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Sumerian achievements
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Mesopotamia

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Mesopotamia

  1. 1. Mesopotamian Civilization Oriental PisayKordi
  2. 13. Mesopotamia: "Land Between the Two Rivers"
  3. 14. Indo-European Migrations: 4m-2m BCE The Middle East: “The Crossroads of Three Continents”
  4. 15. The Ancient Fertile Crescent Area The Middle East: “The Cradle of Civilization”
  5. 16. Sumerian Civilization <ul><li>The first Sumerian cities emerged in southern Mesopotamia around 3200 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Nomadic herders settled in the Southern part of Mesopotamia and gradually changed the farming way of life </li></ul><ul><li>They built dams and dikes to keep the rivers from flooding their fields. </li></ul><ul><li>The farming villages emerged along the river and grew into 12 city-states </li></ul>
  6. 18. Sumerian Religion - Polytheistic Enki Innana Anthropomorphic Gods the belief in many gods <ul><li>Enki - the god of rain </li></ul><ul><li>Marduk - principal god of Babylon </li></ul><ul><li>Ashur - god of the Assyrian </li></ul><ul><li>empire </li></ul><ul><li>Gula (in Sumerian) or Shamash </li></ul><ul><li>(in Akkadian) - sun god and god </li></ul><ul><li>of justice </li></ul><ul><li>Ishtar - goddess of war </li></ul><ul><li>Ereshkigal- goddess of the </li></ul><ul><li>underworld </li></ul><ul><li>Nabu- god of writing </li></ul><ul><li>Ninurta- Sumerian god of war and god of heroes </li></ul><ul><li>Iškur- god of storms </li></ul><ul><li>Pazuzu - an evil god who brought diseases which had no known cure </li></ul>
  7. 19. Worshiped many gods. Believed gods controlled every aspect of life. Saw afterlife as a grim place. Everybody would go into darkness and eat dust. To keep the gods happy, each city built a ziggurat, or pyramid temple. Each state had distinct social hierarchy, or system of ranks. Most people were peasant farmers. Women had legal rights; some engaged in trade and owned property. City-states with hereditary rulers. Ruler led army in war and enforced laws. Complex government with scribes to collect taxes and keep records. RELIGION SOCIAL STRUCTURE GOVERNMENT
  8. 20. “ The Cuneiform World” Mesopotamian Trade
  9. 21. Cuneiform: “Wedge-Shaped” Writing <ul><li>The Sumerians used a system of record-keeping that used baked clay </li></ul><ul><li>These tablets are invaluable record of history of the Sumerian and of later peoples of Mesopotamia </li></ul>
  10. 22. Cuneiform Writing
  11. 23. Deciphering Cuneiform
  12. 24. Schools were established: <ul><li>Only few people (particularly the boys) were trained to write cuneiform </li></ul><ul><li>They were sons of upper-class professionals (priest, temple and palce officials, army officers, sea captains and other scribes) </li></ul><ul><li>The students who learned the art could work as scribes for the temple, the royal court or wealthy merchants </li></ul>
  13. 25. Sumerian Scribes “ Tablet House”
  14. 26. Sumer falls to conquerors <ul><li>They did not form a strong and unified government </li></ul><ul><li>War between city-states </li></ul><ul><li>Sargon the Great was the ruler of the kingdom of Akkad who invaded the city-states </li></ul><ul><li>He established the world’s first empire </li></ul><ul><li>His empire stretched from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea </li></ul><ul><li>The empire lasted for only about 100 years </li></ul>
  15. 27. The Ancient Fertile Crescent Area The Middle East: “The Cradle of Civilization”
  16. 28. Sumer falls to conquerors <ul><li>Ur was the city-state that was able to regain power and ruled both Summer and Akkad </li></ul><ul><li>Hammurabi was the ruler from Babylonia who conquered and united the whole Mesopotamian Peninsula </li></ul>
  17. 29. Sumerian Cylinder Seals
  18. 30. Gilgamesh <ul><li>The Mesopotamians believed that the dead descended to a gloomy underworld </li></ul><ul><li>Epic of Gilgamesh was one of the earliest literary works. </li></ul>
  19. 31. Gilgamesh Epic Tablet: Flood Story
  20. 32. Ziggurat at Ur <ul><li>Temple </li></ul><ul><li>“ Mountain of the Gods” </li></ul>
  21. 33. The Royal Standard of Ur
  22. 34. Mesopotamian Harp
  23. 35. Board Game From Ur
  24. 36. Sophisticated Metallurgy Skills at Ur
  25. 37. Sargon of Akkad: The World’s First Empire [Akkadians]
  26. 38. The Babylonian Empires
  27. 39. Hammurabi’s [r. 1792-1750 B. C. E.] Code
  28. 40. Hammurabi, the Judge
  29. 41. Babylonian Math <ul><li>They drew up multiplication and division tables and making calculations using geometry </li></ul>
  30. 42. Babylonian Numbers
  31. 43. Mesopotamian Trade System <ul><li>The two rivers provided a way to ship goods </li></ul><ul><li>The wheel and the sail improved transportation system </li></ul><ul><li>Marketplace were present in Mesopotamian cities </li></ul>
  32. 44. Clay Tablets : History <ul><li>Discoveries of clay tablets in the Near East shown trade contracts, lists of rulers, maps, poems, legends, prayers and laws (not interpreted until the 19 th Century) </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Rawilson (1840) discovered the key to the cuneiform writing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tree types of writing on a huge cliff, known as the Behistun rock. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 46. Mesopotamia <ul><li>Ancient region located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Forms part of the Fertile Crescent </li></ul><ul><li>Occupied by present day Iraq, South-eastern Turkey and Eastern Syria </li></ul>
  34. 47. Sumerian Civilization (4000-2500 BC) <ul><li>Oldest civilization and center of a sophisticated culture by 3000 BC </li></ul><ul><li>People hailed from the mountains of Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Established autonomous city-states ruled over by a king with absolute powers or THEOCRACY </li></ul><ul><li>Cuneiform, irrigation, wheel-turned pottery, wheel-driven carts </li></ul>
  35. 48. Akkadian (2750-2590 BC) <ul><li>Founded by King Sargon, who united the warring city state of Sumer and built an empire in the city of Agade (Akkad) </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed by weak leadership, until the empire is divided into two following attacks by the Elamites and the Amorites </li></ul>
  36. 49. Babylonian (1760 BC) <ul><li>Founded in 1760 under Hammurabi, the sixth Amorite king of Syria who defeated the Elamites and chose Babylon as the capital of his empire </li></ul><ul><li>The city-states of Akkad and Sumer were united and trade and commerce flourished in the region </li></ul>
  37. 50. Babylonian (1760- 1500BC) <ul><li>People worshipped the god Marduk </li></ul><ul><li>Code of Hammurabi protected the poor against the abuses of the rich </li></ul><ul><li>Attacked by the Hittites two centuries later and eventually fell to Agum, a Kassite ruler in the 16 th century BC </li></ul>
  38. 51. The Hittites (1600-1200 BC) <ul><li>Ancient people of Asia Minor and the Middle East, inhabiting present day Anatolia in Turkey, </li></ul><ul><li>Most important contribution is their use of iron, becoming the first people to use horse-drawn cart during wars </li></ul>
  39. 52. Phoenicians, Hebrews, Assyrians and Chaldeans (1200-400BC) <ul><li>“ Sidonians” </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham; King Solomon </li></ul><ul><li>Nineveh as capial </li></ul><ul><li>King Nebuchadnezzar </li></ul><ul><li>King Darius - Persia </li></ul>
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