Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Wir verwenden Ihre LinkedIn Profilangaben und Informationen zu Ihren Aktivitäten, um Anzeigen zu personalisieren und Ihnen relevantere Inhalte anzuzeigen. Sie können Ihre Anzeigeneinstellungen jederzeit ändern.
Nächste SlideShare
Sumerian achievements
Herunterladen, um offline zu lesen und im Vollbildmodus anzuzeigen.



Herunterladen, um offline zu lesen


Herunterladen, um offline zu lesen

Ähnliche Bücher

Kostenlos mit einer 30-tägigen Testversion von Scribd

Alle anzeigen

Ähnliche Hörbücher

Kostenlos mit einer 30-tägigen Testversion von Scribd

Alle anzeigen


  1. 1. Mesopotamian Civilization Oriental PisayKordi
  2. 13. Mesopotamia: "Land Between the Two Rivers"
  3. 14. Indo-European Migrations: 4m-2m BCE The Middle East: “The Crossroads of Three Continents”
  4. 15. The Ancient Fertile Crescent Area The Middle East: “The Cradle of Civilization”
  5. 16. Sumerian Civilization <ul><li>The first Sumerian cities emerged in southern Mesopotamia around 3200 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Nomadic herders settled in the Southern part of Mesopotamia and gradually changed the farming way of life </li></ul><ul><li>They built dams and dikes to keep the rivers from flooding their fields. </li></ul><ul><li>The farming villages emerged along the river and grew into 12 city-states </li></ul>
  6. 18. Sumerian Religion - Polytheistic Enki Innana Anthropomorphic Gods the belief in many gods <ul><li>Enki - the god of rain </li></ul><ul><li>Marduk - principal god of Babylon </li></ul><ul><li>Ashur - god of the Assyrian </li></ul><ul><li>empire </li></ul><ul><li>Gula (in Sumerian) or Shamash </li></ul><ul><li>(in Akkadian) - sun god and god </li></ul><ul><li>of justice </li></ul><ul><li>Ishtar - goddess of war </li></ul><ul><li>Ereshkigal- goddess of the </li></ul><ul><li>underworld </li></ul><ul><li>Nabu- god of writing </li></ul><ul><li>Ninurta- Sumerian god of war and god of heroes </li></ul><ul><li>Iškur- god of storms </li></ul><ul><li>Pazuzu - an evil god who brought diseases which had no known cure </li></ul>
  7. 19. Worshiped many gods. Believed gods controlled every aspect of life. Saw afterlife as a grim place. Everybody would go into darkness and eat dust. To keep the gods happy, each city built a ziggurat, or pyramid temple. Each state had distinct social hierarchy, or system of ranks. Most people were peasant farmers. Women had legal rights; some engaged in trade and owned property. City-states with hereditary rulers. Ruler led army in war and enforced laws. Complex government with scribes to collect taxes and keep records. RELIGION SOCIAL STRUCTURE GOVERNMENT
  8. 20. “ The Cuneiform World” Mesopotamian Trade
  9. 21. Cuneiform: “Wedge-Shaped” Writing <ul><li>The Sumerians used a system of record-keeping that used baked clay </li></ul><ul><li>These tablets are invaluable record of history of the Sumerian and of later peoples of Mesopotamia </li></ul>
  10. 22. Cuneiform Writing
  11. 23. Deciphering Cuneiform
  12. 24. Schools were established: <ul><li>Only few people (particularly the boys) were trained to write cuneiform </li></ul><ul><li>They were sons of upper-class professionals (priest, temple and palce officials, army officers, sea captains and other scribes) </li></ul><ul><li>The students who learned the art could work as scribes for the temple, the royal court or wealthy merchants </li></ul>
  13. 25. Sumerian Scribes “ Tablet House”
  14. 26. Sumer falls to conquerors <ul><li>They did not form a strong and unified government </li></ul><ul><li>War between city-states </li></ul><ul><li>Sargon the Great was the ruler of the kingdom of Akkad who invaded the city-states </li></ul><ul><li>He established the world’s first empire </li></ul><ul><li>His empire stretched from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea </li></ul><ul><li>The empire lasted for only about 100 years </li></ul>
  15. 27. The Ancient Fertile Crescent Area The Middle East: “The Cradle of Civilization”
  16. 28. Sumer falls to conquerors <ul><li>Ur was the city-state that was able to regain power and ruled both Summer and Akkad </li></ul><ul><li>Hammurabi was the ruler from Babylonia who conquered and united the whole Mesopotamian Peninsula </li></ul>
  17. 29. Sumerian Cylinder Seals
  18. 30. Gilgamesh <ul><li>The Mesopotamians believed that the dead descended to a gloomy underworld </li></ul><ul><li>Epic of Gilgamesh was one of the earliest literary works. </li></ul>
  19. 31. Gilgamesh Epic Tablet: Flood Story
  20. 32. Ziggurat at Ur <ul><li>Temple </li></ul><ul><li>“ Mountain of the Gods” </li></ul>
  21. 33. The Royal Standard of Ur
  22. 34. Mesopotamian Harp
  23. 35. Board Game From Ur
  24. 36. Sophisticated Metallurgy Skills at Ur
  25. 37. Sargon of Akkad: The World’s First Empire [Akkadians]
  26. 38. The Babylonian Empires
  27. 39. Hammurabi’s [r. 1792-1750 B. C. E.] Code
  28. 40. Hammurabi, the Judge
  29. 41. Babylonian Math <ul><li>They drew up multiplication and division tables and making calculations using geometry </li></ul>
  30. 42. Babylonian Numbers
  31. 43. Mesopotamian Trade System <ul><li>The two rivers provided a way to ship goods </li></ul><ul><li>The wheel and the sail improved transportation system </li></ul><ul><li>Marketplace were present in Mesopotamian cities </li></ul>
  32. 44. Clay Tablets : History <ul><li>Discoveries of clay tablets in the Near East shown trade contracts, lists of rulers, maps, poems, legends, prayers and laws (not interpreted until the 19 th Century) </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Rawilson (1840) discovered the key to the cuneiform writing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tree types of writing on a huge cliff, known as the Behistun rock. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 46. Mesopotamia <ul><li>Ancient region located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Forms part of the Fertile Crescent </li></ul><ul><li>Occupied by present day Iraq, South-eastern Turkey and Eastern Syria </li></ul>
  34. 47. Sumerian Civilization (4000-2500 BC) <ul><li>Oldest civilization and center of a sophisticated culture by 3000 BC </li></ul><ul><li>People hailed from the mountains of Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Established autonomous city-states ruled over by a king with absolute powers or THEOCRACY </li></ul><ul><li>Cuneiform, irrigation, wheel-turned pottery, wheel-driven carts </li></ul>
  35. 48. Akkadian (2750-2590 BC) <ul><li>Founded by King Sargon, who united the warring city state of Sumer and built an empire in the city of Agade (Akkad) </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed by weak leadership, until the empire is divided into two following attacks by the Elamites and the Amorites </li></ul>
  36. 49. Babylonian (1760 BC) <ul><li>Founded in 1760 under Hammurabi, the sixth Amorite king of Syria who defeated the Elamites and chose Babylon as the capital of his empire </li></ul><ul><li>The city-states of Akkad and Sumer were united and trade and commerce flourished in the region </li></ul>
  37. 50. Babylonian (1760- 1500BC) <ul><li>People worshipped the god Marduk </li></ul><ul><li>Code of Hammurabi protected the poor against the abuses of the rich </li></ul><ul><li>Attacked by the Hittites two centuries later and eventually fell to Agum, a Kassite ruler in the 16 th century BC </li></ul>
  38. 51. The Hittites (1600-1200 BC) <ul><li>Ancient people of Asia Minor and the Middle East, inhabiting present day Anatolia in Turkey, </li></ul><ul><li>Most important contribution is their use of iron, becoming the first people to use horse-drawn cart during wars </li></ul>
  39. 52. Phoenicians, Hebrews, Assyrians and Chaldeans (1200-400BC) <ul><li>“ Sidonians” </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham; King Solomon </li></ul><ul><li>Nineveh as capial </li></ul><ul><li>King Nebuchadnezzar </li></ul><ul><li>King Darius - Persia </li></ul>
  • TejasMedade

    Dec. 8, 2018
  • RobertGriffis1

    Jan. 10, 2018
  • manish99955

    Nov. 19, 2017
  • hrsinhparmar

    Nov. 16, 2017
  • KavyaKaushik2

    Jun. 28, 2017
  • JesseniaAviles1

    May. 27, 2017
  • RealJazzPialan

    Dec. 1, 2015
  • LeiQuintos

    Jul. 27, 2015
  • cdcayetano

    Jul. 15, 2014
  • richellerogel

    May. 22, 2014
  • elnimit

    Apr. 24, 2014
  • garimacharkha

    Mar. 12, 2014
  • iffatiffi

    Dec. 30, 2013
  • sirvhinz16

    Nov. 30, 2013
  • joseignaciogarciahierro

    Oct. 17, 2013
  • Pallaviupadhyay92

    Oct. 15, 2013
  • MicheleKakouris

    Oct. 8, 2013
  • marilenebrada

    Mar. 18, 2013
  • jay_surachai

    Feb. 3, 2013
  • ligonier1758

    Jan. 10, 2013


Aufrufe insgesamt


Auf Slideshare


Aus Einbettungen


Anzahl der Einbettungen