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Airway

Stephen Schutts, Master Sergeant, WA ANG
National Registry Emergency Medical Technician - Paramedic

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Airway

  1. 1. AIRWAY MANAGEMENT Stephen Schutts, Master Sergeant, WA ANG National Registry Emergency Medical Technician - Paramedic
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><ul><li>Anatomy review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opening the Airway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Techniques of Suctioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Airway Adjuncts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen Delivery Devices </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Respiratory System <ul><li>Nose and mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Pharynx </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oropharynx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nasopharynx </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Respiratory System <ul><li>Epiglottis </li></ul><ul><li>Trachea </li></ul><ul><li>Larynx </li></ul><ul><li>Cricoid cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchi </li></ul>
  5. 5. Respiratory System <ul><li>Lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Diaphragm </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Process <ul><li>Inhalation (active) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diaphragm contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increases the size of the thoracic cavity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Process <ul><li>Exhalation (passive) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diaphragm relaxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreasing the size of the thoracic cavity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Respiratory Physiology <ul><li>Alveolar/Capillary exchange </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen rich air enters the alveoli on inspiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen poor blood in the capillaries passes to the alveoli </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Respiratory Physiology <ul><li>Alveolar/Capillary exchange </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen enters the capillaries as carbon dioxide enters the alveoli </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Respiratory Physiology <ul><li>Capillary/Cellular exchange </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells give up carbon dioxide to the capillaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capillaries give up oxygen to the cells </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Adequate Breathing <ul><li>Normal rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult 12-20/min </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child 15-30/min </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infant 25-50/min </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rhythm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Adequate Breathing <ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breath sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Present and equal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chest expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate and equal </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Adequate Breathing <ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effort of breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depth (Tidal Volume) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Inadequate Breathing <ul><li>Rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outside the normal ranges </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Inadequate Breathing <ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breath sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diminished or absent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chest expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unequal or inadequate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased breathing effort </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Inadequate Breathing <ul><li>Depth </li></ul><ul><li>Skin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyanotic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cool/clammy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Muscle retractions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often seen in children </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Inadequate Breathing <ul><li>Nasal flaring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often seen in children </li></ul></ul><ul><li>See-saw respirations in infants </li></ul><ul><li>Agonal Respiration’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gasping respirations </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Infant/Child Anatomy Considerations
  19. 19. Effective Artificial Ventilations <ul><li>Rise and fall of chest </li></ul><ul><li>Regular ventilation rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adults-12/min </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children/Infants-20/min </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heart rate returns to normal </li></ul>
  20. 20. Opening the Airway <ul><li>BSI </li></ul><ul><li>Head tilt, chin lift </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No suspected neck injuries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jaw-thrust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspect spinal injuries </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Head-Tilt, Chin-Lift Maneuver
  22. 22. Jaw-Thrust Maneuver
  23. 23. Suctioning Techniques <ul><li>BSI </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove blood, liquids and food particles from the airway </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Suctioning Techniques <ul><li>Types of units </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mounted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electric </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hand operated </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Suctioning Techniques <ul><li>Suction Catheters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard/rigid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used to suction mouth/oropharynx </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Hard/Rigid Catheter
  27. 27. Suctioning Techniques <ul><li>Soft (French) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful for suctioning nasopharynx </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Soft/French Catheter
  29. 30. This is one of them!
  30. 31. Techniques of Artificial Ventilation <ul><li>Two-person BVM </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth to mask </li></ul><ul><li>One-person BVM </li></ul>
  31. 32. Mouth-to-Mask
  32. 33. Mouth-to-Mask <ul><li>Should be connected to oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Provides 50% oxygen concentration </li></ul>
  33. 34. Bag-Valve-Mask (BVM)
  34. 35. Bag-Valve-Mask (BVM) <ul><li>Consists of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-inflation bag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One way valve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen reservoir </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Delivers close to 100% oxygen </li></ul>
  35. 36. Bag-Valve-Mask Issues <ul><li>Provides less volume than mouth-to-mask </li></ul><ul><li>More effective with two people </li></ul><ul><li>Available in infant, child, adult sizes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember CPR? </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Bag to Stoma or Tracheostomy Tube <ul><li>Tracheostomy – an artificial permanent opening in the trachea </li></ul><ul><li>If unable to ventilate, suction </li></ul><ul><li>Need to seal the mouth and nose when air is escaping during ventilation </li></ul>
  37. 38. Bag to Stoma or Tracheostomy Tube <ul><li>Bag-valve-mask to stoma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use infant or child size mask to ventilate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technique very similar to ventilating though mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Head and neck position not important </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. Ventilating Through a Stoma or Tracheotomy Tube
  39. 40. Airway Adjuncts <ul><li>Oropharyngeal Airway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used on all unconscious patient’s without a gag reflex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be correctly sized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corner of mouth to bottom of the ear lobe </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 41. OP Airway
  41. 42. Airway Adjuncts <ul><li>Nasopharyngeal Airway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less likely to stimulate gag reflex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select proper size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tip of nose to the tip of the ear lobe </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 43. Airway Adjuncts
  43. 44. Equipment for Oxygen Delivery <ul><li>Non-rebreather mask (NRB) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best way to deliver high concentration of oxygen 12-15 lpm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 90% concentration </li></ul></ul>
  44. 45. NRB
  45. 46. Equipment for Oxygen Delivery <ul><li>Nasal cannula </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rarely the best method for oxygen delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used on patient’s who do not tolerate the NRB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivers 24-44% oxygen at 1 - 6 lpms </li></ul></ul>
  46. 47. Nasal Cannula
  47. 48. Review <ul><ul><li>Anatomy review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opening the Airway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Techniques of Suctioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Airway Adjuncts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen Delivery Devices </li></ul></ul>

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