteria lecture
Cyanobacteria lecture
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Cyanobacteria lecture

  1. 1. Magallanes Campus Magallanes, Sorsogon
  2. 2. Evolution • Old 3.5 billion years • Dominated as biogenic reefs • During Proterozoic – Age of Bacteria (2.5 bya – 750 mya) they were wide spread • Then multicellularity took over • Cyanobacteria were first algae!
  3. 3. Cyanobacteria terminology - Division Cyanophyta - Cyanobacteria ‘formerly known as’ BlueGreen Algae - Cyano = blue - Bacteria – acknowledges that they are more closely related to prokaryotic bacteria than eukaryotic algae
  4. 4. Cyanobacteria -Microscopic organisms - Found in marine sediments and pelagic zone, freshwater lakes, soils, - Live in extreme environments – chemically and temperature.
  5. 5. Importance 1) First organisms to have 2 photosystems and to produce organic material and give off O2 as a bi-product. Very important to the evolution of the earths’ oxidizing atmosphere . !!!
  6. 6. Importance 2) Many – fix or convert atmospheric nitrogen into usable forms through Nitrogen Fixation when other forms are unavailable. IMPORTANT because atmospheric N2 is unavailable to most living organisms because breaking the triple bond is difficult N N
  7. 7. Cyanobacteria Characteristics - Pigments – chl a, phycobiliproteins - phycoerythrin - phycocyanin * BlueGreen Color - allophycocyanin - Storage – glycogen - Cell Walls – amino acids, sugars
  8. 8. Habit – success due to ability tolerate a wide range of conditions • Marine – littoral and pelagic • Fresh Water • Hot Springs • Terrestrial – soil flora
  9. 9. Advantage for Cyanobacteria • Can live in fluctuating environments of aerobic and anaerobic with light present.
  10. 10. Cyanotoxins in Cyanobacteria • Neurotoxins – block neuron transmission in muscles (Anabaena, Oscillatoria) • Hepatotoxins – inhibit protein phosphatase, cause liver bleeding. Found in drinking water. (Anabaena, Oscillatoria, Nostoc) Eg. swimmers itch - Lygnbia
  11. 11. Movement • No flagellae or structures to enhance movement A) Excrete mucilage – jet propulsion, gliding B) Helix – fibers send waves of contraction Spirulina
  12. 12. Spirulina • filamentous • common in lakes with high pH • major food for flamingo populations • commercial food source
  13. 13. Anabaena with a heterocyst - common bloom forming species with nutrient loads
  14. 14. Lyngbia martensiana Releases chemicals causing dermatitis
  15. 15. Asexual Reproduction - Hormogonia formation - - Endospore / Akinete formation - - Fragmentation – - Exospore
  16. 16. Asexual Reproduction Hormogonia – short piece of trichome found in filaments. It detaches from parent filament and glides away Hormogonia
  17. 17. Oscillatoria with hormogonia - short pieces of a trichome that become detached from the parent filament and glide away to form new filament.
  18. 18. Oscillatoria (filamentous) with hormogonia
  19. 19. Asexual Reproduction Akinete – thick walled resting spore A - akineteH
  20. 20. Akinete
  21. 21. Asexual Reproduction Akinete – thick walled resting spore Function – resistant to unfavorable environmental conditions. Appear as larger cells in the chain and different than heterocyst. Generally lose buoyancy A - akineteH
  22. 22. Asexual Reproduction Fragmentation - fragmentation
  23. 23. Oldest Fossils • 3.5by old carbonaceous microfossils S.Africa • 3.4by old filaments and microbial fossils – W. Australia • 3.4 by old stromatolites – S.Africa, Australia
  24. 24. Cyanobacteria as Food Flamingoes feeding on Spirulina in alkaline Lake Nakuru, Kenya * Spirulina contains 70% its dry weight as protein * Spirulina grows well in saline and alkaline ponds in arid environments * Native peoples near Lake Chad (Africa) and Lake Texcoco (Mexico) have traditionally used Spirulina as food * Spirulina is grown commercially in California, Israel, Japan, Thailand & Mexico
  25. 25. Characteristics • Eukaryotic • Pigments: chlorophyll a & b, carotenoids • Food storage: paramylon (polymer of glucose) • Cell wall: typically none; have pellicles, strips of protein within cell membrane which impart semi-rigidity • Typically biflagellate • Typically indicators of enrichment • Eyespot present
  26. 26. Pellicle
  27. 27. Eudorina Gonium
  28. 28. Euglena
  29. 29. Volvox, fluorescence microscopy
  30. 30. Dinoflagellates • Pyrrhophyta is the phylum name of the dinoflagellates.
  31. 31. About Dinoflagellates • 90% of all dinoflagellates are marine plankton. Although many of them are microscopic, the largest, Noctiluca, may be as large as 2 mm in diameter!
  32. 32. Not related to Dinosaurs • The prefix Dino means whirling flagella. The Dinoflagellates are said to of out dated the Dinosaur
  33. 33. What they look like • As you can see in the picture the dinoflagellates are a very ugly animal but without them you and I wouldn’t be able to breathe because they make most of the worlds oxygen
  34. 34. Anatomy • This is the anatomy of a Dinoflagellate.
  35. 35. How they get around • Dinoflagellates swim by means of two flagella, movable protein strands which propel the cell through the water. So basically the move like semen.
  36. 36. Good but Bad • The Dinoflagellates are good because they give us oxygen but they also are bad because they produce the Red Tide which destroys fishing based economies because the fish eat the Dinoflagellates with red tide and die.
  37. 37. Reproduction • The most form of reproduction is asexual, where daughter cells form by simple mitosis and division of the cell. The daughter cells will be genetically identical to that of the original cell.
  38. 38. Cryptomonads, e.g Syneura spp., range from 5 - 30 µm in diameter, Some species form gelatinous colonies. They are common in water with a high nitrogen content, e.g. estuaries and semi-enclosed seas.
  39. 39. Mostly freshwater eukaryotic algae having the chlorophyll masked by brown or yellow pigment; yellow-green and golden-brown algae and diatoms:
  40. 40. • The golden algae or chrysophytes are a large group of algae, found mostly in freshwater. • The term "chrysophyceae" should not be confused with the term Chrysophyta, which is more ambiguous.
  41. 41. Originally they were taken to include all such forms except the diatoms and multicellular brown algae, but since then they have been divided into several different groups based on pigmentation and cell structure. They are now usually restricted to a core group of closely related forms, distinguished primarily by the structure of the flagella in motile cells, also treated as an order Chromulinales. It is possible membership will be revised further as more species are studied in detail.
  42. 42. Traits, locomotion, and classification Most members are unicellular flagellates, with either two visible flagella, as in Ochromonas, or sometimes one, as in Chromulina. Some members are generally amoeboid, with long branching cell extensions, though they pass through flagellate stages as well. Other members are non-motile. Cells may be naked and embedded in mucilage, such as Chrysosaccus, or coccoid and surrounded by a cell wall, as in Chrysosphaera.
  43. 43. Evolution Chrysophytes contain the pigment, fucoxanthin. Because of this, they were once considered to be a specialized form of cyanobacteria. Because many of these organisms had a silica capsule, they have a relatively complete fossil record, allowing modern biologists to confirm that they are, in fact, not derived from cyanobacteria, but rather an ancestor that did not possess the capability to photosynthesize.