1. By: Mohamed Ahmed Said-Aamin
Student at Puntland State university
Definition of project and project management
Characteristics of Project
Constraints of project Management
Nine Areas of project Management
Project Life cycle
Evaluation and Assessment
3. After end the lesson, you should able to:
Define concept of project Management
Identify stage of project life cycle
Examine project assessment and evaluation
4. A project is a temporary endeavor designed
to produce a unique product, service or result
with a defined beginning and end (usually
time-constrained, and often constrained by
funding or deliverables) undertaken to meet
unique goals and objectives, typically to bring
about beneficial change or added value.
5. Project Management: is the application of
knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to
project activities to meet project
requirements. Project Management is
accomplished through the use of the
processes such as: initiating, planning,
executing, controlling and closing.
6. Objective: Each and every project needs to be guided
to achieve an objective or a set of objectives. It
ceases to exist when the objective is achieved.
Life Span: A project has beginning and end. It cannot
Constraints: A project has a schedule. It operates
within the constraints of time, cost and quality. Every
project requires certain investment of resources.
Unique: Every project is unique. No two projects are
System: All projects need to undergo a system of
inputs-process - Outputs.
Life Cycle: Every project will have its own phase-
7. Teamwork: A project has many participants. It
requires teamwork under the leadership of the
Organization Structure: A project is a temporary
organization. A project usually has its own
budget and management.
Planning and Control System: A project requires
information, planning and control system. The
actual performance is compared with the planned
Collection of Activities: A project is a collection of
activities that are linked together to constitute a
8. They are nine knowledge areas
Project Human resource
10. Develop phase- initial phase, preparing
Concept phase- project planning
Execute phase- includes implementation,
conducting project activities
Finish phase- conclusion of the project and
closing of project
11. Initiation involves starting up the project, by documenting
a business case, feasibility study, and terms of reference,
appointing the team and setting up a Project Office.
Planning involves setting out the roadmap for the project
by creating the following plans: project plan, resource
plan, financial plan, quality plan, acceptance plan and
Execution involves building the deliverables and
controlling the project delivery, scope, costs, quality, risks
Monitoring and Evaluation: this is monitoring the
achievements of project objectives and goals
Closure involves winding-down the project by releasing
staff, handing over deliverables to the customer and
completing a post implementation review.
12. Stages in project
Potential NGO’s Involvement
Provide advice/information on local conditions
Participate in environmental and social
Organize consultations with
Transmit expressed needs/priorities of local
communities to project staff.
Act as a source, model or sponsor of project
ideas implement pilot project.
Consult to the government, to local
Assist in promoting a participatory approach to
Channel information to local population
Co-financier( in money or in kind) of a project
Source of funds for activities complementary to the
proposed donor- financed project.
Project contractor or manager( for delivery of service,
Promote community participation in project activities
Financial intermediary role
Supplier of technical knowledge to local beneficiary
Advisor to local communities on how to take advantage of
project-financed goods or service
Implement of complementary activities
Monitoring and evaluation NGO contracted to monitor project progress or evaluate
Facilitate participatory monitoring and evaluation
14. Project selection methods help guide an
organizations decisions and weight them against
alternative projects. As a project manager or owner,
you will inevitably have to make decisions regarding
which projects to implement. As a team, you will
need to carefully analyze all of these contributing
factors (i.e: the goals of the organization, customer
requirements, timeframes, budget, urgency,
Evidently, there are many stages that precedes this
critical one, all amounting to these decisions: Which
projects should we undertake? How do we
decide? These are very important questions to
explore, for the answers will ultimately influence the
15. What is a community involvement program?
A community involvement program is a process in which
community participation is used to improve major decisions
during the planning, development and operational stages of a
housing project. A good community involvement program
contributes to the best possible development and operating
Who is responsible for community involvement?
Success will involve early identification of someone in your
organization who has responsibility for the community
involvement program. The amount of time required in this role
will vary according to the size and scope of the project. Smaller
projects may require only a few hours per week during planning
and construction stages, while larger or contentious projects
may require one or more days per week.
How do I develop a community involvement program?
Based on good practice and the experiences of developers of
housing for homeless projects, HUA recommends 6 steps for
your community involvement program. See page 2 (over) for a
description of these steps.
How Will I know if/When I have addressed the
What is being learned?
What is the Impact being made by instruction?
What is working?
What is not working?
Assessment – The systematic determination of the
results of an effort or intervention.
Rationale: Allows for the continuous improvement
of project components.
17. How Will I know how well I have addressed the
How well is the project working?
How do you know that
Value is/has being added?
How valid are the
How effective are the
18. Assessment and Evaluation.
Why? – A Requirement for “Accountability
What? – Evidence that “Expectations have
When? – Continuously to “Monitor Progress”
and at Designated Intervals to Ascertain
How? – Varies, “Aligned with Needs”
19. Evaluation is a systematic determination of a
subject's merit, worth and significance, using
criteria governed by a set of standards. It can
assist an organization, program, project or any
other intervention or initiative to assess any aim,
realisable concept/proposal, or any alternative,
to help in decision-making; or to ascertain the
degree of achievement or value in regard to the
aim and objectives and results of any such action
that has been completed. The primary purpose of
evaluation, in addition to gaining insight into
prior or existing initiatives, is to enable reflection
and assist in the identification of future change
20. Selecting an evaluation type provides direction for your evaluation.
It helps keep the evaluation process focused on its main purpose
and determines the evaluation questions that should be answered
and the data that should be collected. The most common types of
evaluation are: formative, process, and summative.
Formative evaluation is an ongoing evaluation that starts early in a
project. It assesses the nature of the project, the needs the project
addresses, and the progress and implementation of the project. It
can identify major gaps in the project’s content and operational
aspects (i.e., what was done and how) and suggest ways to
Process evaluation is used to monitor activities to make sure a
project is being implemented and completed as designed and on
time. It can be complementary to formative evaluation. Although
formative evaluation has a larger scope than process evaluation,
there are many similarities between them: both focus on the
effectiveness and the operational aspect of a project; both start at
a very early stage of a project and can be performed by internal
staff; and both require a strong monitoring mechanism to track
operational activities and to collect information related to the
21. Summative evaluation is an overall assessment of
the project’s effectiveness and achievements. It
reveals whether the project did what it was
designed to do. It provides information for future
planning and decisions and usually is completed
when the project is over. This type of evaluation
usually does not directly affect the current
project, but it helps stakeholders decide the
future of this or similar projects. To provide
adequate information, a summative evaluation
requires a set of well-defined goals and
objectives for the project and a plan that keeps
the focus of evaluation on the end-results.