Design Thinking: A Common Sense Process

User Experience and Information Architecture um Project Management Institute
11. Oct 2017

Más contenido relacionado


Design Thinking: A Common Sense Process

  1. Design Thinking: A Common Sense Process 1 Presentation at the Project Management Institute Virtual Student Seminar 4 October 2017 Michael Zarro, PhD
  2. About Me 2 Michael Zarro, PhD 15+ years in technology innovation I help people become design thinkers and organizations develop user-centered strategies
  3. 3 Design defined by Meriam Webster: • to create, fashion, execute, or construct according to plan • to devise for a specific function or end • to make a drawing, pattern, or sketch of • to draw the plans for Thinking explained • “The trouble with every one of us is that we don't think enough” – Thomas J. Watson (IBM) • “Think (think, think). Let your mind go, let yourself be free” – Aretha Franklin • “Everything around you that you call life, was made up by people... you can build your own things that other people can use” – Steve Jobs We tend to focus on the last two bullets of the definition when thinking about design. Design thinking is centered around the first two bullets. More than anything (to me) design thinking makes you stop and THINK about your customers, and their needs.
  4. Outline 1. Who are Design Thinkers? 2. What is Design Thinking? 3. When do we “Design Think?” 4. Where is Design Thinking Used? 5. Why use Design Thinking? 6. How to Manage Design Thinking Projects + Resources 4
  5. Who are Design Thinkers? 5 ?
  6. 6 1960’s/70’s 2000’s The study of design as a science / process began long before design thinking was developed. Design thinking, although new and “hot,” utilizes decades worth of experiences and research as its foundation.
  7. 7 Today: Bring Together Business and Users Business Users Design thinking useful just for more people than just those with the title “Designer.”
  8. What is Design Thinking? • More than anything, design thinking is a mindset, with associated processes and tools, which uncovers and addresses real user needs. 8 ?
  9. 9
  10. 10 You should recognize many similarities between the different ways of visualizing Design Thinking
  11. Design Thinking Defined? The design-thinking ideology asserts that a hands-on, user-centric approach to problem solving can lead to innovation, and innovation can lead to differentiation and a competitive advantage. This hands-on, user- centric approach is defined by the design-thinking process – NNGroup Design thinking is a process—applicable to all walks of life—of creating new and innovative ideas and solving problems. It is not limited to a specific industry or area of expertise. – Kaan Tunali (SAP) Design thinking is an iterative process in which we seek to understand the user, challenge assumptions we might have, and redefine problems in an attempt to identify alternative strategies and solutions that might not be instantly apparent with our initial level of understanding. As such, design thinking is most useful in tackling problems that are ill-defined or unknown. - Interaction Design Foundation Design thinking utilizes elements from the designer's toolkit like empathy and experimentation to arrive at innovative solutions. By using design thinking, you make decisions based on what future customers really want instead of relying only on historical data or making risky bets based on instinct instead of evidence. – IDEO
  12. Design Thinking is… confusing?
  13. “Design thinking isn’t one thing… but a bundle of mindsets and philosophies all wrapped up in one term, which obviously has the potential to lead to ambiguity and misunderstanding.” Neil Stevenson (quoted in The Atlantic) Design Thinking is Philosophy?
  14. What is Design Thinking? a) A jumble of terms like empathy, and arrows, and shapes, etc. b) A linear process – moving forward c) An iterative process – revisiting past decisions based on new learning d) A way of finding innovative ideas and reducing risk e) Confusing f) A mindset and philosophy of focusing on the user g) All of the above Pop Quiz!
  15. When, in a project, do we use design thinking?
  16. Before You Build! (aka common sense) This Atlantic City casino cost over $2 Billion to build. It was open 2012-2014 and is now vacant because, while it offered luxurious amenities, they were not in tune with most Atlantic City visitors.
  17. Talk to your customers and test ideas first… before committing resources for development It’s Common Sense… Design Thinking Build & develop Observe Evaluate & Iterate Isn’t it common sense to learn about your users/customers before building something for them?
  18. Common Sense… Agile Edition Design thinking intersects with IT project management concepts like Agile and Lean when building Inspired by Nordstrom Innovation Lab
  19. Where is design thinking used?
  20. Design Thinking Organizations Design Thinking with SAP is a new, fresh way… to find human meaning and use for technology By carefully listening to our guests, we were able to shift our perspective. Empathy and experimentation. Inspiration and ideation. Using Design Thinking, organisations have been able to transform their cultures to become more innovative, which has had a positive impact on their top line and bottom line. Human-centered design is all about putting users first and designing a solution with the end user in mind…designing a solution that matters to the people using it, instead of creating something solely from the organization's point of view. We regularly meet with our customers, taking their perspective into account when developing new systems. Design thinking is used across industries and domains
  21. Why use design thinking?
  22. Because It Works!
  23. More common sense... Companies that differentiate on the experience outperform the S&P 500 by 211% or more 60-90% cost savings on fixing usability problems American Airlines reduced the cost of fixing usability problems by up to 90% by identifying and correct them before development Top for reasons for inaccurate cost estimates are user- related: Requests for changes by users, overlooked tasks, lack of user-centered requirements, and insufficient understanding between users and analysts 79% decrease in software defects Designing around user needs, reduced defects by 79% and increased customer satisfaction
  24. How do we manage design thinking projects? Pick a process… or two or three, or create your own But here, we’ll use Stanford’s process
  25. 25 Stanford has a well known process, with many accessible online resources to help you implement design thinking in your projects.
  26. 26 Empathize • Foundation of design thinking • Observe users in context • Interact and interview, structured and unstructured settings
  27. “In the Wild” Observations • Get out of the building! • Go to your users • Watch them do their thing • See ALL of it, not just bits and pieces • Pretend you are the apprentice, and they are the teacher Interviews • Ask users to “tell the story” • Prepare some questions, but follow “interesting leads” • Always ask “why”
  28. Define • Define the challenge, based on what you learned in the empathize phase. • Synthesize findings and leverage insights
  29. Define the meaningful challenge for the project • What problems need to be solved? Provide focus for the project team • Develop an understanding of the user types, their needs and goals. • Group themes and topics together – Using post-its, photos, quotes, and user-flows
  30. Ideate • Move from user problems to identifying solutions • Think and use your imagination • Result in a wide range of possible solutions, to be evaluated in later steps
  31. Ideate = Think! • Generate a lot of ideas • Go beyond the obvious ideas • Use the “Yes, and” technique from improv comedy for collaboration: – Think positive, not negative • Identify which ideas to use in your prototypes, the next phase • Common categories of ideas: – Most innovative – Most unexpected – Most expected – Least like what we have today
  32. Prototype • Transform your ideas into something people can use • Iterate, iterate, iterate! • Use inexpensive options, like paper prototypes, quickly coded HTML, etc.
  33. Prototype • Build prototypes you will put in front of users in the next phase • Do not get too invested in a design, keep them low cost • Identify the unique feature, called a variable, that you plan to test in each prototype • Build your prototypes with the test in mind, how will they provide insights?
  34. Test • Gather feedback from users using prototypes • Learn how the proposed solutions perform, and which solutions to move forward with • Learn more about users and the way they will use what you develop
  35. Test • Watch users interact with your prototypes • Listen as they describe it, and their questions. • Compare multiple prototypes • Repeat as necessary • Identify winning designs, concepts, features – Get ready to build the winner
  36. Done! Ready to build With confidence you are effectively addressing real user needs Example deliverables: Functional prototypes Prioritized requirements / user stories Design Thinking Report, including: - Video clips and data from tests - User quotes - Winning concepts and features
  37. Summary THINK Work to understand your users THINK more and prioritize ideas Test some ideas as prototypes Repeat until you THINK you got it right A “THINK” based look at Design Thinking process
  38. Resources Stanford University Resources • The Bootcamp Bootleg resources/the-bootcamp-bootleg • Put Design Thinking to Work put-design-thinking-to-work
  39. Resources Library at Sample resources: 1. Contributions of design thinking to project management in an innovation context 2. Agile by Design: Integrating Design Thinking and Agile Approaches... Tools, Templates, Webinars, and Articles Examples: 1. Slashing Risks with Design Thinking and User Experience 2. Uncovering Design Thinking
  40. Thank You! Mike Zarro, PhD @mzarro Available from the publisher: and Amazon: