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Pakistani women and their political empowerment

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Pakistani women and their political empowerment

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Pakistani women and their political empowerment

  1. 1. TOPIC: Pakistani women and their political empowerment GROUP MEMBERS: BIBI MARYAM & MAHNOOR NISAR
  2. 2. Pakistani culture ; According to lyon  Gender segregation  Asyemtirical relationship  Collectivism Women position in Pakistani culture  In Pakistani society women have secondary position while men have primary position ( NCSW , 2010: Bano, 2009)  Public sphere is related to men and domestic sphere is linked with women (3Cs)  Women have lower position as compared to men .
  3. 3. Political system Women are highly under-represented in the political arena throughout the globe. Women occupy only 18.5 percent of seats in national parliaments which varies across the world. There is variation in the percentage of women in parliament across developed and developing countries. Women occupy only 18.5% of the seats in national parliments around the world.(but regional averages varies from developed to developing countries).
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION:  Political empowerment and political participation is closely interlinked.  Political empowerment according to Ibraham: as the autonomy of individuals to caste according to their consent, content election, authority to present and take actions according to their needs and priorities  Sharma and Sharma highlights that women’s participation in politics is affected by multiple interrelated factors that varies across countries which include countries political history, religious diversity, customs.  Barriers to women effective political participation exist throughout the globe.
  5. 5. Continue by :
  6. 6. A Case Study Of Kashmir. Three political parties  Muslim Conference  Pakistan People’s party 150 Respondents  Muslim League
  7. 7. Factors Affecting Women’s Participation In Politics
  8. 8. Structural factors  Economic condition  Education  Dual roles conflict  Less exposer of public life  Lack of political capital
  9. 9. Political factors  Masculine models  Less opportunities  Decision making  Less access to training
  10. 10. Ideological and psychological factors  Gender segregation  Strict Norms ( pardha and mobility)  Patriarchal tradition  Stereotype and Prejudice  Not good profession for women
  11. 11. Prior political experience , education and occupational background, ambition and resources are important for access to political power in any political system. Norris (1997) and Matland ( 2005)
  12. 12.  Women don’t enjoy equal status in the parties due to masculine political culture. Bano (2009)and Bari (2005)  Ideas about women’s status and role in society can enhance or constrain women’s access to political power even in the presence of favorable political system. Kunovich and Paxton(2005)

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