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9. Feb 2017

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  1. Gerund
  2. Gerund is usually defined as a word ending in –ing that is formed from a verb and that function as a noun.
  3. To form gerunds, use the base form + ing (don’t forget th rules for spelling of ing form of verbs) Verb + -ing = noun work + -ing = working pay + -ing = paying improve + -ing = improving
  4. Specifically it is use as Subject Object of Preposition Direct Object Subject Complement Appositive.
  5. A gerund can be the subject of a sentence. It is always singular. Subject is something that is being discussed. How to find the subject? by asking, “What word is the sentence telling something about?”
  6. Choosing a candidate takes time. Windsurfing is very exciting. Travelling might satisfy your desire for new experiences. subject subject verb verb subject verb
  7.  Object of a Preposition
  8. Object of a Preposition After three hours, Steve was tired of studying. He’s excited about playing tennis. by + gerund ex. You get good grades by studying hard. go + gerund ex. I will go fishing with you tomorrow
  9. Common preposition combinations followed by gerunds • Be excited about, complain about, talk about, think about, worry about • Apologize for, blame for, famous for • Believe in, interested in, succeed in • Take care of, instead of, be accused of • Insist on, count on, concentrate on • Keep from, prevent from, profit from • In addition to, look forward to, be used to
  10.  Direct Object Is a noun that receives the action of a transitive action verb. Generally found after action verbs. You can determine if a word is a direct object by asking Whom? Or What?
  11. • On their vacation, the Rezendes discovered snorkeling. • In the summer, Kara prefers swimming. • Sophia likes jumping on the trampoline. DOverb DO DOverb verb
  12.  Subject Complement is a noun that appears with a linking verb and tells something about the subject of the sentence. Note: a subject complement will almost always be found after linking verb.
  13. Linking verbs am am being can be have been are are being could be has been is is being may be had been was was being might be could have been were were being must be may have been shall be might have been should be must have been will be shall have been would be should have been will have been would have been
  14. • What I really like is travelling to other countries. • Seeing is believing. • One of Leonor’s hobbies is sewing.
  15. Appositive A word in apposition is “placed next to” another word. noun placed to another noun to identify, renames, or explain. Ex. Tony’s car, a sedan, ran out of gas on the bridge. Her hobby, graphology, is the study of handwriting.
  16. Notice also that the appositives above are set off by commas. The commas indicate that these appositives are not essential to the basic meaning of the sentences.
  17. • I have a new hobby, cooking. • The best form of exercise, walking, is also the least expensive. • Her job, analyzing data brought in by satellites, is exciting.
  18. 1. Dancing helps a person lose weight. 2. On summer nights, the family enjoys picnicking. 3. She expanded her vocabulary by reading. 4. Weeding has improved the appearance of the yard. 5. The parakeet’s main pastime, chirping, prevents loneliness. 6. At the age of five, Winston began acting.
  19. Write the gerund or gerunds in each sentence. Label each one as a subject, object of preposition, direct object, subject complement, or appositive. Ex. Climbing is her favorite activity. Climbing (subject)
  20. 1. Voting is an important responsibility. 2. In summer, Liam prefers hiking. 3. Allen loves eating on rainy days. 4. The worst feeling, hating a friend, have no good effect. 5. Loving is trusting. 6. She passed her exam because of studying hard. 7. Teaching is the noblest profession. 8. Every politicians goal, helping, is sometimes fake. 9. Joe really likes playing basketball. 10.What the policemen do is catching criminals.
  21. 11. Our meeting at the station was a surprise. 12. The team excelled in batting and running. 13. Stephanie loved excitement and dancing. 14. Kyla's favorite exercise is jogging. 15. My passion, serving people, gives me satisfaction.