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Bael presentation

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This presentation gives information about overall cultivation technology and it's importance in india.

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Bael presentation

  1. 1. Monday,March23,2015 1 PRESENTED BY: Mr Manas kumar patel Admn no:-01Fsc/2014 Production Technology Of Bael
  2. 2. Monday,March23,2015 2 Genus – Aegle (Greek name) Species – marmelos (Portuguese name) Family – Rutaceae Chromosome no. – 2n=18 Centre of origin – India Other names - Indian Quince, Sirphal, Stone apple • Deciduous, 6–8 meters in height tree. Older branches are more spiny. • Leaves – alternate, trifoliate, petiole, 2-4cm long. • Inflorescence – auxiliary raceme • Fruits - 5–7.5 cm in diameter, globose, oblong pyriform, • Flower – bisexual, cluster borne, greenish white & sweet scented • Seeds - numerous , surrounded by a slimy transparent mucilage.
  3. 3. Monday,March23,2015 3 • A therapeutic boon of human health. • Rich source of- Protein, Carbohydrate, Vitamins (Riboflavin, ß carotene, Vit C), Tannin, Volatile oil, Alkaloids and Steroids etc. • Leaves (content Aegeline) & bark – to overcome intermittent fever. • Roots - check heart palpitation, bowel inflammation & indigestion. • Fruits – used as fresh or syrup, nectar, sharbat, marmalade etc. • Unripe fruit rind – yellow dye and employed in tanning purpose. • Fruit (dried & sliced) – diarrhoea, constipation and dysentery. • Marmelosin content has medicinal properties. • Known as “Climate Purifier” – absorb dust, poisonous gases from atmosphere & emit more oxygen than other plants in presence of sun light. Sr. no. Part Phytoconstituents 1. Leaf Skimmianine, Aegeline, Lupeol, Cineol, Citral, Citronella, Cumin aldehyde, Eugenol, Marmesinine 2. Bark Skimmianine, Fagarine , Marmin 3. Fruit Marmelosin, Luvangetin, Aurapten, Psoralen, Marmelide, Tannin
  4. 4. Monday,March23,2015 4 • From Indian peninsular (Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan) spread to far S-E Asia (Thailand, Java, Malaysia) and then other tropical parts of India. • Main growing states - Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Chhattisgarh and Odisha. Bael growing areas
  5. 5. Monday,March23,2015 5 • Though bael is a fruit crop of subtropical origin, also can perform well in tropical, arid and semi-arid regions. • Fairly rich and well drained sandy loam soil is best. • Sunny situation, warm humid climate are ideal. • Tolerant to harsh climate. • Can be withstand in 47-49º C to -5 to -7º C. • pH = 6.0 –8.5, ESP = 30% and EC = 9 dsm‐1.
  6. 6. Monday,March23,2015 6 Name of Variety Salient Features Recommended Areas NB-5 Prolific bearer and fruits are medium in size, round with thin skull, low fibre and seed content. Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttarakhand NB-7 Fruits are very large in size, flattened round, yellowish green in colour. Uttar Pradesh NB-9 Prolific bearing, fuits are medium to large size with oblong in shape, low fibre and seed content. Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttarakhand NB-16 Fruits are elliptical round, pulp yellow, average weight 1.3 kg, T.S.S. 31%, and low fibre content. Uttar Pradesh NB-17 Fruits are attractive, average weight 1.75 kg, fibre content low. Uttar Pradesh Narendra bael-1 & Narendra bael-2 are most useful for processing
  7. 7. Monday,March23,2015 7 CISH B-1 It is a mid season variety which matures during April-May. Precocious and heavy bearer. Average fruit wt =1.0 kg. Suitable for canning and slices preparation. Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Jharkhand, Rajasthan CISH B-2 Trees are dwarf with medium spreading habit. Suitable for processing with pleasantly aromatic pulp. Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Jharkhand, Rajasthan Goma Yashi Good quality fruits with large in size. Ovate in shape, greenish yellow in colour. Flesh colour is straw. Rajasthan Pant Aparna Dwarf tree with drooping foliage, almost thornless, heavy bearer. Fruits average weight 1.0 kg. Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand Pant Shivani It is an early mid season variety. Fruit weight range from 2 to 2.5 kg. Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand Pant Sujata Trees are medium dwarf , heavy bearer. Fruit weight varied from 1 to 1.5 kg. Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand Pusa Urvashi It is mid season variety. Fruits are ovoid, oblong. The fruit weight range from 1.5 to 2.5 kg. Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand
  8. 8. Monday,March23,2015 8 CISH B-1 CISH B-2 NB-9 NB-5 Pant Aparna Pant Urvashi
  9. 9. Monday,March23,2015 9 • Usually propagated by seed (no dormancy) • Showing time =June . Seeds germinate within 3 weeks, ready for transplanting 7 weeks after sowing. • Patch budding is ideal method with a 90% success rate. June –July is ideal time for budding. • Modified ring budding- earlier sprouting in mid May (Dinesh & Pathak, 2004) • Soft wood grafting by cleft method using scion of 3-4 month age during Feb-May. (2004-05) Bael seeds
  10. 10. Monday,March23,2015 10 • Clonal multiplication by auxiliary bud proliferation in young single node segments of a 25yr old tree. • Plant regeneration system using cotyledon tissues applicable to immature leaf & root tissues at lower efficiency. In-vitro morphogenesis of nodal explants in bael [ J.Adv.Sci.Res, 2010, 1(2); 34-40]
  11. 11. Monday,March23,2015 11 • Pits of 90cm x 90cm x 90cm • Planting distance - 8m x 8m (Budded plants) 10m x 10m (seedlings) • Pit filled with a mixture of top soil + 25 kg FYM + 50 g BHC (Benzen hexachloride). • Planting time - Feb-Mar or July-Aug. • Training done by removing the tip of main stem at a height of about 1m. Only 4-6 well- spaced branches are selected around the main stem. • 500 g N, 250 g P2O5, 500 g K2O and 50 kg FYM is recommended for bearing tree (10 years age). Full dose to be applied in July.
  12. 12. Monday,March23,2015 12 • Basin system of irrigation mainly followed. • Irrigation at monthly intervals should be given after the rainy season (October –April). • Drip irrigation also can be followed. • Suckers appearing from rootstock should be removed periodically. • Keep the plantation weed –free. • Legume crops can be taken as intercrops in bael plantation during the rainy season. • Mulching can be done around the tree base.
  13. 13. Monday,March23,2015 13 • Bael is climacteric fruit • Plants start fruiting after planting = After 4-5 years (budded & grafted plants) after 8-10 years(seedlings) • Fruit takes around 8-10 months to mature and 10-12 months for ripening after fruit set. • Maturity index - change in skull colour from dark green to yellowish green. • Mature fruit is harvested individually with 5 cm fruit stalk. • Yield – 300-400 fruits/tree/yr • Storage life – 15 days for fully matured fruit 1 week for ripe fruit • At 10o C, it can be kept up to three months.
  14. 14. Monday,March23,2015 14 • Products- Bael pulp, juice, nectar, dried & sliced bael, bael wine, candy, preserves (murabba), bael slab, jam, bael powder etc. Juice Nectar Dried bael Murabba Powder Burfii Sun dried jelly
  15. 15. Monday,March23,2015 15 • Fruit drop and cracking: Main problems before ripening. Growth regulators like 2, 4-D, GA and 2, 4, 5-T with various concentration check fruit drop. Cracking can be minimized by maintaining proper moisture up to full growth or maturity of fruit. • Chilling injury: Appearance of brown spots on the fruit surface develop during storage of fruits below 9º C. • Fruit canker - Xanthomonas bilvae  Water soaked spot on leaves, fruits and other parts of tree.  Prune gummy twigs, branches & burn them.  Spray Streptomycine sulphate (20g/100l water) + Cu oxychloride (0.3%) at 10-15 days interval
  16. 16. Monday,March23,2015 16  Lemon butterfly – Papilio demoleus management Neem seed kernel extract (0.5%) spray at 8 days interval in nursery seedlings.  Bael fruit fly – Bactrocera zonata Lemon butterfly Bael fruit fly
  17. 17. Monday,March23,2015 17  Though having many useful properties, still not commercialized due to very seedy nature, thick hard shell and mucilaginous flesh.  Due to wide prospects and potential of bael for various purposes, it is worth while to cultivate this plant on large scale especially on unproductive & waste lands.  People should equipped with modern scientific techniques and knowledge & well placed harness to maximum potential of this plant for human and environmental well being.  Help in financial upliftment of poor and landless farmers.
  18. 18. Monday,March23,2015 18  Researchers aim to obtain increased production of secondary metabolites, increased production, higher nutritional value. Development of cultivars resistance to adverse weather, pathogenic agent and pests.  Processing quality need exploitation.  Further more systemic and scientific research is required to explore the maximum potential of this under utilized plant.
  19. 19. Monday, March 23, 2015 19