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Expository Teaching
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  1. 1. Process of Education <ul><li>Bruner's Classic work (1960) </li></ul><ul><li>Woods Hole Mass. 1959 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Process of Education <ul><li>Key themes: Role of structure; readiness for learning; intuitive and analytical thinking; motives for learning </li></ul>
  3. 3. Constructivism Dr. Gerald J. Vernotica Seton Hall University July 2007
  4. 4. “ Any subject can be taught effectively in some honest intellectual form to any child at any stage of development” Jerome Bruner
  5. 5. What is Constructivism?
  6. 6. Constructivism <ul><li>Theory of knowledge and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is an active process </li></ul><ul><li>Based on cognitive research </li></ul><ul><li>The learner is a ‘maker of meaning and a solver of problems’ Glatthorn (1994) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Focus on Learning: Putting the Learner First
  8. 8. What is Knowledge?
  9. 9. Knowledge <ul><li>Temporary </li></ul><ul><li>Socially and culturally mediated </li></ul><ul><li>Non objective </li></ul><ul><li>Language based </li></ul>
  10. 10. Theory of Knowledge: Bruner <ul><li>Internalizing of tools that are used within the child's culture </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by the development of language to convey words and symbols, what is felt and known </li></ul><ul><li>Language is the key to Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Language is the primary way concepts can be taught and questioned </li></ul>
  11. 11. What is the difference between knowledge and belief?
  12. 12. What is a mistake? <ul><li>Children’s abstractions may be viewed by adults as “incorrect” </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviors are a manifestation of movement to an ensuing way of reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Listen carefully </li></ul><ul><li>Seek to uncover student perceptions </li></ul>
  13. 13. “ We are what we do”
  14. 14. What is Learning?
  15. 15. Learning <ul><li>Self regulated process of resolving inner cognitive conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete experience </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborate discourse </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection </li></ul>
  16. 16. Perceptions and Rules <ul><li>Discrepant data or perceptions=agreement of disagreement </li></ul><ul><li>Either conform or establish questions for reordering </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptions and rules engage in a grand dance that shapes our understanding </li></ul>
  17. 17. “ Learning is not discovering more, but interpreting through a different scheme or schema”
  18. 18. Constructivist Paradigm <ul><li>Focus on large ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce mimicking and fact driven content </li></ul><ul><li>Inquiry: make connections; reformulate ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity is valued and celebrated </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is messy </li></ul>
  19. 19. Know ones World <ul><li>Socrates: relationship with nature and society help us reformulate fundamental questions we have asked ourselves </li></ul><ul><li>Kant: two views; logical analysis of actions and objects leads to the growth of knowledge and the view that individual experiences generate new knowledge </li></ul>
  20. 20. Concrete to Abstract <ul><li>Enactive: experience concrete in order to understand </li></ul><ul><li>Iconic: ability to represent materials graphically or mentally </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic: ability to use logic, higher order thinking skills. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Objectives <ul><li>After viewing the video participants will consider and discuss: </li></ul><ul><li>What we know about how students learn </li></ul><ul><li>How what we know affects instruction </li></ul>
  23. 24. Focus questions <ul><li>What do constructivist learning settings look like? </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the implications of constructivist learning theory requires an understanding of nuance. What subtleties of classroom life can you detect in the video? </li></ul>
  24. 25. Still in focus: <ul><li>Many of the intellectual and social benefits of constructivist classrooms are evidenced in the long term. What inferences can you make regarding long term ed. Outcomes derived by students in classrooms featured in the video? </li></ul><ul><li>What questions do you have regarding the constructivist classroom? </li></ul>
  25. 26. Piaget <ul><li>Influential proponent of constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>Viewed human mind as a dynamic set of cognitive structures that help us make sense of what we perceive </li></ul><ul><li>Static stage theory: preoperational, concrete, formal </li></ul>
  26. 27. Its about creating environments which encourage students to ‘think and explore’
  27. 28. Guiding Principles of Constructivism <ul><li>Posing problems of emerging relevance </li></ul><ul><li>Structuring learning around primary concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking and valuing student perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Adapting curriculum to address student suppositions </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing in Context of Teaching </li></ul>
  28. 29. Greenberg(1990) Problem solving <ul><li>Students make testable predictions </li></ul><ul><li>Use of inexpensive equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Complex and should elicit multiple problem solving approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits from group effort </li></ul><ul><li>MUST BE RELEVANT </li></ul>
  29. 30. Time versus coverage Big ideas
  30. 31. “Any act of learning, over beyond the pleasure it may give, is that it should serve us in the future”
  31. 32. Transfer <ul><li>What are organizational structures that promote or impede transfer of knowledge? </li></ul>
  32. 33. Transfer <ul><li>Does not occur naturally </li></ul><ul><li>Must be shaped and refined through modeling and rehearsal </li></ul>
  33. 34. Structuring Learning <ul><li>From whole to part </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual clusters </li></ul><ul><li>Big ideas e.g. Conflict, power, relationships, trust, interdependence, momentum, etc. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Conceptual Clusters <ul><li>National Center for Improving Science identifies conceptual themes: cause and effect, change and conservation, diversity and variation, energy and matter, evolution and equilibrium, models and theories, probability and prediction, structure and function, systems and interaction, time and scale </li></ul>
  35. 36. Conceptual Clusters <ul><li>Centered around reflection: Melchior (1992): independence/interdependence; impulsivity/reflection; individual/group; </li></ul><ul><li>fantasy/realism; reactive/proactive; inhumanity/humanity, etc. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Seek and Value Points of View <ul><li>Point of view is the instructional entry point of personalized education </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge relativity </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers role: guiding instruction not “sage on the stage” </li></ul><ul><li>Uncover conceptions by varying problems and questioning techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Always ask to elaborate or give rationale </li></ul>
  37. 38. Adapting Curriculum <ul><li>Adapt to address student suppositions </li></ul><ul><li>Match students cognitive abilities to cognitive demands </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the role of errors in cognitive development </li></ul>
  38. 39. Assessing Student Learning <ul><li>Assess in the context of teaching: seamless </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment is educative to student and teacher alike </li></ul><ul><li>Assess in service to the learner </li></ul>
  39. 40. Results <ul><li>Three important things I learned are: </li></ul><ul><li>Two ideas or insights I would like to share with colleagues back in my district are: </li></ul><ul><li>One action I will take immediately is: </li></ul>
  40. 41. ‘ I saw a medley of haphazard facts fall into line and order….”but it’s true,” I said to myself. “It’s very beautiful. And It’s true.” C.P. Snow (1934) The Search

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Go to Harvard smisonaonian study of graduate students; why do we have changes in the seasons? 80 percent answered incorrectly. Closest or futher from the earth rather than the correct answer of “ rotation of the earth on its axis”
  • Use three wars elicit responses use taba technique comparasions similarities differences.