1. Introduction to Psychology
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2. CANNON- BARDTHEORYOF
• The Cannon-Bard theory of emotion states that stimulating events trigger
feelings and physical reactions that occur at the same time.
• For example, seeing a snake might prompt both the feeling of fear (an emotional
response) and a racing heartbeat (a physical reaction). Cannon- Bard suggests
that both of these reactions occur simultaneously and independently. In other
words, the physical reaction isn’t dependent on the emotional reaction, and vice
• Cannon-Bard proposes that both of these reactions originate simultaneously in the
thalamus. This is a small brain structure responsible for receiving sensory information.
It relays it to the appropriate area of the brain for processing.
3. CANNON-BARD THEORYOF
• The theory was developed in 1927 by Walter B.Cannon and his graduate student,
Philip Bard. It was established as an alternative to the James-Lange theory of
emotion. Thistheory states that feelings are the result of physical reactions to a
• Cannon-Bard can be applied to any event or experience that causes an
emotional reaction. The emotion can be positive or negative. The scenarios
described below show how this theory is applied to real-life situations. Inall these
scenarios, the Cannon-Bard theory states the physical and emotional reactions
happen simultaneously, rather than one causing the other.
• Many people find job interviews stressful. Imagine you have a job interview
tomorrow morning for a position you really want. Thinking about the interview might
leave you feeling nervous or worried. You might also feel physical sensations such
as tremors, tense muscles, or a rapid heartbeat, especially as the interview
Moving into a new home
• For many people, moving into a new home is a source of happiness and
excitement. Imagine you’ve just moved into a new home with your partner or
spouse. Your new home is larger than the apartment you lived in before. It has
enough space for the children you hope to have together. As you unpack boxes,
you feel happy. Tears well in your eyes. Your chest is tight, and it’s almost difficult to
Haveyou ever found yourself in asituation
where your to-do list seems endless,deadlines
are fast approaching and you find yourself saying
‘Eek! I feel stressed!’? But what isstress really,
and how does it affectus?
6. LET’SDEBUNKONE MYTH:
• Stress is not necessarily a ‘bad’ thing. Without this brilliant ability to feel stress,
humankind wouldn’t have survived. Our cavemen ancestors, for example, used
the onset of stress to alert them to a potential danger, such as a saber- toothed
• Stress is primarily a physical response. When stressed, the body thinks it is under
attack and switches to ‘fight or flight’ mode, releasing a complex mix of hormones
and chemicals such as adrenaline, cortisol and norepinephrine to prepare the
body for physical action. This causes a number of reactions, from blood being
diverted to muscles to shutting down unnecessary bodily functions such as
7. • Through the release of hormones such as adrenaline, cortisol and norepinephrine,
the caveman gained a rush of energy, which prepared him to either fight the tiger
or run away. That heart pounding, fast breathing sensation is the adrenaline; as
well as a boost of energy, it enables us to focus our attention so we can quickly
respond to the situation.
• Inthe modern world, the ‘fight or flight’ mode can still help us survive dangerous
situations, such as reacting swiftly to a person running in front of our car by
slamming on the brakes.
8. TYPESOF STRESS
Acute stress is the most common form of stress. It comes from demands and
pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near
Acute stress is thrilling and exciting in small doses, but too much is exhausting.
Fortunately, acute stress symptoms are recognized by most people. For example the
loss of an important contact, a deadline they're rushing to meet, their child's
occasional problems at school and so on.
Because it is short term, acute stress doesn't have enough time to do the
extensive damage associated with long-term stress. The most common
9. Emotional distress — some combination of anger or irritability, anxiety and depression, the three
Muscular problems including tension headache, back pain, jaw pain and the muscular tensions
that lead to pulled muscles and tendon and ligament problems.
Stomach, gutand bowel problems such as heartburn, acid stomach, flatulence, diarrhea,
constipation andirritable bowel syndrome.
Transientover arousal leads to elevation in blood pressure, rapid heartbeat, sweaty palms, heart
palpitations, dizziness, migraine headaches, cold hands or feet, shortness of breath and chest
Acute stress can crop up in anyone's life, and it is highly treatable and manageable.
10. • Episodic acute stress is a more serious form of acute stress. In this type of stress,
the person feels stress on a daily basis and rarely gets relief.
• Unlike acute stress, where there may be one or two busy, stressful days,
episodic acute stress happens on a daily basis.
• The person who suffers from episodic acute stress feels stressed constantly with
• They may constantly complain about how much work they have and may be
constantly late or always in a rush and may be anxious and irritable on a regular
• Often, a person who suffers from this type of stress may have taken on too much
and created self-imposed demands.
11. • Forexample, consider a couple who is very unhappy in their relationship. While at
one point in time in their relationship they may have experienced acute stress
when arguing, this could have turned into episodic acute stress as the arguing
occurred more frequently. Then when that type of stress was unrelieved for a long
time, it became chronic stress. Itbecomes chronic because the couple took no
steps to repair their relationship.
12. • some types of stress can actually cause us to challenge ourselves and work at a
higher level, Known as “Eustress.”
• For example, if you want to run a marathon, at some point you may have to
physically challenge yourself to keep running even when you are exhausted. This
type of stress—positive stress to help us achieve at a higher level—is called
• It can motivate us to reach goals. For example, we may experience eustress before
a job interview. This eustress can be positive if it helps us achieve success in the
• Stress management is a “set of techniques and programs intended to help people
deal more effectively with stress in their lives by analyzing the specific stressors and
taking positive actions to minimize their effects.” (Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine,
• First, let’s set one thing straight… we’re not aiming towards being stress-free all of
the time. That’s unrealistic. After all, it’s an unavoidable human response that we
all experience from time to time –and it’s not all bad. What we can all aim
towards however is experiencing less stress.
16. Understand your stress
How do you stress? This can be different for everybody. By understanding what stress
looks like for you, you can be better prepared and reach for your stress management
toolbox when needed.
Identifyyour stress sources
What causes you to be stressed? Be it work, family, change or any of the other
potential thousand triggers.
Learntorecognize stress signals
We all process stress differently so it’s important to be aware of your individual stress
symptoms. What are your internal alarm bells? Low tolerance, headaches, stomach
pains or a combination from the above 'Symptoms of stress’
Recognize your stress strategies
What is your go-to tactic for calming down? These can be behaviors learned over
years and sometimes aren’t the healthy option. For example, self-medicating with
17. Implementhealthy stressmanagement strategies
It’s good to be mindful of any current unhealthy coping behaviors so you can switch them out for a
healthy option. For example, if overeating is your current go to, you could practice meditation instead, or
make a decision to phone a friend to chat through your situation. The American Psychological
Association suggest that switching out one behavior at a time is most effective in creating positive
Make self-care a priority
When we make time for ourselves, we put our well-being before others. While this can feel selfish to start,
like the old plane analogy we must put our own oxygen mask on before we can help others. This is also
true for effective stress management. The simplest things that promote well-being, such as enough sleep,
food, downtime, and exercise are often the ones overlooked. Make time for you.
Ask forsupportwhen needed
If you’re feeling overwhelmed reach out to a friend or family member you are comfortable talking to.
Speaking with a healthcare professional is also an effective way of reducing stress, learning new
strategies and preventing burnout.
18. 1.Be assertive
Clear and effective communication is the key to being assertive. When we’re assertive we can ask for
what we want or need and explain what is bothering us. The key is doing this in a fair and firm manner
while still having empathy for others. Once you identify what you need to communicate you can stand up
for yourself and be proactive in changing the stressful situation. You can read more about how to be
2.Reduce the noise
Switching off from technology and the constant stimuli thrown at us hourly is an important way to slow
down. How often do you go offline?
3.Manage your time
If we let them, our days will consume us. Before we know it – the months have become overwhelmingly
busy. When we manage our time we prioritize and organize our tasks creating a less stressful and more
Boundaries are the internal set of rules that we create for ourselves. They outline what behaviors we will
and won’t accept. Healthy boundaries are essential for a stress-free life. When we have healthy
boundaries we respect ourselves and take care of our well-being by clearly expressing our boundaries to
19. 5.Get outof your head
Sometimes it’s best not to even try contending with the racing thoughts. Sometimes you just
need a break. Distract yourself. Watch a movie, phone or catch up with a friend or do
something positive that you know takes your mind off things.
The power of positive imagery and affirmations is now scientifically proven to increase positive emotion.
How? When you think of a positive experience, your brain perceives it to be a reality. So, replace those
negative thoughts with positive statements and challenge and change the way you see and experience the
You’ve heard it before –but you are what you eat. Be mindful of having a balanced and
healthy diet. Making simple diet changes, such as reducing your alcohol, caffeine and sugar
intake is a proven way of reducing anxiety.
8.Meditation and physical relaxation
Use techniques such as deep breathing, guided visualizations, yoga and guided body scans to
relax the body.
Don’t block it all inside. Talk to someone close to you about your worries or the things getting