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SEISMIC WAVEs.pptx

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Earthquake Safety Tips.pptx
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SEISMIC WAVEs.pptx

  1. 1. SEISMIC WAVE
  2. 2. LISTEN !!
  3. 3. Earthquake ▪An Earthquake occurs when energy is released through rapid movement along a fault. ▪Energy from an Earthquake is carried away from the focus as Seismic Wave
  4. 4. Seismic Wave ▪These are waves of energy caused by the sudden breaking of rock within the earth or an explosion. ▪They can be distinguished: Where they move – Earth’s interior vs surface How they move – vertically vs. horizontally How fast they move – meters per second
  5. 5. Body Wave ▪ refer to the vibrations that travel through the interior of the earth. ▪ refer to vibrations that travel at the surface of the earth. ▪ Easily distinguished by a seismogram ▪ These are the most responsible for the damage and destruction associated with earthquake. Main Types of Seismic Wave Surface Wave
  6. 6. P – waves (primary waves) ▪ The fastest kind of seismic wave, and consequently the first to arrive at a seismic station. ▪ Can move trough solid and fluid like water or the liquid layers of the earth. ▪ It pushes and pulls the rock it moves through. ▪ Slower than a P wave ▪ S waves displace rocks at right angles to the direction they are travelling. ▪ Can only move through solid rock and not in liquid. ▪ They move rock particles up and down or side-to-side perpendicular to the direction that the wave is travelling. Types of Body Wave S – waves (secondary waves)
  7. 7. P – waves (primary waves) ▪ P waves are compressional waves. ▪ The energy travels in the same direction as the wave travels. ▪ S waves are transverse waves. ▪ Another term is shear waves. ▪ The energy is perpendicular to the direction of wave travel. Types of Body Wave S – waves (secondary waves)
  8. 8. P – waves (primary waves) ▪ The property of S wave in which it cannot travel trough liquid led seismologists to conclude that the outer core is a liquid. Types of Body Wave S – waves (secondary waves)
  9. 9. WATCH !!
  10. 10. L – waves (Love wave) ▪ Named after A.E.H. Love a British mathematician who worked out the mathematical model for this kind of model. ▪ It’s the fastest surface wave and moves the ground from side-to- side. ▪ It produce entirely horizontally motion. ▪ Named for JohnWilliam Strutt, Lord Rayleigh who mathematically predicted the existence of this kind of wave in 1885. ▪ Rolls along the ground just like a wave rolls across the ocean ▪ It moves the ground up and down, side-to-side in the same direction that the wave is moving. Types of Surface Wave Rayleigh Wave
  11. 11. ▪ Most of the shaking felt from an earthquake is due to the Rayleigh wave , which can be much larger than the other waves. Types of Surface Wave Rayleigh Wave
  12. 12.  Seismic waves travel fast through this rocky sphere. Below the lithosphere, the seismic waves slow down.  This observation indicates a very high temperature that melts rocks, making the molten behave like a fluid.  Scientists call this region of the mantle asthenosphere.  Below the asthenosphere, seismic waves travel fast again indicating that the lower part of the mantle is solid.  It is probably the very high pressure that keeps it solid in spite of the high temperature.
  13. 13.  A similar phenomenon is observed in the core.  Seismic waves travel slowly through the outer core indicating that it is molten due to the extremely high temperature.  Then again the inner core is solid in spite of the very high temperature.  Most probably, the very high pressure in the deepest part of the earth keeps it solid.
  14. 14. 1. The fastest type of seismic wave and arrive at a seismic station first. 2. Arrive at a seismic station second. 3. It is the fastest surface wave and moves the ground from side-to-side. 4. Refer to the vibrations that travel through the interior of the earth. 5. refer to vibrations that travel at the surface of the earth. 6. Can move through solid and fluid like water or the liquid layers of the earth. 7. Can only move through solid rock and not in liquid. 8. This type of wave is also known as compressional wave. 9. the most responsible for the damage and destruction associated with earthquake. 10. Also known as the shearing wave. QUIZ 2
  15. 15. 1. P-WAVE / PRIMARYWAVE 2. S-WAVE / SECONDARYWAVE 3. L-WAVE / LOVEWAVE 4. BODYWAVE 5. SURFACEWAVE 6. P-WAVE / PRIMARYWAVE 7. S-WAVE / SECONDARYWAVE 8. P-WAVE / PRIMARYWAVE 9. RAYLEIGHWAVE 10. S-WAVE / SECONDARYWAVE QUIZ 2 - ANSWERS
  16. 16. QUIZ 2
  17. 17. Add a SlideTitle - 5

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