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Semantic web Santhosh N Basavarajappa

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Presentation about - Semantic Web - Overview -Semantic Web
Web of Data, Giant Global Graph, Data Web, Web 3.0, Linked Data Web, Semantic Data Web, Enterprise Information Web, HTML, CSS,

Veröffentlicht in: Soziale Medien
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Semantic web Santhosh N Basavarajappa

  1. 1. Online and Social Media Management Santhosh N Basavarajappa 04/04/2017 1
  2. 2. Online and Social Media Management Santhosh N Basavarajappa 09/05/2017 2
  3. 3. Semantic Web Web of Data Giant Global Graph Data Web Web 3.0 Linked Data Web Semantic Data Web Enterprise Information Web Topic for discussion3
  4. 4. Structure for Discussion 1.0 Evolution of the Web 2.0 Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 3.0 Semantic Web 4.0 Sematic Web building blocks 5.0 Conclusion 6.0 References 4
  5. 5. Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee 1.0 Evolution of the Web5
  6. 6. 6 1.1 The first World wide Web http://info.cern.ch/hypertext/WWW/TheProject.html Image Source : CERN
  7. 7. 1.2 Web Technologies A global map showing the availability of the World Wide Web in the 2010s Image Source ; Wikipedia  HTML – Hyper text markup Language  HTTP - Hypertext Transfer Protocol  Web services  Web Browsers 7
  8. 8. 2.0 Web 1.0 (Static web – One Way)  Started a linking web pages and hyperlink on a world wide web  Used as “ Information sharing portal"  Dividing the world wide web into usable directories  Concept was based on theme of “Put the content together”  Everyone has their personal own little corner in the cyberspace  Media companies put content in the web and pushes it to user. using web 1.0 Companies Like BBC,CNN able to get online. 8
  9. 9. 2.1 need for Web 2.0 When we got a grip on the technical part, web became clearer and then we discover  Power of Networks  Power of Links  Power of Collaboration  Power of content and reach  Power of Friends 9
  10. 10. 2.2 Web 2.0 ( Read / Write – Two Way) Its term used to describe a new generation of Web services and applications with an increasing emphasis on human collaboration.  It is a platform that gives users the possibility (liberty) to control their data.  This is about user-generated content and the read-write web.  People are consuming as well as contributing information through blogs or sites like Facebook, YouTube, Blog….. etc. 10
  11. 11. 2.2.1 Technology behind Web 2.0 Web2.0 still uses most of the technologies present behind internet such as XHTML standards,style sheets,content syndication,AJAX and flash etc. 1) Content Syndication 2) Ajax-based Internet Technology: A-Ja-X 3) DOM: Document Object Model(DOM) 4) REST: Representational State Transfer(REST) 5) XML and CSS (Cascading Style Sheet) 11
  12. 12. It has three parts: 1) Rich Internet application (RIA) 2) Web-oriented architecture (WOA) 3) Social Web 2.2.2 Concept of Web 2.0 As such, Web 2.0 draws together the capabilities of client- and server-side software, content syndication and the use of network protocols. 12
  13. 13. 2.2.3 Vulnerabilities in Web 2.0 1) Cross Site Scripting 2) Cross Site Request Forgery. 3) SQL Injection. 4) Authentication and Authorization Flaws. XSS Worms Mashups 5) Information Leakage. 13
  14. 14. 2.3.4 Example for a Search in Web • I am hungry • I want to Eat apple now • I want to know how much it cost? 14
  15. 15. Conti… 115
  16. 16. Conti… 216
  17. 17. Conti… 317
  18. 18. Conti… 3 Lets see what Jarvis can do ?? Source : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8yubRtNYnZQ 18
  19. 19.  Not very intelligent, but how can a computer know what I mean?  When we structurally describe that a apple is a fruit and Cost should be in Euro , Rewe is kind of Retail shop and country is Germany  Describing data in a structured way can best be done in a database.  Different databases can be connected. Conti… 419
  20. 20.  A database with Fruits  A database with Cost / Currency  A database with Retail Shops  A database with Area /Region  A database of County Conti…20
  21. 21. 3.0 Semantic Web – What is about ??  1969: paper Semantic Information Processing by Ross Quillial  1980s: CYC and WordNet  mid- to late 1990s: Tim Berners-Lee coins the term Semantic Web  Semantics = meaning (from Greek)  Set of practices and standards  Allowing machines to understand data  Ease sharing and mixing data  Extend the World Wide Web rather than replace it 21
  22. 22. 22 3.2 – 4 Levels of Semantics Amazon
  23. 23. 23 3.2 – 4 Levels of Semantics Biological scientists Parent – child classification Word relationship 2.Taxonomy
  24. 24. 24 3.2 – 4 Levels of Semantics 3.Theasaurus a) Associative b) Homographic c) Hierarchical d) Equivalence Represent using the diagram
  25. 25. 25 Role / Skill of DM
  26. 26. 26 3.2 – 4 Levels of Semantics 4.Ontology Extended version of the taxonomy meaningful relationship between the attributes and the terms Food Items - Edible Fruits Apple * Bio * Type A..etc Banana
  27. 27. 3.1 Web 3.0 ( Read / Write – Intelligent) Semantic Web  It is a Web of data.  changing the web into a language that can be read and categorized by the system rather then humans. Artificial Intelligence  Extracting meaning from the way people interact with the web. 27 Semantic systems are designed to capture the logic that will allow them to understand these types of relationships within data and use them to create new facts about the data.
  28. 28. 4.0 Semantic Web building28
  29. 29. 1. URL is a type of URI 2. The part that makes a URI a URL is the inclusion of the “access mechanism”, or “network location”, e.g. http:// or ftp://. 3. The URN is the “globally unique” part of the identification; it’s a unique name. 4.1 URL , URN and URI …29
  30. 30. 30 Example 4.1 URL , URN and URI … Conti…
  31. 31. HOW DO MACHINES KNOW WHAT DATA ? Identity + Definition + Structure 4.2 Resource Description Framework Data – Is the set of information Metadata – is "data [information] that provides information about other data" 31
  32. 32. IDENTITY + DEFINITION + STRUCTURE  Machines need a unique, consistent way to identify a thing or concept.  People can usually tell by context, but a machine needs a unique identifier to be able to make connections or distinctions. Examples : Standard identifiers ISBN : International Standard Book Number ISMN: Music ISAN : Audiovisual works Conti…32
  33. 33. Define classifications, properties, relationships, and logic Blackberry1 is a type of Fruit A Fruit is an Edible Thing Blackberry2 is a type of Wireless E-mail Device A Wireless E-mail Device is a Mobile Electronic Device Properties of Edible Things: Seasonal –Yes/No Calories –# Ingredients (optional) –other Edible Things A Mobile Electronic Device can never be an Edible Thing IDENTITY + DEFINITION + STRUCTURE Conti…33
  34. 34. MicroFormats–uses XHTML & HTML markup to embed meaning in a webpage hCard for contact information hCalendar for events <span class="vevent"> <span class="summary">This presentation was given</span> on <span class="dtstart">2017-04-04</span> at the Cologne Business School in <span class="location">Cologne, Germany</span>. </span > Machine Tags (folksonomy) –definition added to simple user tagging flora:tree=coniferous upcoming:event=81334 IDENTITY + DEFINITION + STRUCTURE Conti…34
  35. 35. A simple data model for – Formally describing the semantics of information in a machine accessible way – representing meta-data (data about data) • A set of representation syntaxes – XML (standard) but also N3, Turtle, … • Building blocks –Resources (with unique identifiers) – Literals – Named relations between pairs of resources (or a resource and a literal) A language for representing information about resources in the World Wide Web” 4.3 Resource Description Framework35
  36. 36. 36 4.2 Resource Description Framework Image Source ; Article : Semantic Web and Linked Data
  37. 37. doc.html has for author Fabien and has for theme Music doc.html has for author Fabien doc.html has for theme Music ( doc.html, author ,Fabien) ( doc.html, theme ,Music ) 37 4.2 Resource Description Framework
  38. 38. <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22- rdf-syntax-ns#” xmlns:inria="http://inria.fr/schema#" > <rdf:Description rdf:about="http://inria.fr/rr/doc.html"> <inria:authorrdf:resource= "http://ns.inria.fr/fabien.gandon#me"/> <inria:theme>Music</inria:theme> </rdf:Description> </rdf:RDF> Conti…38
  39. 39. 39 4.2 Resource Description Framework Example
  40. 40. 40 Metadata – in XML 4.2 Resource Description Framework
  41. 41. 41 4.2 Resource Description Framework
  42. 42. • Simple but expressive data model • Global identifiers of all resources (URIs) – Reduces ambiguity • Easier incremental data integration – Can handle incomplete information (Open World Assumption) • Schema agility • Graph structure – Suitable for a large class of tasks – Data merging is easier 42 4.3 RDF - Advantages
  43. 43. 4.4 SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language SQL-like query language for RDF data • Simple protocol for querying remote databases over HTTP • Query types – select – projections of variables and expressions – construct – create triples (or graphs) – ask – whether a query returns results (result is true/false) – describe – describe resources in the graph 43
  44. 44. • List of namespace prefixes – PREFIX xyz: <URI> • List of variables – ?x, $y • Graph patterns + filters – Simple / group / alternative / optional • Modifiers – ORDER BY, DISTINCT, OFFSET/LIMIT 4.4.1 Anatomy of a SPARQL query44
  45. 45. RDF Schema (RDFS) • RDFS provides means for: – Defining Classes and Properties – Defining hierarchies (of classes and properties) • RDFS differs from XML Schema (XSD) – Open World Assumption vs. Closed World Assumption – RDFS is about describing resources, not about validation • Entailment rules (axioms) – Infer new triples from existing ones 4.5 RDF Schema (RDFS)45
  46. 46. 4.6 Web Ontology Language (OWL) • More expressive than RDFS – Identity equivalence/difference sameAs, different From, equivalent Class/Property • More expressive class definitions – Class intersection, union, complement, disjointness – Cardinality restrictions 46
  47. 47. 4.6 Rule Interchange Format (RIF) Goals – Define a framework for rule languages for the Semantic Web • If <condition> then <conclusion> – Define a standard format/syntax for interchanging rules 47
  48. 48. 5.0 Web 1.0 , Web 2.0 and Web 3.048
  49. 49. 5.1 Web evaluation – Snapshot49 Source : Radar Networks and Nova Spivack 2007 www.networks.com
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