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FRAMEWORK• Described as the abstract, logical structure of meaning that guide the development of the study.• All frameworks are based on the identification of key concepts and the relationships among those concepts.
Concept• abstractly describes and names an object or phenomenon, thus providing it with a separate identity and meaning.• An intellectual representation of some aspect of reality that is derived from observations made from phenomena. • Example of concept - Anxiety or Stress or Pain
Construct• Concepts at very high levels of abstraction that have general meanings.• Example: • A construct associated with the concept of anxiety.
Variables• These signify a more concrete level and are narrow in their definitions.• A variable is more specific and is measurable.• Framework can be derived from related concepts (conceptual) or existing theories (theoretical).• The terms conceptual framework and theoretical framework are sometimes used interchangeably, but they have different meanings.
Conceptual Framework• This consists of concepts that are placed within a logical and sequential design.• represents less formal structure and used for studies in which existing theory is inapplicable or insufficient.• based on specific concepts and propositions, derived from empirical observation and intuition.• may deduce theories from a conceptual framework.
Purposes of Conceptual Framework• To clarify concepts and propose relationships among the concepts in a study.• To provide a context for interpreting the study findings.• To explain observations• To encourage theory development that is useful to practice
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK• The theory provides a point of focus for attacking the unknown in a specific area.• If a relationship is found between two or more variables a theory should be formulated to explain why the relationship exists.• Theories are purposely created and formulated, never discovered; they can be tested but never proven.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK• Abdellah defined theory as “an explanation of a phenomenon or an abstract generalization that systematically explains the relationship among given phenomena, for purposes of explaining, predicting and controlling such phenomena.”• The theoretical framework consists of theories that seem to be interrelated.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK• The explanation concerns the relationship between two or more variables or phenomena.• more formal and used for studies based on existing theories.• derived from specific concepts and propositions that are induced or deduced.
Importance of Theory in Research• The function of theory in research is to identify the starting point of the research problem and to establish the vision to which the problem is directed.• It determines and defines the focus and goal of the research problem.
• Conceptualization • The process of forming basic ideas, designs, plans or strategies based on given facts, situations and examples.• Propositions • A statement or assertion of the relationship between concepts derived from theories or generalizations based on empirical data.
Purposes of Theoretical Framework• To test theories• To make research findings meaningful and generalizable• To establish orderly connections between observations and facts.• To predict and control situations• To stimulate research
Purposes of Theories and Conceptual Models• Their overall purpose is to make research findings meaningful and generalizable.• Theories and conceptual models help to stimulate research and the extension of knowledge by providing both direction and impetus.
Theoretical Framework and Conceptual Framework may be represented as models:• A model is a symbolic representation that helps the researcher to express abstract concepts and relationships easily, using minimal words.• A model can be represented schematically or mathematically. • Schematic model - conveys concepts and propositions through the use of boxes, arrows or other symbols. • Mathematical or statistical model - conveys concepts and propositions through the use of letters, number and mathematical symbols.
CONCEPTUAL PARADIGM• a diagram that visually represents and interprets the underlying theory, principles and concepts of a research.• a visual presentation of variables that interrelate with one another as perceived by the researcher before an actual empirical investigation is done to prove its relationships
Example of Conceptual FrameworkDemographics Profile Self-Esteem Parenting Styles Age Civil Status High Authoritative Educational Assessment Moderate Democratic Order in the Family Low PermissiveEconomic Status FRAMEWORK ADOLESCENT REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH WELLNESS PROGRAM