Erros

81 Aufrufe

Veröffentlicht am

Noções dobre teoria de erros

Veröffentlicht in: Ingenieurwesen
  • Als Erste(r) kommentieren

  • Gehören Sie zu den Ersten, denen das gefällt!

Erros

  1. 1. )tVLFD([SHULPHQWDO YHUVmR² BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB 8)(6('HSDUWDPHQWRGH)tVLFD0RGH/#E ZZZPRGHODEXIHVEUILVH[S 1Ro}HV6REUH7HRULDGH(UURV (UURV RQVLGHUHDVVHJXLQWHVVLWXDo}HVHSHUJXQWDVGHVFULWDVDEDL[R x 6DEHPRVGDJHRPHWULDHXFOLGLDQDTXHDVRPDGRVkQJXORVLQWHUQRVGHXPWULkQJXOR YDOH• 1XPDGDGDVLWXDomRH[SHULPHQWDORVkQJXORVLQWHUQRVGHXPGDGRWULkQJXOR VmRPHGLGRVSDUDVHREWHUVXDVRPD2SURFHGLPHQWRpUHSHWLGRYH]HVHRVYDORUHV HVWmRWDEHODGRVDEDL[R 6 6RPDGRV®QJXORV 'LIHUHQoDHQWUHR 9DORU2EWLGRHR9DORU5HDO • • • • • x (P FRQGLo}HV QRUPDLV GH SUHVVmR PHGLXVH D WHPSHUDWXUD GD iJXD HP HEXOLomR H REWHYHVH R YDORU • $ GLIHUHQoD HQWUH R YDORU REWLGR H R YDORU FRQVLGHUDGR YHUGDGHLURGHVVDJUDQGH]Dp• x YDORUGDYHORFLGDGHGDOX]QRYiFXRSRUGHILQLomRpPVOHLDR$GHQGR
  2. 2. 0HGLXVHDYHORFLGDGHGDOX]QRYiFXRHHQFRQWURXVH[ PV x 0HGLXVHFRPXPDUpJXDDDUHVWDGHXPFXERHREWHYHVHRYDORUFP 1HVWH FDVRpFRQKHFLGRRYDORUUHDOGHVWDJUDQGH]D x $RVHGHWHUPLQDUDPDVVDGHXPDVXEVWkQFLDREWHYHVHRYDORUJeHVWHR YHUGDGHLURYDORUGHVWDJUDQGH]D $OJXPDV JUDQGH]DV SRVVXHP VHXV YDORUHV UHDLV FRQKHFLGRV H RXWUDV QmR 4XDQGR FRQKHFHPRV R YDORU UHDO GH XPD JUDQGH]D H H[SHULPHQWDOPHQWH HQFRQWUDPRV XP UHVXOWDGRGLIHUHQWHGL]HPRVTXHRYDORUREWLGRHVWiDIHWDGRGHXPHUURRTXDOSRGHVHU GHILQLGRFRPR (552pD GLIHUHQoDHQWUHXPYDORUREWLGRDRVHPHGLUXPDJUDQGH]D HRYDORUUHDORXFRUUHWRGDPHVPD0DWHPDWLFDPHQWH (UUR 9DORU0HGLGR²9DORU5HDO ([HUFtFLR0HGLXVHRVkQJXORVLQWHUQRVGHXPTXDGULOiWHURHREWHYHVHR 4XDOpR HUURGHTXHHVWiDIHWDGDHVWDPHGLGD
  3. 3. )tVLFD([SHULPHQWDO YHUVmR² BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB 8)(6('HSDUWDPHQWRGH)tVLFD0RGH/#E ZZZPRGHODEXIHVEUILVH[S (QWUHWDQWR R YDORU UHDO RX H[DWR GD PDLRULD GDV JUDQGH]DV ItVLFDV QHP VHPSUH p FRQKHFLGR'HVVDIRUPDSRGHVHTXHVWLRQDU x 4XDQGRDILUPDPRV TXH D DFHOHUDomR GD JUDYLGDGH HPQRVVRODERUDWyULR YDOH PV WUDWDVHGHVHXYDORUDEVROXWRRXDTXHOHTXHPDLVVHDSUR[LPDGRTXHSRGHVHU FRQVLGHUDGRVHXYDORUUHDO x 1HVWDVFRQGLo}HVWHPVHQWLGRIDODUVHQRYHUGDGHLURYDORUGHXPDJUDQGH]D RQIRUPHWHUHPRVRSRUWXQLGDGHGHHVWXGDUFDUHFHGHVHQWLGRHPVHIDODUHPYDORUUHDO GDPDLRULDGDVJUDQGH]DVItVLFDV $SHVDU GH QmR SRGHUPRV HQFRQWUDU R YDORU UHDO GH GHWHUPLQDGD JUDQGH]D SRGHPRV HVWDEHOHFHUDWUDYpVGHFULWpULRVTXHHVWXGDUHPRVRSRUWXQDPHQWHXPYDORUDGRWDGRTXH PDLVVHDSUR[LPDGRYDORUUHDOFRPRpRFDVRGDDFHOHUDomRGDJUDYLGDGHDFLPDFLWDGR 1HVWH FDVR DR HIHWXDUPRV XPD PHGLGD IDODPRV HP GHVYLRV H QmR HP HUURV R TXDO SRGHVHUGHILQLGRFRPR '(69,2pD GLIHUHQoDHQWUHXPYDORUREWLGRDRVHPHGLUXPD JUDQGH]DHRYDORUDGRWDGRTXHPDLVVHDSUR[LPDGRYDORUUHDO 0DWHPDWLFDPHQWH 'HVYLR 9DORU0HGLGR²9DORU$GRWDGR 1DSUiWLFDVHWUDEDOKDQDPDLRULDGDVYH]HVFRPGHVYLRVHQmRFRPHUURV 4XDQGRXPPHVPRRSHUDGRUHIHWXDXPDVpULHGHPHGLGDVGHXPDJUDQGH]DXWLOL]DQGR XPPHVPRLQVWUXPHQWRDVPHGLGDVREWLGDVWHUmRYDORUHVTXHSRGHUmRQmRFRLQFLGLUQD PDLRULDGDVYH]HVLVVRGHYLGRDIDWRUHVSHVVRDLVHDFLGHQWDLV$WHRULDGHPRQVWUDTXHR YDORU TXH PDLV VH DSUR[LPD GR FRQVLGHUDGR FRUUHWR RX UHDO p D PpGLD DULWPpWLFD GRV YDORUHVUHSUHVHQWDGDSRUD RQVLGHUHRVH[HPSORVDEDL[R ([HPSOR 8P RSHUDGRU DR PHGLU R FRPSULPHQWR GH XP WXER FRP XPD UpJXD PLOLPHWUDGDHQFRQWURXRVTXDWURYDORUHV P P P P 2YDORUFRQVLGHUDGRPDLVSUy[LPRGRUHDOQHVWHFDVRpDPpGLDGDVPpGLDHIHWXDGDVRX VHMD D P ([HPSOR$GRWDQGRVHSDUDDDFHOHUDomRGDJUDYLGDGHHPGHWHUPLQDGRORFDORYDORU PV H REWHQGRVH H[SHULPHQWDOPHQWH QR PHVPR ORFDO PV R GHVYLR GHTXHHVWiDIHWDGRHVWDJUDQGH]DpGDGRSRU 'HVYLR$EVROXWR YDORUREWLGRYDORUDGRWDGR
  4. 4. PV
  5. 5. )tVLFD([SHULPHQWDO YHUVmR² BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB 8)(6('HSDUWDPHQWRGH)tVLFD0RGH/#E ZZZPRGHODEXIHVEUILVH[S 2VGHVYLRVSRGHPVHUDSUHVHQWDGRVVREGXDVIRUPDV x 'HVYLR$EVROXWRMiGHILQLGR x 'HVYLR5HODWLYR pDUHODomRHQWUHRGHVYLRDEVROXWRHRYDORUDGRWDGRFRPRRPDLV SUy[LPRGRYDORUUHDOGHVWDJUDQGH]D 8WLOL]DQGRRH[HPSORDFLPDWHPRVTXHRGHVYLRDEVROXWRHQFRQWUDGRpGHPV HR UHODWLYRpGDGRSRU 'HVYLR5HODWLYR GHVYLRDEVROXWRYDORUGDJUDQGH]D 2 GHVYLR UHODWLYR SHUFHQWXDO p REWLGR PXOWLSOLFDQGRVH R GHVYLR UHODWLYR SRU QR FDVRHPHVWXGRWHUHPRV ([HPSOR 8P RSHUDGRU GLVSRQGR GH XP PHVPR LQVWUXPHQWR HIHWXRX D PHGLGD GH GXDVJUDQGH]DV $% H ' (PFDGDXP GRV FDVRV p FRQKHFLGRR YDORU PDLVSURYiYHOGHFDGDJUDQGH]D *UDQGH]D $% *UDQGH]D' 9$/252%7,'2 FP 9$/252%7,'2 FP 9$/250$,63529·9(/ FP 9$/250$,63529·9(/ FP '(69,2$%62/872 FP '(69,2$%62/872 FP '(69,25(/$7,92 [ # '(69,25(/$7,92 [ 1HVVH H[HPSOR YRFr SRGH REVHUYDU TXH DSHVDU GD PHGLGD ' DSUHVHQWDU XP GHVYLR DEVROXWRPDLRUVHXGHVYLRUHODWLYRpPHQRU'DtDXWLOLGDGHGHVHFRQKHFHUR GHVYLRUHODWLYR 2 'HVYLR 5HODWLYR QRV Gi GH XPD FHUWD IRUPD XPD LQIRUPDomR D PDLV DFHUFD GD TXDOLGDGH GR SURFHVVR GH PHGLGD H QRV SHUPLWH GHFLGLU HQWUH GXDV PHGLGDV TXDO D PHOKRU ([HUFtFLR,QGLFDUHPRVDVHJXLUDOJXPDVJUDQGH]DVItVLFDVPHQVXUiYHLV9HULILTXHTXDLV TXHSRGHUmRHVWDUDIHWDGDVGHHUURRXGHVYLR D
  6. 6. PHGLGDGDVRPDGRVkQJXORVIRUPDGRVSHODLQWHUVHomRGHGXDVUHWDVTXDLVTXHU E
  7. 7. PHGLGDGDWHPSHUDWXUDGRFRUSRKXPDQR F
  8. 8. PHGLGDGHXPGHWHUPLQDGRLQWHUYDORGHWHPSR G
  9. 9. PHGLGDGDWHPSHUDWXUDGRSRQWRGHIXVmRGRJHORVRESUHVVmRQRUPDO H
  10. 10. PHGLGDGDGHQVLGDGHGDiJXD I
  11. 11. PHGLGDGHGHWHUPLQDGDPDVVD J
  12. 12. PHGLGDGRGLkPHWURGHXPDHVIHUD
  13. 13. )tVLFD([SHULPHQWDO YHUVmR² BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB 8)(6('HSDUWDPHQWRGH)tVLFD0RGH/#E ZZZPRGHODEXIHVEUILVH[S $OJDULVPRVVLJQLILFDWLYRV $ QHFHVVLGDGH GH VH XWLOL]DU LQVWUXPHQWRV GH PHGLGDV QRV OHYD D FRQFHLWXDU R TXH FKDPDPRVGH$OJDULVPRV6LJQLILFDWLYRV9HMDPRVDOJXQVH[HPSORV 8WLOL]DQGRVH GH XPD UpJXD FHQWLPHWUDGD RX VHMD GLYLGLGD HP FHQWtPHWURV FRQIRUPH LOXVWUDDILJXUDDEDL[RSRGHPRVREVHUYDUTXHRFRPSULPHQWR$%SRGHVHUDYDOLDGRHP FP 2EVHUYHTXHVHQGRRFRPSULPHQWRGRVHJPHQWR$% FPWHPRVRVDOJDULVPRVH RQGHpH[DWRHRDYDOLDGR2EVHUYHTXHXPVHJXQGRREVHUYDGRUSRGHULDFRQVLGHUDU FP RX FP 3RU HVVH PRWLYR GHQRPLQDPRV R DOJDULVPR GH $OJDULVPRV 6LJQLILFDWLYR'XYLGRVR 8PD JUDQGH]D PHGLGD DOpP GRV DOJDULVPRV H[DWRV GHYH DSUHVHQWDUXPDOJDULVPRFKDPDGRGHDYDOLDGRRX GXYLGRVR GHQRPLQDGR$/*$5,60266,*1,),$7,92'89,'262 6HXWLOL]DUPRVXPDUpJXDFRPXPPLOLPHWUDGDSDUDPHGLURPHVPRVHJPHQWRSRGHPRV WHUXPDVLWXDomRFRQIRUPHDLOXVWUDGDDEDL[R 1HVWH FDVR SRGHPRV DYDOLDU VHX FRPSULPHQWR $% FP $VVLP RV DOJDULVPRV H[DWRVVmRH DRSDVVRTXHRGXYLGRVRpXPDYH]TXHVXDREWHQomRVXUJLXGHXPD DSUHFLDomRGRH[SHULPHQWDGRU 6HXWLOL]iVVHPRVXPSDTXtPHWURSRGHUtDPRVREWHUSDUDDJUDQGH]DHPIRFRXPYDORUGH FP 1HVWH FDVR TXDLV RV DOJDULVPRV GXYLGRVRV H TXDLV RV H[DWRV -i XP PLFU{PHWURQRVSHUPLWLULDREWHUXPYDORUTXHSRGHULDVHUFP 9HMDDJRUDXPUHVXPRGRVUHVXOWDGRV ,QVWUXPHQWR 0HQRU'LYLVmR RPSULPHQWRFP
  14. 14. 5pJXDHPFP FP 5pJXDFRPXP FP 3DTXtPHWUR FP 0LFU{PHWUR FP
  15. 15. )tVLFD([SHULPHQWDO YHUVmR² BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB 8)(6('HSDUWDPHQWRGH)tVLFD0RGH/#E ZZZPRGHODEXIHVEUILVH[S 2 LQVWUXPHQWR GH PHQRU GLYLVmR SRGHUi PHGLU D PHVPD JUDQGH]DFRP XP Q~PHUR GH DOJDULVPRVVLJQLILFDWLYRV PDLRU(YLGHQWHPHQWHSRGHUtDPRVXWLOL]DU RXWURVPpWRGRV SDUD PHQVXUDUHVWDJUDQGH]DHREWHUPRVXPDSUHFLVmRPHOKRU3HUJXQWDVH x 1HVWHFDVRHVWDUtDPRVFKHJDQGRDRYHUGDGHLURYDORUGDJUDQGH]D x 2XDSHQDVQRVDSUR[LPDQGRGHVHXYDORUPDLVSURYiYHO 8PRXWURDVSHFWRDVHU REVHUYDGRFRPDWHQomRpD PDQHLUDGHDSUHVHQWDU R YDORU GD JUDQGH]DPHGLGD4XDQGRHIHWXDUPRVXPDPHGLGDTXDOTXHUGHYHPRVDSUHVHQWDURYDORU GD JUDQGH]D FRP WRGRV VHXV DOJDULVPRV VLJQLILFDWLYRV LQFOXVLYH FRP R ~OWLPR TXH p GXYLGRVR 3RGHPRV DSUHVHQWDU D JUDQGH]D PHGLGD GH YiULDV IRUPDV '(6'( 48( 1®2 $/7(5(026 2 1Ó0(52 '( 6(86 $/*$5,60266,*1,),$7,926 2EVHUYHRH[HPSOR8PHVWXGDQWHGHWHUPLQRXDPDVVDGHXPREMHWRHREWHYHRVHJXLQWH YDORUP NJ(VWDJUDQGH]DIRLREWLGDFRPDOJDULVPRVVLJQLILFDWLYRV2EVHUYH TXHR]HURjGLUHLWDpVLJQLILFDWLYRSRLVVXUJLXGHXPSURFHVVRGHDYDOLDomRDRSDVVRTXH RV]HURVGDHVTXHUGDQmR$VVLPSRGHPRVWHUDVVHJXLQWHVIRUPDGHDSUHVHQWDomRGR UHVXOWDGR NJ ; NJ ;J J ; NJ 2EVHUYH TXH HP WRGDV DV IRUPDV DSUHVHQWDGDV DFLPD D JUDQGH]D FRQWLQXRX FRP DOJDULVPRV VLJQLILFDWLYRV 4XDOTXHU UHSUHVHQWDomR GD PHVPD TXH DOWHUH R Q~PHUR GH DOJDULVPRVVLJQLILFDWLYRVpLQFRUUHWD3RUH[HPSOR; NJHVWiHUUDGR1HVWHFDVR RDOJDULVPRGXYLGRVRDJRUDpRHD JUDQGH]DSDVVRXDWHUDOJDULVPRVVLJQLILFDWLYRV 8WLOL]DQGRHVWDUHSUHVHQWDomRYRFrDJRUDSRGHFRPSUHHQGHUTXHILVLFDPHQWHPVQmRp LGrQWLFRDPV3RUTXr RPR XPD JUDQGH]D QmR GHYH DSUHVHQWDU PDLV GR TXH XP DOJDULVPR GXYLGRVR WRUQDVH GHVQHFHVViULR DSUHVHQWDU DOJDULVPRVTXHQmRSRVVXDPTXDOTXHU (VVDREVHUYDomRpYiOLGDQmRVRPHQWHHPRSHUDomRFRPQ~PHURVHPH[SHULrQFLDVGH ODERUDWyULRPDV WDPEpP HP VH WUDWDQGR GH SUREOHPDV QDV DXODV WHyULFDV 1HVWH FDVR PHVPRQmRWHQGRVLGRIRUQHFLGDVDVLQFHUWH]DVYRFrGHYHVDEHUTXHHODVHVWmRDIHWDQGR R~OWLPRGtJLWRGHFDGDQ~PHUR
  16. 16. )tVLFD([SHULPHQWDO YHUVmR² BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB 8)(6('HSDUWDPHQWRGH)tVLFD0RGH/#E ZZZPRGHODEXIHVEUILVH[S ,QFHUWH]DV 3DUDRSURFHVVRGHPHGLomRGHXPDJUDQGH]DItVLFDTXHVHUiXWLOL]DGRQDVH[SHULrQFLDV VHUiQHFHVViULRDLQWURGXomRGRFRQFHLWRGH,QFHUWH]DV ,QFHUWH]DDEVROXWD RQIRUPH MiYLPRVDRPHGLUPRVXPDJUDQGH]DVHXYDORU VHUiGDGRSHORV DOJDULVPRV HIHWLYDPHQWHJUDYDGRVQXPDHVFDODHTXDQGRSRVVtYHOSRUPDLVXPDOJDULVPRDYDOLDGRD FULWpULR GR RSHUDGRU FKDPDGR GH GXYLGRVR $VVLP XWLOL]DQGRVH XPD UpJXD FRPXP HQFRQWUDPRV SDUD XP GDGR FRPSULPHQWR FLWDGR QR H[HPSOR DQWHULRU FP 2 DOJDULVPRpGXYLGRVRGHVWDIRUPDGL]HPRVTXHHOHHVWiDIHWDGRGHXPDLQFHUWH]D RPRJHUDOPHQWHQmRFRQKHFHPRVVHR YDORUGDLQFHUWH]DpSDUDPDLVRXSDUDPHQRV RXVHMDVHXVLQDODGRWDVHXPYDORU‘' TXHFREULUiXPLQWHUYDORLJXDOD_' _HPWRUQR GRYDORUPHGLGR 'HILQHVHFRPR,QFHUWH]D $EVROXWD RYDORU ‘'$DPSOLWXGHGHVVDLQFHUWH]DpIL[DGD SHORRSHUDGRUHGHSHQGHGHVXDSHUtFLDGDVHJXUDQoDGHVHMDGDGDIDFLOLGDGHGHOHLWXUDH GRSUySULRDSDUHOKRRXLQVWUXPHQWRXWLOL]DGR5HWRUQDQGRDRH[HPSORFLWDGRSRGHUtDPRV WHUDGRWDGRSDUDXPDPHGLGDIHLWDFRPXPDUpJXDXPDLQFHUWH]DLJXDOD‘PP1HVWH FDVRRFRPSULPHQWR$%GRVHJPHQWRHPTXHVWmRGHYHUiVHUFRUUHWDPHQWHDSUHVHQWDGR GDVHJXLQWHIRUPD $% ‘
  17. 17. FP ,QFHUWH]DUHODWLYD eDUHODomRHQWUHDLQFHUWH]DDEVROXWDDGRWDGDQDPHGLomRGRYDORUGHXPDJUDQGH]DH HVWH YDORU 'D PHVPD IRUPD TXH R GHVYLR UHODWLYR D LQFHUWH]D UHODWLYD QRV GDUi XPD DSUHFLDomRGDPHGLGDHpIUHTHQWHPHQWHUHSUHVHQWDGDQDIRUPDSHUFHQWXDO$LQGDFRP UHODomRjPHGLGDGRFRPSULPHQWRHPTXHVWmRWHPRVDLQFHUWH]DUHODWLYD ,QFHUWH]D5HODWLYD FPFP RX 2EVHUYDomR 1R FDVR GH XPD~QLFDPHGLGDIDODUHPRV VHPSUHHP LQFHUWH]D H QmR HP GHVYLRRXHUURYLVWRQmRFRQKHFHUPRVQHPRYDORUUHDOHQHPRYDORUPDLV DSUR[LPDGRGDJUDQGH]D
  18. 18. )tVLFD([SHULPHQWDO YHUVmR² BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB 8)(6('HSDUWDPHQWRGH)tVLFD0RGH/#E ZZZPRGHODEXIHVEUILVH[S 3URSDJDomRGH,QFHUWH]DVHD UtWLFDDR5HVXOWDGRGD0HGLomRGH XPD*UDQGH]D 2 YDORU GH XPD JUDQGH]D SRGHUi VHU REWLGR DWUDYpV GH XP SURFHGLPHQWR GH PHGLomR GLUHWD HJPHGLGDGHXPFRPSULPHQWRPDVVDWHPSR
  19. 19. RXDWUDYpVGHXPSURFHGLPHQWR GHPHGLomRLQGLUHWD HJPHGLGDGHDFHOHUDomRSUHVVmRIRUoDYROXPH
  20. 20. 3DUD DV JUDQGH]DV REWLGDV SHOR SURFHGLPHQWR LQGLUHWR R YDORU GD JUDQGH]D ILQDO GHSHQGHUiGDVLQFHUWH]DVGHFDGDXPDGDVJUDQGH]DVREWLGDVGLUHWDRXLQGLUHWDPHQWH EHPFRPRGDIRUPDGDH[SUHVVmRPDWHPiWLFDXWLOL]DGDSDUDREWrODV (VVHIDWRSRGHVHULOXVWUDGRSHORFiOFXORGRYDORUGHXPDGDGDSUHVVmR3 )$RQGHD IRUoD)HDiUHD$DSUHVHQWDPLQFHUWH]DVTXHDIHWDUmRRYDORUILQDOGDSUHVVmR3'HVVD IRUPDQHVWDVHomRH[DPLQDUHPRVFRPRVHREWpPDLQFHUWH]DGRYDORUGDJUDQGH]DTXH VHPHGHLQGLUHWDPHQWHHPIXQomRGDVLQFHUWH]DVGDVPHGLGDVGLUHWDV 6RPDRXVXEWUDomR RQVLGHUHDVLWXDomRRQGHIRUDPHIHWXDGDVDVPHGLGDVGHQ JUDQGH]DV$%H DYDOLDGDVVXDVUHVSHFWLYDVLQFHUWH]DVFRQIRUPHGHVFULWRDEDL[R $ D‘' D % E‘' G RQGH DEF YDORUHVPHGLGRV F‘' F ‘'D‘'E‘'F LQFHUWH]DVDEVROXWDV 6 $% 6 V‘' V V YDORUFDOFXODGRGDVRPD ‘'V LQFHUWH]DDEVROXWDGDVRPD V‘'V D‘'DE‘'EF‘'F
  21. 21. V DEF
  22. 22. 6XEWUDLQGR
  23. 23. GH
  24. 24. ‘'V ‘'D‘'E‘'F‘ $GRWDQGRRFULWpULRPDLVGHVIDYRUiYHO
  25. 25. LVWRpFRQVLGHUDUHPRVTXHWRGDVDVLQFHUWH]DV SRVVXDPRPHVPRVLQDOREWpPVHDVHJXLQWHUHODomRSDUDDLQFHUWH]DDEVROXWDGDVRPD RXVXEWUDomR ‘'V ‘_'D_ _'E_ _'F_@ ULWpULRPDLVIDYRUiYHO‘ 'V
  26. 26. ‘'D
  27. 27. ‘'E
  28. 28. ‘'F
  29. 29. )tVLFD([SHULPHQWDO YHUVmR² BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB 8)(6('HSDUWDPHQWRGH)tVLFD0RGH/#E ZZZPRGHODEXIHVEUILVH[S ([HPSOR 0HGLQGRVH FRP XPD UpJXD PLOLPHWUDGD HP GXDV HWDSDV R FRPSULPHQWR GH XP WXER REWHYHVH RV YDORUHV LQGLFDGRV DEDL[R MXQWDPHQWH FRP DV LQFHUWH]DV DGRWDGDV SHOR RSHUDGRU / ‘
  30. 30. P / ‘
  31. 31. P $VVLPRFRPSULPHQWRGRWXERSHORFULWpULRPDLVGHVIDYRUiYHOVHULD / / /
  32. 32. ‘
  33. 33. / ‘
  34. 34. P ([HPSOR 3DUD PHGLU R FRPSULPHQWR WRWDO GH XP SrQGXOR ILR HVIHUD
  35. 35. XVRXVH XPD UpJXD PLOLPHWUDGDSDUDPHGLURFRPSULPHQWRGRILRHXPPLFU{PHWURSDUDPHGLURGLkPHWURGD HVIHUD2VYDORUHVREWLGRVVmRLQGLFDGRVDEDL[RMXQWDPHQWHFRPDVLQFHUWH]DVDGRWDGDV SHORRSHUDGRU ILR P HVI P ILR HVI 'ILR ‘P 'HVI ‘P LQFHUWH]DVDGRWDGDVSHOR RSHUDGRU $ VRPD GRV FRPSULPHQWRV p P H D VRPD GDV LQFHUWH]DV DEVROXWDV p P2EVHUYHTXHRDOJDULVPRpGXYLGRVRSRUWDQWRVHMiH[LVWHLQFHUWH]D QHVWD FDVD QmRWHPVHQWLGRFRQWLQXDU D DSUR[LPDomR 2 FRPSULPHQWR GR SrQGXOR VHUi HQWmR / ‘' ‘
  36. 36. P 2EVHUYHTXHQHVWHFDVRWRUQDVHGHVQHFHVViULRXWLOL]DUMXQWDPHQWHFRPXPDUpJXDXP LQVWUXPHQWRGHSUHFLVmRFRPRpRFDVRGRPLFU{PHWUR
  37. 37. )tVLFD([SHULPHQWDO YHUVmR² BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB 8)(6('HSDUWDPHQWRGH)tVLFD0RGH/#E ZZZPRGHODEXIHVEUILVH[S 2XWUDVRSHUDo}HV0XOWLSOLFDomR'LYLVmR5DGLFLDomRHD3RWHQFLDomR (VWDVRSHUDo}HVSRGHPVHUUHSUHVHQWDGDVQDIyUPXODPRQ{PLR ) .$%D E 'HPRQVWUDVH WHRULFDPHQWH TXH D LQFHUWH]D UHODWLYD I I' r SRGHUi VHU FRORFDGD HP IXQomRGDVLQFHUWH]DVUHODWLYDVGDVJUDQGH]DVTXHDFRPS}HDWUDYpVGDVHJXLQWHIyUPXOD FULWpULRPDLVGH]IDYRUiYHO
  38. 38. » ¼ º « ¬ ª ' ' ' ' r ' r F F E E D D N N I I -, RQGH $ D‘' D % E‘' E F‘ ' F . N‘' N XPDFRQVWDQWHTXHQmRGHSHQGHGHPHGLomR I NDED FE ) I‘' I 'LVFXVVmRGDRQVWDQWH. $FRQVWDQWH.SRGHUiDSDUHFHUQDVVHJXLQWHVIRUPDV x 1~PHURIRUPDGRSRUTXDQWLGDGHILQLWDGHGtJLWRVQ~PHURH[DWR
  39. 39. 1HVWHFDVRDLQFHUWH]DDEVROXWDpQXOD x 1~PHURTXHPDWHPDWLFDPHQWHFRPSRUWHLQILQLWRVGtJLWRVLUUDFLRQDOGt]LPD
  40. 40. 1HVWHFDVRDLQFHUWH]DDEVROXWDGHSHQGHUiGDTXDQWLGDGHGHGtJLWRVDGRWDGD6H XWLOL]DUPRVXPDFDOFXODGRUDTXHRSHUHFRPGH]GtJLWRVWHUHPRV 2~OWLPRGtJLWRIRLDUUHGRQGDGRSHODPiTXLQDHVWiDIHWDGRSRUXPDLQFHUWH]DGH XPDXQLGDGHQRPi[LPR
  41. 41. )tVLFD([SHULPHQWDO YHUVmR² BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB 8)(6('HSDUWDPHQWRGH)tVLFD0RGH/#E ZZZPRGHODEXIHVEUILVH[S ([HPSOR 3DUDRFiOFXORGRYROXPHGHXPDHVIHUDIRLGDGRRUDLRGDPHVPD5 U‘'U ‘
  42. 42. PP1HVWHFDVRSRGHPRVFDOFXODUVHXYROXPHXWLOL]DQGRDFDOFXODGRUDFLWDGDDFLPD VHPQRVSUHRFXSDUPRVFRPDLQFHUWH]DTXHDIHWDRQ~PHUR 9 S 5 H[SUHVVmRTXHSRGHVHUUHSUHVHQWDGDSRU 9 ..5 N FRQVWDQWHH[DWD N FRQVWDQWHLUUDFLRQDO RQGH '. '. 'U ‘PP 'HDFRUGRFRPDIyUPXODGRWySLFRDQWHULRU › ›' . '. . '. 5 5' › ›' # QmRDIHWDGRSHODLQFHUWH]DGHS
  43. 43. ,VWRFRUUHVSRQGHDGL]HUTXHRYROXPH DSUHVHQWDUiLQFHUWH]DDSDUWLUGH GHVHX UHVXOWDGR Y PP ›'r r PP ‘ ' Y ‘[
  44. 44. $LQFHUWH]DQRVPRVWUDTXHQmRWHULDVHQWLGRHVFUHYHURQ~PHURDSyVRTXDUWRDOJDULVPR $PDQHLUDGHDSUHVHQWDUHVWHUHVXOWDGRp Y‘Y ‘
  45. 45. [ PP RXDLQGD 9 ‘
  46. 46. [ PP 2YDORUFRHUHQWHGRYROXPHVHULDHQWmR Y [ PP RX VHMD FRP DOJDULVPRV VLJQLILFDWLYRV 1R FDVR GH HIHWXDUPRV XPD ~QLFD PHGLGD D PHVPDVHUiFRQVLGHUDGDFRPRUHSUHVHQWDWLYDGRYDORUUHDO
  47. 47. ULWpULRPDLVIDYRUiYHO
  48. 48. )tVLFD([SHULPHQWDO YHUVmR² BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB 8)(6('HSDUWDPHQWRGH)tVLFD0RGH/#E ZZZPRGHODEXIHVEUILVH[S (UURV$FLGHQWDLV RPRYLPRVDQWHULRUPHQWHSRUPDLVFXLGDGRVRTXHVHMDRRSHUDGRURXSRUPDLVSHUIHLWR TXHVHMDRSURFHVVRGHPHGLomRGHXPDJUDQGH]DQXQFDGHL[DUHPRVGHFRQWDUFRPRV IDWRUHVDFLGHQWDLVTXHDIHWDPXPDRXPDLVPHGLGDV 2VSULQFLSDLVIDWRUHVTXHLPSOLFDPQRDSDUHFLPHQWRGRVHUURVDFLGHQWDLVRXDRDFDVRVmR x 'HIHLWRVQmRVLVWHPiWLFRVGHOHLWXUDLPSHUtFLDGRRSHUDGRU
  49. 49. x 9DULDomRGDFDSDFLGDGHGHDYDOLDomRFRPRQ~PHURGHPHGLGDVHIHWXDGDV x 9DULDomRGDFDSDFLGDGHGHDYDOLDomRRXGDSHUtFLDQRFDVRGDREVHUYDomRGHXPD PHVPDJUDQGH]DSRUYiULRVREVHUYDGRUHV x RQGLo}HVSUySULDVGRVDSDUHOKRVGHPHGLGDVFHUWRVDSDUHOKRVGmRHUURVGHSDUDOD[H TXHYDULDPFRPRWDPDQKRGDJUDQGH]D
  50. 50. x 5HIOH[RVYDULiYHLVGRRSHUDGRUSRUH[HPSORQRFDVRGHDSHUWDUXPFURQ{PHWUR
  51. 51. x 'LILFXOGDGHVQDREWHQomRGHFHUWDVPHGLGDVDMXVWHGR]HURGHXPDHVFDODDSOLFDomR GHXPDSDUHOKRDXPDSHoDHPGLIHUHQWHVSRVLo}HV
  52. 52. x ,QWHUHVVHGRRSHUDGRUHPREWHUPHGLGDVHPVLWXDo}HVGLIHUHQWHVSDUDREWHQomRGHXP YDORUPDLVUHSUHVHQWDWLYRGHXPDJUDQGH]DQRFDVRMiFLWDGRGRGLkPHWURGDHVIHUD
  53. 53. x 2XWURV IDWRUHV QmR LQWHQFLRQDLV WDLV TXH QmR SRVVDP VHU FRQVLGHUDGRV FRPR IDOWD JUDYHGHRSHUDomR

×