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Goat Farming In Nepal

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Goat Farming In Nepal

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Goat Farming In Nepal

  1. 1. s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k'l:tsf afv|fkfng cf]P;cf/cf]÷g]k÷*)!÷P;kLP ;+o'Qm /fi6«;‹Lo vfB tyf s[lif ;+u7g cfsl:ds k'g:yf{kgf tyf ;dGjo OsfO{
  2. 2. cf]P;cf/cf]÷g]k÷*)!÷P;kLP ;+o'Qm /fi6«;‹Lo vfB tyf s[lif ;+u7g cfsl:ds k'g:yf{kgf tyf ;dGjo OsfO{ @)^^ afv|fkfng s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k'l:tsf
  3. 3. k|sfzs ;+o'Qm /fi6«;‹Lo vfB tyf s[lif ;+u7g cfsl:ds k'g:yf{kgf tyf ;dGjo OsfO{ k'Nrf]s, nlntk'/, g]kfn cfly{s ;xof]u :k]g ;/sf/ -cf]P;cf/cf]÷g]k÷*)!÷P;kLP_ k|sfzg ldlt M @)^^ d+l;/ k|sfzgflwsf/© o; k|sfzgdf cleJoQm ljrf/, tYo÷tYof°, tyf hfgsf/Lx?n] ;+o'Qm /fi6«;+3Lo vfB tyf s[lif ;+u7g -PkmPcf]_ sf] cflwsfl/s ljrf/x?sf] k|ltlglwTj ub}{gg . ;fy} o;sf] clek|fo s'g} /fi6« jf To;sf] k|fb]lzs v08÷e"efu, ;x/, cyjf ;Ldfsf] j}wflgs Pj+ ljsf;ut l:ylt O+lut ug'{ klg xf]Og . ;do / k|;Ëjz k|sfzgdf pNn]v ul/Psf s'g} sDkgL jf ltgsf pTkfbg, rfx] tL k|ltlnlk clwsf/k|fKt (patented) x'g jf gx'g, af/]sf] rrf{n] of] 7xb}{g ls tL pTkfbgx? cGo / p:t} vfnsf pTkfbgx?sf] t'ngfdf PkmPcf]sf] :jLs[lt–k|fKt x'g jf l;kmfl/;df k/]sf x'g . o; k|sfzgdf k|ltljlDjt ljrf/x? PkmPcf]sf cflwsfl/s wf/0ff geO{ n]vssf cfkmgf lghL wf/0ff / ljrf/x? x'g . o; k|sfzgsf] sf] ;jf{lwsf/© PkmPcf]df ;'/lIft 5 . u}/gfkmfd"ns Pj+ z}lIfs k|of]hgsf] nflu o; k|sfzgsf]] k"0f{ jf cf+lzs efu k'gp{Tkfbg ug{, k|;f/ ug{ / k|of]u÷ljt/0f ug{ PkmPcf]sf] k"j{ :jLs[lt lng' h?/L kg]{ 5}g, t/ To;f] ubf{ ;|f]t eg] clgjfo{?kdf v'nfpg'kg]{ 5 . k"j{ cg'dlta]u/ Jofj;flos jf Jofkfl/s p4]Zosf nflu o;sf] ;fdu|L k'gMpTkfbg ug{ lgif]w ul/Psf] 5 . ;f]sf nflu k|sfzsaf6 k"j{ lnlvt ;xdlt lng'kg]{ 5 . o;sf nflu kqfrf/ ug]{ 7]ufgf o;k|sf/ 5M Chief, Electronic Publishing Policy and Support Branch Communication Division, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy or by e-mail to: copyright@fao.org ;fh;Hhf tyf d'b|0fM WPS, eMail: printnepal@gmail.com
  4. 4. cfef/ g]kfndf ;~rflnt vfB tyf s[lif ;+u7g ‑PkmPcf]_ sf] cNksfnLg kl/of]hgf cf]P;cf/cf]÷g]k÷*)!÷P;kLP ‑cfsl:ds k'g:yf{kg ;dGjo OsfO{åf/f ;~rflnt OSRO/NEP/801/SPA _ …cfGtl/s åGå, af9L / ;'Vvfaf6 hf]lvddf k/]sf u|fdL0f ul/a ;d'bfosf nflu vfB tyf kf]if0f ;'/Iff lglDt ;xof]uÚ (Emergency Assistance to Improve Food and Nutrition Security of Vulnerable Rural Communities Affected by Internal Conflicts, Flood and Drought in Nepal) cGtu{t of] afv|fkfng k':ts tof/ kfl/Psf] xf] . k':ts o;} kl/of]hgfsf /fli6«o kz'kfng ljz]if1 >L /fddl0f kf}8]nn] tof/ kfg'{ePsf] xf] . k':ts k|sfzgsf nflu k|fKt :k]g ;/sf/sf] cfly{s ;xof]usf nflu klg xfdL xflb{s cfef/ JoQm ub{5f}+ . k':tsdf k|of]u ul/Psf clwsf+z /]vflrqx? kz';]jf ljefuåf/f k|sflzt kz'kfng k'l:tsfaf6 ;fef/ ul/Psf] 5 eg] w]/}h;f] tl:a/x? g]kfn s[lif cg';Gwfg kl/ifb, v'dn6f/sf al/i7 j}1flgs 8f= >L/fdk|;fb Gof}kfg]sf] ;f}hGoaf6 k|fKt ePsf x'g . o;sf nflu kl/of]hgf pxfFx?k|lt ljz]if wGojfb 1fkg ug{ rfxG5 . k':ts tof/Lsf] qmddf sa'lnotL jg tyf kz' ljsf; sfo{qmd, s]Gb|Lo e]8f tyf afv|f ljsf; sfof{no tyf ljleGg JolQmx?af6 k|fKt ;Gbe{–;fdu|Lut ;xof]u, k/fdz{ tyf ;'emfjsf nflu xfdL cToGt cfef/L 5f}+ . ;+o'Qm /fi6«;‹Lo vfB tyf s[lif ;+u7g cfsl:ds k'g:yf{kgf tyf ;dGjo OsfO{ k'Nrf]s, nlntk'/, g]kfn uafv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts
  5. 5. kl/ro afv|fkfngdf nfu]sf jf nfUg rfxg] ;fgf ls;fg Pj+ afv|fkfng k|j4{g sfo{df nfu]sf kz'kfng tyf ljsf; sfo{stf{x?sf nflu ;xof]u k'uf]; eg]/ of] xft] k':ts tof/ kfl/Psf] xf] . of] k':tsdf ;d]l6Psf tYo–tYof° tyf hfgsf/Lx? n]vssf] cfg} cg'ej, :ynut cjnf]sg, afv|fkfns ls;fgx?;Fu ul/Psf tt;DaGwL cfjZostf klxrfg;DaGwL 5nkmn / pxfFx?n] k|ToIf ef]Ug'ePsf Jofjxfl/s kIfx?df cfwfl/t 5g . k':tsnfO{{ ;s];Dd ;/n, /fd|f];Fu n]Vg k9g g;Sg] jf sd lzlIftx?n] klg lrq / tl:a/s} dfWodaf6 a'emg ;Sg]u/L tof/ kfg]{ k|of; ul/Psf] 5 . afv|fkfngdf k"j{1fg / cg'ej gePsfx?sf nflu klg cfwf/e"t hfgsf/Lx? lbg ;sf]; eGg] clek|fon] o;sf x/]s kf7x?sf] ;+/rgf ul/Psf] 5 . o; k':tsnfO{ hDdf * v08df ljefhg ul/Psf] 5 . tL x'gM afv|fsf k|d'v hftx?, k|hgg, bfgfkfgLsf] Joj:yf, vf]/sf] Joj:yf, k/hLjLx?, kfrg–k|0ffnL;Fu ;DalGwt ;d:ofx?, k|d'v ;+qmfds /f]ux? / lgoGq0fsf pkfox?, tyf afv|fsf nflu 3fF;sf] Joj:yf . oL v08x?sf] qmda4 k|:t'ltn] s'g} klg afv|fkfns g]kfnL s[ifsnfO{ cfjZos kg]{ d'Vo hfgsf/Lx? / cfOkg]{ Jofjxfl/s ;d:of ;dfwfgdf ;3fpl;4 x'g] ck]Iff ul/Psf] 5 . /fddl0f kf}8]n /fli6«o kz'kfng ljz]if1 afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts#
  6. 6. ljifo ;"rL cfef/ u kl/ro 3 ! afv|fsf hft -gZn_ x? ! !=! g]kfn ;/sf/åf/f l;kmfl/; ePsf afv|fsf hftx? ! !=@ :yfgLo÷/}yfg] hft (Indigenous/Local) sf afv|fx? ! !=# aflx/af6 NofOPsf (exotic) hftx? # !=$ /}yfg] / jfxo k|hfltsf afv|faLr k|hgg u/fO{ lgsflnPsf j0f{z+s/x? # !=% g]kfn s[lif cg';Gwfg kl/ifb -gfs{_df k/LIf0f cj:yfdf /x]sf hftx? # !=^ g]kfn ;/sf/sf] l;kmfl/;lagf g} g]kfnsf sltko 7fpFdf kfng ub}{ cfOPsf hftx? $ @ afv|fsf] k|hgg k|lqmof % @=! xf8gftfdf x'g] k|hgg ‑Ogla|l8ª_ sf c;/x? % @=@ j0f{z+s/ ‑qm;_ k|hggsf kmfObfx? % @=# gsf/fTds 5gf}6sf k|efjx? ^ @=$ u|fdL0f If]qdf ckgfpg'kg]{ k|hggsf] ;a}eGbf pQd tl/sf ^ @=% k|hggsf nflu 5gf]6 ul/g] af]sf / afv|fdf x'g'kg]{ u'0fx? & @=^ k|hggsf nflu af]sfsf] 5gf]6 * @=& k|hggsf nflu afv|Lsf] 5gf]6 ( @=* k|hgg !) @=( k|hggsf nflu kflng] af]sfsf] x]/rfx / Joj:yfkg !! @=!) ule{0fL afv|Lsf] x]/rfx / Joj:yfkg !! @=!! ev{/ hGd]sf kf7f–kf7Lsf] x]/rfx / Joj:yfkg !@ @=!@ v;L kfg]{ !# @=!# bfFtsf] cfwf/df afv|fsf] pd]/ kQf nufpg] tl/sf !$ # cfxf/ Joj:yfkg !^ #=! afv|fsf] kfrg–k|0ffnL !^ #=@ afv|fsf nflu cfxf/ slt rflxG5 < !^ #=# ;fgf] pd]/sf kf7f–kf7L ‑# dlxgfeGbf sd pd]/sf_ nfO{ v'jfOg] cfxf/ (Creep Feed) agfpg] tl/sf !& #=$ ax'kf]if0fo'Qm l9Ssf agfpg rflxg] ;fdu|L !& ªafv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts
  7. 7. #=% pks/0f / cf}hf/x? !& #=^ cfjZos ;fdu|L / dfqf ‑%–% lsnf]sf * j6f Ans agfpgsf nflu_ !* #=& agfpg] k|lqmof !* #=* Ans s;/L vfg lbg] < @) #=( olb w]/} vfP/ la/fdL k/]sf] nIf0f b]vfP eg] s] ug]{ < @) $ afv|fsf] vf]/ Joj:yf @! $=! :j:y afv|f kfNg] tl/sf @! $=@ afv|fkfng k4ltdf ;'wf/ s;/L ug]{ < @! $=# g/fd|f] vf]/ ePdf s:tf] c;/ k5{ < @@ $=$ vf]/sf nflu s:tf] 7fpF pQd x'G5 < @# $=% c;n k|sf/sf] vf]/ lgdf{0f ug]{ of]hgf @# $=^ vf]/sf s]xL gd"gfx? # b]lv % j6f afv|fsf nflu @# % afv|fdf nfUg] k/hLjLx? @^ %=! afv|fdf nfUg] jfxo k/hLjLx? (External Parasites) @^ %=@ afv|fdf nfUg] cfGtl/s k/hLjLx? (Internal Parasites) @( ^ kfrg–k|0ffnL;Fu ;DalGwt ;d:ofx? ## ^=! bfgf jf ef]h et]/df kmflnPsf vfg]s'/f a9L vfPdf b]vfkg]{ ;d:ofx? ## ^=@ 3fF;kftaf6 x'g] ljifsf] c;/ (Plant Poisoning) / pkrf/ #$ ^=# afh/f÷;f]3{d÷h'g]nf]sf] 3fF; vfFbf pTkGg x'g;Sg] ljif / pkrf/ #% ^=$ cFu]/L, bz{glkkn, gLnf] k'mNg] uGw], wf]q]m, cf?kft], /ftf] lz/Lif vfPdf nfUg] ljif #^ ^=% e'F8L k'mNg] ;d:of #& ^=^ 5]/f}6L #* ^=& 5]/f}6L jf cfpFn] afv|fnfO{ ;tfpFbf s] s] x'G5 < #( & k|d'v ;?jf (Contagious) /f]ux? $) &=! ;LkLkL ‑;g]{ vfnsf] k'/fgf] lgdf]lgof_ $) &=@ kLkLcf/ /f]u $) &=# ljleGg k|sf/sf /f]ulj?4 lbOg] vf]ksf gfd / dfqf $@ &=$ pkrf/ lsg k|efjsf/L gx'g ;S5 < $@ * afv|fsf nflu 8fn]3fF; tyf cGo e'OF3fF;x? $# *=! ux|f–sfGnf tyf 8Lnx?df 8fn]3fF; tyf e'OF3fF;x? nufpg] $# *=@ 8fn]3fF; / e'O{3fF;x? sf6g] pko'Qm cj:yf $$ ;Gbe{–;fdu|Lx? $$ afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':tsr
  8. 8. !=! g]kfn ;/sf/åf/f l;kmfl/; ePsf afv|fsf hftx? qm=;+= hft l;kmfl/; ePsf] ef}uf]lns If]q s}lkmot ! t/fO{ afv|f t/fO{ tyf leqL dw]z ‑#)) ld6/;Dd_ @ v/L÷kxf8L afv|f tNnf] Pj+ dWo–kxf8L If]q ‑#)) ld6/b]lv !%)) ld6/;Dd # l;Gxfn afv|f pRr kxf8L If]q ‑!%)) ld6/b]lv @%)) ld6/;Dd_ $ Rofªu|f lxdfnL If]q ‑@%)) ld6/eGbf dfly_ % :yfgLo afv|f / hd'gfkf/L afv|faLr k|hgg ‑qm;_ u/fP/ lg:s]sf] j0f{z+s/ hft t/fO{, kxf8 / pRr kxf8L If]q ^ :yfgLo afv|f / afa{/L hftsf] afv|f aLr k|hgg u/fP/ lg:s]sf] j0f{z+s/ hft t/fO{, kxf8 / pRr kxf8L If]q & hd'gfkf/L t/fO{ tyf dWo–kxf8 ‑!%)) ld6/;Dd_ j0f{z+s/ pTkfbg ug{ aLpsf] nflu * afa{/L t/fO{ tyf dWo–kxf8 ‑!%)) ld6/ ;Dd_ j0f{z+s/ pTkfbg ug{ aLpsf] nflu ! !=@ :yfgLo÷/}yfg] hft (Indigenous/Local) sf afv|fx? t/fO{ afv|f ‑afv|L_ tl:a/M8f=>L/fdk|;fbg]pkfg],gfs{v'dn6f/ t/fO{ afv|f ‑af]sf_ tl:a/M/fddl0fkf}8]n afv|fsf hft -gZn_ x¿ afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts
  9. 9. afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts v/L afv|f kxf8L afv|f ‑af]sf_ tl:a/M8f=L/fdk|;fbg]pkfg],gfs{v'dn6f/ tl:a/ML/fddl0fkf}8]n kxf8L afv|f kxf8L afv|f tl:a/M8f=L/fdk|;fbg]pkfg],gfs{v'dn6f/ tl:a/M8f=L/fdk|;fbg]pkfg],gfs{v'dn6f/ l;Gxfn afv|f ‑af]sf_ Rofªu|f tl:a/M8f=L/fdk|;fbg]pkfg],gfs{v'dn6f/ tl:a/M8f=L/fdk|;fbg]pkfg],gfs{v'dn6f/
  10. 10. afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts hd'gfkf/L afa{/L tl:a/;|f]tMafv|fkfng,@)^%÷^^‑kz';]jfljefu, sa'lnotLjgtyfkz'ljsf;sfo{qmd_ tl:a/;|f]tMafv|fkfng,@)^%÷^^‑kz';]jfljefu, sa'lnotLjgtyfkz'ljsf;sfo{qmd_ !=# aflx/af6 NofOPsf (exotic) hftx? v/L / hd'gfkf/LaLr]sf] j0f{z+s/ v/L / afa{/LaLr]sf] j0f{z+s/ tl:a/M/fddl0fkf}8]n tl:a/M/fddl0fkf}8]n !=$ /}yfg] / jfxo k|hfltsf afv|faLr k|hgg u/fO{ lgsflnPsf j0f{z+s/x? af]o/ afv|f lssf] afv|f tl:a/;|f]tMafv|fkfng,@)^%÷^^‑kz';]jfljefu, s]Gb|Loe]8fafv|fk|j4{gsfof{no_ tl:a/;|f]tMafv|fkfng,@)^%÷^^‑kz';]jfljefu, s]Gb|Loe]8fafv|fk|j4{gsfof{no_!=% g]kfn s[lif cg';Gwfg kl/ifb -gfs{_df k/LIf0f cj:yfdf /x]sf hftx?
  11. 11. afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts la§n afv|f ‑af]sf_ la§n afv|f ‑afv|L_ !=^ g]kfn ;/sf/sf] l;kmfl/;lagf g} g]kfnsf sltko 7fpFdf kfng ub}{ cfOPsf hftx? tl:a/;|f]tMafv|fkfng,@)^%÷^^‑kz';]jfljefu, s]Gb|Loe]8fafv|fk|j4{gsfof{no_ tl:a/;|f]tMafv|fkfng,@)^%÷^^‑kz';]jfljefu, s]Gb|Loe]8fafv|fk|j4{gsfof{no_ sfnf] a+ufnL afv|f ;fgg afv|f ‑afv|L_ tl:a/M/fddl0fkf}8]n tl:a/;|f]tMafv|fkfng,@)^%÷^^‑kz';]jfljefu, sa'lnotLjgtyfkz'ljsf;sfo{qmd_ PËnf] Golaog afv|f tl:a/;|f]tMafv|fkfng,@)^%÷^^‑kz';]jfljefu, s]Gb|Loe]8fafv|fk|j4{gsfof{no_
  12. 12. afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts @ kf7f] / kf7L h'DNofxf hGdfPsL afv|L ltg} h'DNofxf kf7f / kf7LaLrsf] k|hgg To;/L xf8gftfdf k|hgg u/L hGd]sf kf7f–kf7Lx? sdhf]/ cj:yfdf hGdg], a[l4 ljsf; l9nf] x'g] / z/L/ klg sdhf]/ x'g] x'G5 . slxn]sfxLF ;fg} pd]/df g} d[To' ;d]t x'g] u5{ . ‑;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^%_ afv|fsf] k|hgg k|lqmof @=! xf8gftfdf x'g] k|hgg ‑Ogla|l8ª_ sf c;/x? @=@ j0f{z+s/ ‑qm;_ k|hggsf kmfObfx? h'DNofxf kf7f–kf7L hGd]sf 5gM logLx? l56f] a95g, ;fg} pd]/df w]/} tf}nsf aG5g, :j:y / tGb'?:t ‑;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^%_ klg x'G5g . :yfgLo / pGgt hftsf kf7f / kf7LaLr tyf kf7L / kf7faLr k|hgg pGgt hftsf afv|fsf kf7f÷kf7L :yfgLo afv|faf6 hGd]sf] kf7f÷kf7L
  13. 13. afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts @=# gsf/fTds 5gf}6sf k|efjx? ‑;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^%_ o; afv|Ln] h'DNofxf kf7f hGdfPsL 5] ;fgf] z/L/ ePsf, lgliqmo / l9nf] a9b} u/]sf n't]nfªu|] vfnsf kf7f–kf7L aLrsf] k|hgg :j:y, tGb'?:t, df]6f], ;lqmo kf7f] 5 eg] To:tfnfO{ df;sf nflu kz';]jf s]Gb|x?df rfF8} g} nu]/ v;L kfg]{ rng 5 To;f] ePdf gofF hGdg] kf7f–kf7Lx? emg ;fgf, n't]nfªu|], c:j:y k|sf/sf hGdg] x'G5g, slxn]sfxLF ;do g} gk'uL hGdg] jf t'lxg] klg x'g;S5 . @=$ u|fdL0f If]qdf ckgfpg'kg]{ k|hggsf] ;a}eGbf pQd tl/sf
  14. 14. afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts j0f{z+s/ k|hgg /fd|f] x'g] x'gfn] Pp6f ufpF / csf]{ ufpFaLr jf r/g–If]qdf ayfg gldl;g] ufpFaLr af]sfx? ;f6k]m/ ub}{ k|hgg u/fpg] rng rnfpg' ;fx|} pQd x'G5 . ‑xf8gftfsf] k|hgg x'gaf6 hf]ufpgsf nflu x/]s @–@ jif{df o;/L cfk;df gftf gkg]{ 7fpFaf6 af]sfx? ;f6f;f6 u/L k|hgg u/fpg'k5{ ._ ‑;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^%_ @=% k|hggsf nflu 5gf]6 ul/g] af]sf / afv|fdf x'g'kg]{ u'0fx? ;dxdf ;a}eGbf a9L jhg ePsf] . nfdf] / vFlbnf] z/L/ ePsf] . 5f]6f–5f]6f t/ alnof v'§f ePsf] . ub{g nfdf] ePsf] / ;Lwf lhp8fn ePsf] . rf}8f 5ftL ePsf] . ;w}+ h'DNofxf hGdfO/xg] / @ jif{df sDtLdf # k6s Aofpg] dfpsf ;Gtfg . klxnf]rf]l6 kf7f–kf7L hGdfpFbf @ j6f :yfoL bfFt (permanent teeth) ePsL dfpaf6 hGd]sf aRrf . ub{g / k5fl8sf] efudf nfdf] nfdf] / e'mKk k/]sf] /f}+ ePsf] . x]b}{df alnof], tu8f / 8/nfUbf] cfqmfds (aggresive) b]lvg] . hlGdbfv]l/ @ lsnf]u|fdeGbf a9L tf}n ePsf] . hGd]sf] ^ dlxgf;Dddf sDtLdf !% lsnf] tf}n k'u]sf] . y'g, sNrf}+8f] /fd|f];Fu ljsf; ePsf] . c08sf]ifsf b'a} bfgfx? 7N7nf / a/fa/ cfsf/sf] ePsf] . !* dlxgf k'lu;Sbf ;a}eGbf a9L tf}n u|x0f ug{;Sg] / @ j6f :yfoL bfFt cfPsf . /f]u ;xg ;Sg] Ifdtf a9L ePsf dfpx?af6 hGd]sf kf7f–kf7L 5fGg] . Pp6} pd]/ ;dxsf dWo]af6 ;a}eGbf 7nf]nfO{ 5fGg] . glhssf] gftf kg]{ jf Pp6} j+zaf6 hGd]sfnfO{ g5fGg] . pGgt hftsf] ‑cyf{t rfx]sf] jfxo k|hfltsf] gZnaf6 sDtLdf %)∞ ld0f ePsf]_ 5fGg] . k|hgg p2]Zos} nflu 5flgPsf af]sf / afv|Lsf] ;+;u{af6 hlGdPsf aRrfdfq lng] . á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á
  15. 15. afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts @=^ k|hggsf nflu af]sfsf] 5gf]6 klxnf]rf]l6 Aofpg] a]nfdf @ j6f :yfoL bfFt ePsL cfdfaf6 hGd]sf] af]sf h'DNofxfdWo] Pp6f af]sf k|hggsf nflu /fd|f];Fu ljsf; ePsf of}g cËx? ePsf] af]sf ;+;u{sf a]nf clt ;lqmo, km'lt{nf] / cfqmfds 6fOksf] af]sf x'g'k5{ h'DNofxf hGdfpg] cfdfaf6 hGd]sf] af]sfaf6 k|hgg u/fPdfq /fd|f] pTkfbg k|fKt x'g;S5 ‑;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^%_
  16. 16. afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts @= k|hggsf nflu afv|Lsf] 5gf]6 k6s–k6s t'lxg] ;d:of ePsf] afv|f k|To]s a]tdf Pp6f dfq} aRrf hGdfpg] afv|f k|To]s a]tdf h'DNofxf aRrf hGdfpg] afv|f klxnf]rf]l6 aRrf hGdfpg] a]nfdf @ j6f :yfoL bfFt cfPsf] klxnf] a]tdf hGd]sf h'DNofxf kf7f–kf7L # dlxgfdf dfp k'gM afnL nfUg'k5{ * dlxgfkl5 g} bf];|f]k6s Aofpg] afv|f jf @ jif{df # a]t Aofpg ;Sg] dfp x'g'k5{ ‑;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^%_ ! @ # $ % ^ *
  17. 17. afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts10 5gf]6 ul/g] afv|Ldf s:tf u'0f x'g'k5{ nfdf] / vFlbnf] z/L/ ePsf] . jyfgdf ;a}eGbf 7nf] b]lvg] . k|hggsf nflu rflxg] ljz]if u'0fx? :ki6 b]Vg ;lsg] . ;kmf lhp8fn ePsf] / ;lqmo vfnsf] . ( dlxgfsf] pd]/kl5 klxnf]k6s ule{0fL ePsf] cfdfaf6 hGd]sf] aRrf . nfdfnfdf v'§f ePsf] / sNrf}+8f] el/gsf nflu k|z:t vfnL 7fpF b]lvg] . k'i6 k/]sf] sNrf}+8f] / l7Sssf cfsf/sf] y'g ePsf] . klxnf]rf]l6 aRrf hGdfpFbf @ j6f :yfoL bfFt ePsf] . lhp8fnsf] ef/ rf/j6} v'§fdf a/fa/ ePsf] . aRrf t'lxg] /]s8{ gePsf] . k5fl8kl§ t'ngfTds?kn] km's]sf] b]lvg] . @ jif{sf] cjlwdf # k6s aRrf hGdfpg ;Sg] . h'DNofxf hGd]sf] dWo]af6 x'g'kg]{ . cfkmgf kf7f–kf7LnfO{ k|z:t bw lbg ;Sg] . ztk|ltzt jf w]/} kf7fkf7L x'sf{pg] Ifdtf ePsf] . hlGdg]a]nfdf sDtLdf @ lsnf]u|fd tf}n ePsf] . l56f] l56f] zf/Ll/s j[l4 x'g] vfnsf] jf ^ dlxgfsf] pd]/df !% lsnf]u|fdeGbf a9L tf}n x'g] . /f]u k|lt/f]wfTds Ifdtf pRr ePsf] . ljleGg vfnsf] :yfgLo jftfj/0f;Fu ;lhn} 3'nldn x'g;Sg] . á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á @=* k|hgg ev{/ hGd]sf kf7f–kf7L ev{/ hGd]sf kf7f–kf7L ( dlxgfsf] pd]/kl5 k|ydk6s af]sf nfu]sf] Psbd alnof tGb'?:t / :j:y aRrfsf] hGd ePsf] ‑;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^%_
  18. 18. 11afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts k|hgg slxn] / s;/L u/fpg] klxnf]k6s afnL nufpFbf af]sfsf] pd]/ ( dlxgfeGbf a9Lsf] x'g'k5{ . klxnf]k6s ule{0fL x'g] afv|Lsf] pd]/ klg ( dlxgfeGbf a9Lsf] x'g'k5{ . b'O{ leGgleGg hftsf afv|fsf] ;+;u{af6 hGd]sf j0f{z+s/ aRrfsf] aLrdf k|hgg u/fpg] . cfk;df gftf gkg]{ vfnsf jf leGbfleGb} ufpFsf af]sf / afv|LaLr jf afv|L / af]sfaLr k|hgg u/fpg'k5{ . pGgt hftsf] af]sf ‑OR5fOPsf] hftsf] sDtLdf %) k|ltzt /Qm ldl;Psf]_ / :yfgLo afv|LaLrsf] k|hggaf6 hGd]sf]_ 5fGg'k5{ . @=( k|hggsf nflu kflng] af]sfsf] x]/rfx / Joj:yfkg 5'§} uf]7÷vf]/sf] Joj:yf x'g'k5{ . aFw'jf k|0ffnLdf x'sf{Og] Joj:yf x'g'k5{ jf cnu r/g–If]q x'g'k5{ . sd;]sd lbgsf] #–$ 306f zf/Ll/s cEof; x'g] Joj:yf ldnfpg'k5{ . 3fF;, bfgf / kfgL k|z:tdfqfdf jf rflxFbf]dfqfdf lbg'k5{ . k|To]s ^ dlxgfdf /f]u lg/f]ws cf}ifwLx? v'jfpg] ‑l8lkª / 8«]lGrª_ ug'{k5{ . ;do–;dosf /f]ula?4sf vf]kx? lbg'k5{ . k|hggsf nflu /flvg] af]sf k|To]s @–@ jif{df x6fO{ ;f]sf] ;§fdf gofF af]sf Nofpg'k5{ . @=!) ule{0fL afv|Lsf] x]/rfx / Joj:yfkg d'Vo ayfgaf6 ule{0fL afv|LnfO{ cnUu} /fVg] . aFw'jf–k|0ffnL ckgfO{ kfNg] . r/fpg] ePdf ;lhnf] / ;dy/ 7fpFx?df dfq r/fpg] . uef{j:yfdf k|ltlbg sl/a @)) u|fd cGg ‑bfgf_ lbg] Joj:yf ldnfpg] . ;'Ts]/L x'g] cj:yfdf b]lvg] nIf0fx? cjnf]sg ug]{ . ;'Ts]/L x'g] qmddf aRrf hGdg @ 306feGbf j9L ;do nfUof] eg] k|fljlwssf] ;xof]u lng] . 3fF; / bfgfkfgL lbFbf lgolGqt tl/sf ckgfpg], o;f] ubf{ eF8fNgf] kms{g] ‑k|f]n]lK;;_ ;Defjgf 365 . ;'Ts]/L ePkl5 lbOg] bfgfkfgLsf] dfqf klxnf] lbgaf6 qmdzM a9fpFb} nfg] / l;kmfl/; eP cg';f/sf] k0f{ dfqf 5}7f}+ lbg b]lvdfq lbg] ug'{k5{ . ;fngfnnfO{ /fd|f];Fu uf8g'k5{, o;sf nflu slDtdf ! ld6/ ulx/f] vfN8f] vGg] / To;}leq ;fngfn /fvL /fd|f];Fu k'g]{ . ;fngfn ;'Ts]/L afv|L cfk}+mn] vfPdf To;kl5 bw pTkfbg sd x'g] / ;Gtfg hGdfpg] Ifdtf;d]t sd x'b} hfG5 . á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á
  19. 19. afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts12 ;kmf / g/d sk8fsf] k|of]u u/L k/} z/L/ /fd|f];Fu ;kmf ul/lbg], gfssf Kjfn ;kmfOdf cem a9L Wofg lbg] . ev{/ hGd]sf] kf7f–kf7Lsf] k5fl8sf b'a} v'6f ;dfO{ 6fpsf] tn kg]{ u/L prfNg] / lj:tf/} lj:tf/} k]08'nd h:t} s]xL ;do x'O{ v]nfpg] . klxnf]rf]l6 y'gaf6 aRrfnfO{ bw r';fO{lbFbf b'a} y'gnfO{ z'?df % k6s lgrf]/]/ klxnf] lauf}tL bw kmfNg'k5{, To;kl5 aRrfx?nfO{ k|z:tdfqfdf lauf}tL bw r';fpg'k5{ . ;kmf / ljliff0f'/lxt kfl/Psf jf lgd{nLs/0f ‑:6]l/nfOH8_ ul/Psf pks/0f k|of]u u/L /fd|f];Fu gfn sfl6lbg]Ù gfn sf6bf z/L/;Fu sl/a @ OGr 5f]8]/ sf6g'k5{ . ‑;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^%_ hlGdgf;fy kf7f–kf7LnfO{ ;'Vvf / Gofgf] 7fpFdf nfg] . ;kmf / g/d sk8fsf] ;xfotfn] gfssf Kjfn / k'/} z/L/ /fd|f];Fu ;kmf ul/lbg] . ev{/ hGd]sf] kf7f–kf7Lsf] k5fl8sf b'a} v'§f ;dfO{ 6fpsf] tn kg]{ u/L prfNg] / lj:tf/} lj:tf/} k]08'nd xNn]h:t} $–% k6s otfptf xNnfpg] . gfn sf6bf ;kmf / :6]l/nfOh u/]sf] rSs, s}+rL jf An]8 k|of]u ug]{ . gfn sf6bf z/L/eGbf @ OGrdflysf] efuaf6 dfq sf6g] . sfl6;s]sf] efudf l6~r/ cfof]l8g jf o:t} Pl06;]lK6sx? nufOlbg] . sNrf}+8f] / y'gx?nfO{ tftf]kfgLn] ;kmf ug]{ / ;'Sg lbg] . aRrfnfO{ klxnf]k6s bw r':g lbg'eGbf klxn] b'j} y'gnfO{ %–% k6s lgrf]/]/ afSnf] lauf}tL bw kmofFSg] . To;kl5dfq aRrfx?nfO{ oy]i6dfqfdf bw r'l;/xg lbg'k5{ . Gofgf] / ;'Vvf 7fpFdf /fVg'k5{ / cGo lx+;|s hLjhGt'af6 hf]ufpg'k5{ . kf7f–kf7L @ xKtfsf ePkl5 vfg x'g], g/d / tfultnf] 3fF;x? vfg lj:tf/} lbg'k5{ . To:t} # xKtfsf ePkl5 lj:tf/} c? bfgfkfgL / kf}li6s cfxf/x? klg lbF+b} ug'{k5{ . á á á á á á á á á á á á @=!! ev{/ hGd]sf kf7f–kf7Lsf] x]/rfx / Joj:yfkg
  20. 20. 13afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts k|hggsf nflu pko'Qm gx'g] vfnsf kf7fx?nfO{ ! dlxgfsf] pd]/ ePkl5 v;L kfg'{k5{ . kf7f–kf7Lx? # dlxgf pd]/ k'Ugf;fy cfdfaf6 5'6ofP/ /fVg'k5{ . k|hggsf nflu /flvg] af]sfnfO{ klg # dlxgfb]lv cGo kf7f–kf7Lx?;Fu g/fvL 5'§} 7fpFdf /fVg] Joj:yf ldnfpg'k5{ . kf7f–kf7Lx? ! dlxgfsf ePkl5 klxnf]k6s cfjZos cf}ifwLx? v'jfpg] ‑8«]l~rª ug]{_ ug'{k5{ . xNsf vfnsf] a|'; ‑sfk]{6 a|';_ n] b}lgs?kdf kf7f–kf7LnfO{ sf]/]/ ;kmf ug]{ ug'{k5{ . cfjZostfg';f/ a]nfa]nfdf v'/ klg sfl6lbg'k5{ . á á á á á á @=!@ v;L kfg]{ skf;, lrD6f / l6~r/ cfof]l8g v;L kfg]{ ;xL tl/sf ev{/ hGd]sf 5g ! dlxgf ePkl5 v;L kfg]{ ‑o;f] ubf{ l5§} df]6fpF5g÷a95g_ ! dlxgf ‑;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^%_ af]l8{hf]–Sof:6]«6/ z'qmaflxgL gnLnfO{ RofKg] 7fpF v;L kfbf{ hlxn] klg bIf k|fljlwssf] ;xof]uaf6 dfq kfg{'{k5{ . ;fy} v'Nnf tl/sfaf6 v;L gkf/L ;w}+ aGb tl/sf (Closed Castration) cyf{t g;f RofKg] k4ltaf6 g} v;L kfg'{k5{ .
  21. 21. afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts14 v;L kfbf{ Wofg lbg'kg]{ s'/fx? tn lbOPsf] 5 kf7f] ! dlxgfsf] x'gf;fy v;L kfg'{k5{ . v;L kfg'{eGbf cl3 g} To;sf nflu clt cfjZos j:t' / pks/0fx? h:t}M af]l8{hf]–Sof:6]«6/, Pl06;]lK6s emf]n, ;kmf skf;, lrD6fx? cflb l7s kfl//fVg'k5{ . Pl06;]lK6s k|of]u u/]/ af]l8{hf]–Sof:6«]6/ / v;L kfg]{ dfG5]sf xft /fd|f];Fu ;kmf ug]{ . kf7f]nfO{ ‑lrqdf b]vfPh:t}_ /fd|f];Fu cF7ofP/ ;dfpg'k5{ . xftnfO{ lrNnf] agfpg Pl06;]lK6s ld;fOPsf] n'la|s]G6; nufpg], c08sf]ifsf b'a} bfgfnfO{ a'9L cf}+nf / dflxnL cf}+nf k|of]u u/]/ lj:tf/} tGsfpg] . z'qmjflxgL gnL kQf nufO{ /fd|f];Fu ;dfP/ 5]pkl§ Nofpg] . cF7ofpg] bfFtLsf] efu dflykl§ kg]{u/L af]l8{hf]–Sof:6«]6/nfO{ /fd|f];Fu ;dfpg] . RofKg'kg]{ g;fdf af]l8{hf]–Sof:6«]6/ /flv;s]kl5 ;fgf y'g ePsf] 7fpF (rudimentary teats) eGbf ‑!÷@Æ_ cfwf OGr tn ‑hldgkl§_ l7s 7fpFdf /fvL a]:;/L bafpg], o;f] ubf{ g;f /fd|f];Fu RoFflkO{;S5 / RoFfk]sf] g;fsf] efudfly sl/a @) ;]s]08hlt Roflk/fVg] . To;kl5 ToxL g;fsf] sl/a rf}yfO OGr ‑)=@%Æ_ tnaf6 af]l8{hf]–Sof:6«]6/ /fvL cl3s} k|lqmof ckgfO{ g;f RofKg] . o;/L Psfkl§sf] g;f RoflklbPkl5 l7s To:t} k|lqmof ckgfO{ csf]{kl§sf] g;f klg b'O{k6s Roflklbg] . g;f Roflk;s]kl5 Tof] efudf ;kmf skf; / lrD6fsf] k|of]u u/L l6~r/ cfof]l8g jf cGo Pl06;]lK6s nufOlbg] . @=!# bfFtsf] cfwf/df afv|fsf] pd]/ kQf nufpg] tl/sf hGdg]lalQs} @ j6f bw]bfFt x'G5g . ! dlxgfsf] x'Fbf * j6f bw]bfFt x'G5g . !* dlxgfdf aLrsf @ j6f bw]bfFt k'mSnL gofF :yfoL bfFtn] 7fpF lnG5g . @$ dlxgfdf aLrsf $ j6f bw]bfFt k'mSnL gofF :yfoL bfFtn] 7fpF lnG5g . #) dlxgfdf aLrsf ^ j6f bw]bfFt k'mSnL gofF :yfoL bfFtn] 7fpF lnG5g . #^ dlxgfdf ;a} * j6f bw]bfFtsf] ;§f :yfoL bfFt cfpF5g . $* dlxgfdf ;a} bfFt sDhf]/ x'g], xlNng] / l5b| kg]{ x'g yfN5g . á á á á á á á á á á á
  22. 22. 15afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts hGdbfsf avt jf ! dlxgfdf ;j} * j6} bw]bfFt 5g . ! @ 8]9 jif{sf] pd]/df cufl8sf @ j6f bw]bfFt x65g / @ j6f gofF÷:yfoL bfFt cfPsf 5g . ! @# $ ! @# $% ^ @ jif{sf] pd]/df cufl8sf $ j6f bw]bfFt em/]/ $ j6f gofF :yfoL bfFt cfPsf 5g . ;f9] b'O{ jif{sf] pd]/df ^ j6f bw bfFt em/L ^ j6f gofF÷:yfoL bfFt cfPsf 5g . ! @# $% ^ * # jif{sf] x'Fbf ;a} * j6f bw]bfFt v;]/ ltgsf 7fpFdf * j6} gofF÷:yfoL bfFt cfPsf 5g .
  23. 23. afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts16 # l;sd cf]dfhdPaf]d]hd ‑vf; e'F8L_ /]l6s'nd ef]hg gnL ;fgf] cfGb|f 7nf] cfGb|f ?d]g cfxf/ Joj:yfkg #=! afv|fsf] kfrg–k|0ffnL #=@ afv|fsf nflu cfxf/ slt rflxG5 ‑;fwf/0ftof @% b]lv #) lsnf] tf}nsf] afv|fsf nflu_ cfxf/sf] k|sf/ OsfO{ ;fdfGo afFRgsf nflu df]6fpgsf nflu ule{0fLsf nflu k|hggsf nflu /flvPsf] af]sfsf nflu a9bf] pd]/sf kf7f–kf7Lsf nflu cGg sf];] u|fd @%=)) !))=)) !%)=)) !))=)) @%=)) csf];] u|fd %=)) !%)=)) @))=)) !%)=)) %=)) 8fn]3fF; sf];] s]=hL= )=%) )=%) )=%) )=%) )=@% csf];] s]=hL= !=)) !=)) !=)) !=)) )=%) e'OF3fF; sf];] s]=hL= )=%) )=%) )=%) )=%) )=@% csf];] s]=hL= !=)) !=)) !=)) !=)) )=%) 8fn]3fF; sf];] u|fd @%=)) !))=)) !%)=)) !))=)) @%=)) csf];] u|fd %=)) !%)=)) @))=)) !%)=)) %=)) cGo 3fF; sf];] u|fd )=%) )=%) )=%) )=%) )=%) csf];] u|fd )=%) )=%) )=%) )=%) )=%) g'g u|fd !)=)) !)=)) !)=)) !)=)) !)=)) nj0fx? u|fd )=@% )=@% )=@% )=@% )=@% le6fldgx? – kfgL ln6/ @=)) @=)) @=)) @=)) @=)) hDdf s]= hL= ^=) ^=% ^=% ^=% $=) b|i6JoM afv|fnfO{ 3fF; lbg] 7fpFdf hlxn] klg 3fF;x? tyf :ofpnf jf cGo afnLgfnLsf 8fF7, e';, sf];fsf af]qmf, 9'6f] cflbh:tf rLhaLh vfnL gu/L /flvlbg'k5{ . ;fy} kfgL vfg] efF8fdf ;w}+ kfgL /flvlbO/xg'k5{ .
  24. 24. 17afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts ;s];Dd rf}aL;} 306f afv|fn] 3fF; vfg] 7fpF÷6f6gf] ‑x]–¥ofs_ df xl/of] 3fF; x'g'k5{ . pknAw x'g;S5 eg] nj0fsf nflu v'jfOg] Ansdf jx'–kf]ifs tTj ldl;Psf] v'jfpg'k5{ . g'g tyf cGo nj0fx? ;s];Dd xKtfsf] Psk6s v'jfpg'k5{ . ;kmf kfgL k|z:tdfqfdf lkpg lbg'k5{ . @% lsnf] jf ;f]eGbf a9L tf}n ePsf] afv|fnfO{ b}lgs sl/a @%) u|fd bfgf v'jfpg'k5{ . #=# ;fgf] pd]/sf kf7f–kf7L ‑# dlxgfeGbf sd pd]/sf_ nfO{ v'jfOg] cfxf/ (Creep Feed) agfpg] tl/sf bfgfsf nflu cfjZos ;fdu|Lx? ‑!)) lsnf]u|fd cfxf/ tof/ kfg{sf nflu rflxg] kl/df0f–s]=hL= df_ ds} ^) $) @) @@ hf}÷h} ) @) $% ) abfdsf] lkgf @) @) @) #% df5fsf] l;b|f !) !) !) ) ux'Fsf] rf]s/ @ @) rgf ) ) ) @) nj0fsf] ld0f @ @ @ @=% g'g ‑cfof]g'g_ ! ! ! )=% hDdf !)) !)) !)) !)) ;|f]tM afv|fkfng k'l:tsf, @)^%÷^^ #=$ ax'kf]if0fo'Qm l9Ssf agfpg rflxg] ;fdu|L afv|fkfngsf nflu cfjZos kg]{ ax'kf]if0fo'Qm ‑dlN6Gol6«;g_ Ans÷l9Ssf agfpgsf nflu lgDg ;fdu|Lx? cfjZos k5{M o'l/of dn, g'g, pmFv'sf] df]nf;];÷vF'bf] ÷;Vv/÷e]nL, r'gf, nj0fx?, le6fldgx?, l;d]G6 jf /ftf] df6f] ‑hldgsf] ;txeGbf @ ld6/ tn vf8naf6 lgsflnPsf] /ftf] df6f]nfO{ xfF8Ldf e'6]/ dfq k|of]u ug]{_, /]zfbf/ j:t'÷3fF;kft ‑h:t}M e;÷rf]s/, rfdn, ux'F cyjf ;'sfPsf] x]–3fF; jf cGo gn÷k/fn cflb_ #=% pks/0f / cf}hf/x? o:tf] Ans agfpgsf nflu lgDgfg';f/ pks/0f÷cf}hf/÷;fdu|L rflxG5M ;fFrf] (mould) cyjf Knfli6s÷kf]lnlygsf emf]nf÷af]/f jf afN6L jf sf7sf] afs;, tf}ng] ‑d]zLg÷t/fh'_, gfkf] ePsf] efF8f] ‑hf/_, j:t'x? ld;fpgsf nflu 7nf] efF8f], rnfpg] ;fa]n, kfgL, kftf cflb . á á á á á á á
  25. 25. afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts18 #=^ cfjZos ;fdu|L / dfqf ‑%–% lsnf]sf * j6f Ans agfpgsf nflu_ ;fdu|L tf}n ;fdu|L tf}n o'l/of $ s]=hL= g'g @ s]=hL= df]nf;]; @) s]=hL= x88L r0f{ @ s]=hL= l;d]G6÷/ftf] df]6f @ s]=hL= nj0f ld0f !)) u|fd 8f]nf]ldl6s r'gf @ s]=hL= ax'le6fldg kfp8/ % u|fd /]zfbf/ j:t' * s]=hL= kfgL ! ln6/ #= agfpg] k|lqmof ! ln6/kfgLdf @ lsnf] l;d]G6 jf /ftf] df6f] ld;fpg] / /fd|f];Fu d'5g] . To;df $ lsnf] ol/of / @ lsnf] g'g /fv]/ /fd|f];Fu dNg] . To;dfk]ml/ @) lsnf] df]nf;]; /fv]/ dNg] . k]ml/ @ lsnf] r'gf ld;fpg] . x88Lsf] r0f{ klg @ lsnf] ld;fpg] ‑pknAw ePsf] v08df_ . njg–ld0f / cGo le6fldgx? ld;fpg] . To;df % lsnf] /]zfbf/ j:t' e;f–rf]s/ jf ;–;fgf 6'qmf agfP/ sf6]sf] ;'s]sf] Æx]Æ ‑3fF;_ ld;fpg] . /fd|f];Fu rnfO/xg], ha;Dd ;Dk0f{ j:t'x? /fd|f] / Psgf;;Fu ldl;Psf] h:tf] b]lvFb}g, ha;Dd /fd|f] n]bf] (Paste) aGb}g . Ans agfpg] ;fFrf]df n]bf] vGofpg] / ;fx|f] aGgsf nflu ! lbg TolQs} 5f]8g] . @$ 306fkl5 ;fFrf] lgsfNg] / ;fx|f] aGgsf nflu ! lbg TolQs} 5f]8g] . á á á á á á á á á á
  26. 26. 19afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts /]zfbf/ j:t' ÷ 3fF;sf 6'qmf÷ rf]s/ cflb ax' kf]if0f vlgh / le6fldgx? e]nL÷df]nf;]; r'gf g'g l;d]G6 jf /ftf] df6f] hf]Vg] d]lzgl9Ssf agfpg] ;fFrf] -Ans_ o'l/of kfgL ;Dk0f{ j:t'x? /fd|f];Fu ldl;P–gldl;Psf] hfFr ug]{ / dn]/ uhasf] n]bf] ‑k]i6_ agfpg] rfx] cg';f/sf ;fOhsf Ansx?df n]bf] /fvL l9Ssf aGg lbg] / l9Ssfx?nfO{ /fd|f];Fu ;'Sg lbg]
  27. 27. afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts20 o;/L agfPsf Ansdf lgDg u'0fx? x'g'k5{ ;Dk0f{ j:t'÷tTjx? /fd|f];Fu 3'nldn÷ld;df; ePsf] x'g'k5{ . o'l/of / r'gfsf 8Nnf–8Nnf b]lvg] x'g'x'Fb}g . /fd|f];Fu ;'s]sf], s8f / ;dfpFbf RofkRofk nfUg] x'g'k5{ . tof/ ePsf Ansx?nfO{ ;'Vvf 7fpFdf 5f]k]/ ;'/lIft tj/n] e08f/ u/L /fVg'k5{ . #=* Ans s;/L vfg lbg] 5fofF kg]{ 7fpF sl/a ! ld6/ jf # lkm6sf] pFrf] 7fpFdf Ans /flvlbg] Joj:yf ldnfpg'k5{ . o;/L afv|fx?nfO{ s]xL l5g Ans rf6g ‑vfg_ lbg'k5{, t/ Psk6sdf jf ! lbgdf !%) u|fd eGbf a9L vfg lbg'x'Fb}g . b|i6JoM Pp6f x's]{sf] afv|fnfO{ lbgsf] !%) u|fdeGbf a9L Ans vfg lbOof] eg] To;n] g/fd|f] (intoxicate) ug{ klg ;S5 . #=( olb w]/} vfP/ la/fdL k/]sf] nIf0f b]vfP eg] s] ug]{ nIf0fx? d'vjl/kl/ ufh÷lkmFh b]lvg] . afofFkl§sf] e'F8L k'mn]sf] b]lvg] (Tympani/bloat) dflQPh:tf] Jojxf/ b]vfpg] . pkrf/ tl/sf dflysf nIf0fx? b]lvPdf t'?Gt pkrf/sf] Joj:yf ldnfpg'k5{ . lgDgfg';f/sf pkrf/x? ug'{k5{ Ans vfg /flvlbPsf] 7fpFaf6 x6fpg] ‑yk vfg gkfcf]; eg]/_ . k|z:t kfgLdf em08} cfwf ln6/ cldnf] ‑leg]u/_ ld;fP/ v'jfpg] . á á á á á á á á á á á á afv|fsf] 6fpsf]n] k'Ug] 7fpF ‑! ld6/ jf # lkm6sf] prfOdf_ df Ans e'm08ofpg] Joj:yf ldnfO{ vfg lbg]
  28. 28. 21afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts $ afv|fsf] vf]/ Joj:yf $=! :j:y afv|f kfNg] tl/sf ;'ljwfo'Qm vf]/sf] Joj:yf 3fF;kftsf] /fd|f] Joj:yf g'g, nj0fx? / le6fldg ;do ;dodf v'jfpg] Joj:yf pRr÷pGgt k|sf/sf] efn]÷af]sf k|hgg Joj:yf 3fF; vfg] /fd|f] 6f6gf]sf] Joj:yf ;do – ;dodf EoflS;gx? nufpg] Joj:yf lgoldt?kn] cf}ifwL v'jfpg] ‑8]«l~rª ug]{_ Joj:yf lgoldt?kn] g'xfOlbg] (Dipping) sf] Joj:yf $=@ afv|fkfng k4ltdf ;'wf/ s;/L ug]{ ;Gt'lnt cfxf/ pknAw u/fpg] . pGgt vf]/sf] Joj:yf ug]{ . nj0fx?, g'g / le6fldgx? lgoldt?kn] lbg] Joj:yf ldnfpg] . á á á
  29. 29. afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts22 af]sf, afv|L ;fgf kf7f–kf7L, v;L / ao:sx?nfO{ /fVg] cnu–cnu Joj:yf ldnfpg] jif{sf] @ k6s jfxo k/hLjLla?4 cf}ifwL kfgLn] g'xfOlbg]÷8'afpg] Joj:yf ldnfpg] . cf}ifwLx? lgoldt?kn] Vjfpg] Joj:yf ldnfpg] . ;do–;dodf EoflS;gx? lbg] Joj:yf ldnfpg] . wfg–v]t / wfk, bnbn If]qdf rg{ hfg glbg] . á á á á á km/s hftsf kz'x?nfO{ Pp6} vf]/df /fVg' x'Fb}g ‑ufO{, e}+;L, e]8f cflb hgfj/sf km/s hftx? Pp6} uf]7df g/fVg_ 5]/f}6L nfUg] / cfpFn] ;tfpg] t'lxg] lemFufx?n] hgfj/ / dfG5]df /f]ux? k}mnfpg ;S5g ljleGg ;?jf /f]u / k/hLjLx?n] ;tfpg] dfgj :jf:Yodf ;d]t g/fd|f] c;/ k'Ug] Zjf;–k|Zjf;;DjGwL /f]u ‑h:t}M lgdf]lgof_ n] ;tfpg] ;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^% . $=# g/fd|f] vf]/ ePdf s:tf] c;/ k5{
  30. 30. 23afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts $=$ vf]/sf nflu s:tf] 7fpF pQd x'G5 v'Nnf, ;'Vvf / yf]/} p7]sf] efu . blIf0f–kj{ jf blIf0f–klZrd df]x8f kms]{sf] . dndq ;lhn} aflx/ lg:sg] vfnsf] vf]/ . ;kmf kfgL, 3fF;x? kfOg] jf r/g–If]qsf] kfos kg]{ 7fpF . $=% c;n k|sf/sf] vf]/ lgdf{0f ug]{ of]hgf vf]/ agfpFbf :yfgLo ;fdu|Lx?sf] clwstd k|of]u ug]{ . ljleGg pd]/–;dxsf afv|fnfO{ cnu–cnu /fVg ldNg] u/L k|z:t 7fpF xf]; . k|z:t k|sfz / xfjf v]Ng] ‑e]lG6n];g_ Joj:yf x'g'k5{ . 3fF; vfgsf nflu /fd|f] 6f6gf] agfOlbg'k5{ . k|z:t kfgL lbg] k|aGw ug'{k5{ . a8Sof}+nf / lk;fa emg]{ /fd|f] Joj:yf ldnfpg'k5{, tf ls vf]/ ;kmf ug{ ;lhnf] xf]; . vf]/ agfpFbf j}1flgsx?n] l;kmfl/; u/]cg';f/sf] df]8]n / gfk–;fOhdf agfpg'k5{ . $=^ vf]/sf s]xL gdgfx? # b]lv % j6f afv|fsf nflu á á á á á á á á á á á lkm6 jf @ ld6/ % lkm6 jf !=% ld6/ * lkm6 jf @=% ld6/ % lkm6 jf !=% ld6/ % lkm6 jf !=% ld6/
  31. 31. afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts24 % lkm6 jf !=% ld6/ % lkm6 jf !=% ld6/ cfFvLemofnsfh:t} ;–;fgf Kjfnx? # lkm6 jf )=( ld6/ hldgsf] ;txeGbf tn @ j6f afF; aLrsf] efudf )=% OGrsf] vfln 7fpF 5f]8]sf] ‑a8Sof}nf emg{sf nflu_ @ lkm6 jf )=^ ld6/ % lkm6 jf !=% ld6/ * lkm6 jf @=% ld6/ * lkm6 jf @=% ld6/ % lkm6 jf !=% ld6/ ! lkm6 % lkm6 jf !=% ld6/ @ lkm6 jf )=^ ld6/ @ j6f afF; aLrsf] efudf )=% OGrsf] vfln 7fpF 5f]8]sf] ‑a8 Sof}nf emg{sf nflu_ # lkm6 jf )=( ld6/ hldgsf] ;txeGbf tn % lkm6 jf !=% ld6/ ! lkm6
  32. 32. 25afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts !) lkm6 jf # ld6/ % lkm6 jf !=% ld6/ % lkm6 jf !=% ld6/ % lkm6 jf !=% ld6/ # lkm6 jf ! ld6/ hldgd'gL # lkm6 jf )=* ld6/ @ lkm6 jf )=^ ld ^ lkm6 jf !=^ ld= % lkm6 jf !=% ld6/ ! lkm6 % lkm6 jf !=% ld6/ @ lkm6 jf )=^ ld6/ # lkm6 jf )=( ld6/ hldgsf] ;txeGbf tn % lkm6 jf !=% ld6/ @ lkm6 jf )=^ ld * lkm6 jf @=% ld6/
  33. 33. afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts26 % afv|fdf nfUg] k/hLjLx? %=! afv|fdf nfUg] jfxo k/hLjLx? (External Parasites) lsgf{ gfsdf k:g] hsf p8'; n'tf] ;fg]{ sL/f plkofF lemFuf 6f]Sg] h'd|f ;'n;'n] jf ud] ;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^% %=!=! jfxo k/hLjLsf] pkrf/ tyf lgoGq0f ug]{ pkfox? afv|fsf] vf]/sf] lgoldt ;/;kmfO ePsf] x'g'k5{ . ljleGg l;kmfl/; ul/Psf ‑kz';]jf sfof{noåf/f_ cf}ifwLx? ld;fOPsf] kfgLn] g'xfOlbg] jf jif{sf] @ k6s 8'afOlbg] . a'|;n] /f}+ sf]l/lbg] ugf{n] klg k/hLjLsf c08f / ao:s lgoGq0f ug{ ;3fp k'U5 . á á á
  34. 34. 27afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts 8'jfOlbgsf nflu tof/ kfl/Psf] 6ofªsL ‑P/f]n] b]vfOPsf 7fpFx? 8'afPkl5sf afv|f /fVg] 7fpF x'g_ k/hLjL lgoGq0fsf nflu afv|fx?nfO{ kfgLdf 8'afPsf] lrq 8'jfpg'eGbf cl3 afv|f /fVg] 7fpF %=!=@ ljleGg k/hLjL lgoGq0fsf nflu afv|f 8'afpgsf nflu agfOg] 3f]ndf ld;fpg'kg]{ ljiffbL÷sL6gfzs cf}ifwLsf] dfqf cf}ifwLsf] gfd 3f]ndf ljiffbLsf]] dfqf aLPr;L %∞ kfp8/ )=$–!∞ dfnflyog (Malathin) )=%∞ ;fOlyg (Cythine) )=%∞ g'efg (Nuvan) )=@∞ a'6f]S; (Butox) )=$∞ ;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^% %=!=# sL6gfzs ljiffbLsf] gfd, dfqf / afv|fsf] vf]/df 5g]{ ;do ljiffbL] gfd 3f]ndf /fVg'kg]{ ljiffbLsf] k|ltzt / 5g]{ ;dofjlw÷cGt/ ;]j]g (Seven) )=*∞ k|To]s !% lbgdf c;Gtf]n (Asantol) )=@%∞ ,, ln08]n (Lindel) )=@%∞ ,, g'efg (Nuvan) !=)∞ ,, ;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^% )=% ld6/ )=% ld6/ !=% ld6/ !=% ld6/ cfjZostfg';f/ cfjZostfg';f/ 8'afO{ ;s]kl5 kfgL tsf{pg] 7fpF
  35. 35. afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts28 %=!=$ jfxo k/hLjL lgoGq0fdf k|of]u x'g] u/]sf s]xL :yfgLo ljlwx? k/hLjLn] c;/ k'¥ofPsf 7fpFx?sf] /fd|f] ;/;kmfO ug]{ lsgf{, h'd|f, hsf cflbh:tf k/hLjLnfO{ xft}n] l6k]/ cfuf]df hnfpg] c;/ k'u]sf] 7fpFdf g'gsf] afSnf] 3f]n blnlbg] ;tL{sf] kft, gLdsf] kft / g'gsf] ld0f agfP/ 3fpdf blnlbg] gfsdf hsf k/]df gLdsf] kftsf] /; gfssf] Kjfndf r'xfOlbg]r/gdf uPsf] a]nf afv|fsf gfsdf hsf k;]/ c;/ k'¥ofpF5 afv|fn] kfgL vfg nfu]sf] a]nf hsfx?, gfsaflx/ lg:sFbf xft}n] tfg]/ lgsfNg] jf Pp6f s}++rLsf] d2tn] sf6]/ 6'qmf kfl/lbg] ;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^%
  36. 36. 29afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts uf]nf] hsf afv|fsf] cfGb|fdf nfUg]] lkmQ] hsf (Tape‑Worm) ;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^% kl/kSj ePsf] Pp6f gfDn] hsf (Liver Fluke) %=@ afv|fdf nfUg] cfGtl/s k/hLjLx? (Internal Parasites) Pp6f kl/kSj ePsf] lkmQ]hsf lkmQ]hsfsf ;–;fgf 6'q]m efu (segments) x? afv|fsf] lb;faf6 hldgdf k'U5g o:tf] 7fpFdf rg]{ :j:y afv|fx?df tL lkmQ]hsfsf 6'qmfx? leq k:g ;S5g lkmQ]hsfsf] hLjg–rqm ;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^%
  37. 37. afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts30 c? :j:y hgfj/df k/hLjL g;?g eGgsf nflu v;L afv|f sf6bf kmflng] rLhx?dWo] hNg] j:t'nfO{ /fd|f];Fu hnfpg] ug'{k5{ eg] lnbL tyf cGo kmfNg'kg]{ rLhx? (offal) nfO{ /fd|f];Fu uf8L lbg'k5{ . á gfDn]hsfsf] hLjg–rqm afv|fsf] z/L/leq kfgL / af]6 la?jfdf z+v]sL/fsf] z/L/leq s's'/nfO{ h'sf lj?4 cf}ifwL v'jfpg]
  38. 38. 31afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts uf]n hsfsf] hLjg–rqm afv|fn] 3fF; vfFbf nfef{x? klg vfP/ k]6df k'U5g lb;f;Fu} c08fx? Aflx/ cfpF5gkmnaf6 nfef{ aG5g / ToxLF ljsl;t x'Fb} hfG5g %=@=! cfGtl/s k/hLjLsf] pkrf/ / lgoGq0f ljlw afv|fsf] a8Sof}+nf÷lb;fsf] lgoldt k|of]uzfnf k/LIf0f u/fpg] ug'{k5{ . kz';]jf sfof{non] l;kmfl/; u/]sf cf}ifwLx? jif{df @ k6s v'jfpg] ug'{k5{ . k/hLjL af]Sg] dfWodx? –h:t}M z+v]sL/fÙ 9fk÷bnbn] / a9tf lr;f] hldgdf a9L kfOg] x'Fbf To:tf] 7fpFdf afv|fnfO{ r/fpg' nfg'x'Fb}g . k/fn v'jfpg}kg]{ xf] eg] wfg yGSofPsf] sDtLdf ^ dlxgf ePkl5 dfq To:tf] k'/fgf] k/fn v'jfpg'k5{ . ‑;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^%_ %=@=@ afv|fnfO{ hsf gfzs cf}ifwL v'jfpg] lgb]{lzsf /;fog÷cf}ifwL uf]nf]hsfsf] nflu ‑k|lt lsnf]u|fd zf/Ll/s tf}nsf b/n]_ gfDn]hsfsf] nflu ‑k|lt lsnf]u|fd zf/Ll/s tf}nsf b/n]_ lkmQ]hsfsf] nflu ‑k|lt lsnf]u|fd zf/Ll/s tf}nsf b/n]_ cNj]G8fhf]n % ld=u|f= % ld=u|f= =% ld=u|f= k]mGa]Ghf8f]n % ld=u|f= % ld=u|f= =% ld=u|f= cS;k]m08fhf]n % ld=u|f= % ld=u|f= =% ld=u|f= /;fog÷cf}ifwL uf]nf] hsfsf] nflu lkmQ]hsfsf] nflu gfsdf nfUg] hsf n]jfljhf]n Pj+ /]kmf]S;fgfO8 =% ld=u|f= =% ld=u|f= =% ld=u|f= n]jfldhf]n Pj+ clShSnf]hfgfO8 =% ld=u|f= =% ld=u|f= =% ld=u|f= n]jfldhf]n =% ld=u|f= – – n]jfldhf]n Pj+ ljlycf]gf]n =% ld=u|f= =% ld=u|f= cfOe/d]lS6g )=@ ld=u|f= )=@ ld=u|f= cfOe/d]lS6g Pj+ snf];'{nf]g )=@ ld=u|f== )=@ ld=u|f= )=@ ld=u|f= df]lS;8]lS6g )=@ ld=u|f= )=@ ld=u|f= 8f]/flS6g )=@ ld=u|f= )=@ ld=u|f= gfO6f]lShlgn !) ld=u|f= x]df]ªs;nfO{ dfq !) ld=u|f= @ ld=u|f= /]kmf]S;fgfO8 =% ld=u|f= x]df]ªs;nfO{ dfq =% ld=u|f= =% ld=u|f= clS;Snf]gfgfO8 – =% ld=u|f= – á á á á
  39. 39. afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts32 %=@=# kf7f–kf7Lsf] pd]/cg';f/ lbg'kg]{ cf}ifwL / dfqf pd]/ cf}ifwLsf] gfd Dffqf !) lbgdf a]gfldGy cfwf 6ofAn]6 #) lbgdf lkk|flhg b}lgs @=% u|fdsf b/n] @ lbg $% lbgdf a]gfldGy % ldlnln6/ ^) lbgdf cf]efdf/ !) s]=hL= kfgLdf ! rDrf ;|f]tM afv|fkfng, s]Gb|Lo e]8f tyf afv|fkfng ljsf; sfof{no, @)^%÷^^ %=@=$ cfGtl/s kl/hLjLn] k'¥ofPsf] c;/sf cfwf/df k|of]u ug'{kg]{ cf}ifwL / dfqf k/hLjLsf] gfd cf}ifwL dfqf ‑zf/L/s tf}nsf b/n]_ s}lkmot uf]nf] hsf lkk|flhg !) u|fd ÷$% s]=hL= klxnf]k6s v'jfPsf] @) lbgkl5 k]ml/ v'jfpg] x]Ndfl;8 $ ld=ln=÷!) s]=hL= klxnf]k6s v'jfPsf] @) lbgkl5 k]ml/ v'jfpg] lkmQ] hsf hgfOn !)–!% ld=u|f=÷!) s]=hL= k|To]s ^–^ dlxgfdf v'jfpg] cDn];g !% u|fd÷afv|f k|To]s ^–^ dlxgfdf v'jfpg] gfDn] hsf kfgfs'/ ! u|fd÷afv|f cf}ifwL v'jfPsf] @! lbg k'u]kl5 k]ml/ bf]xf]¥ofP/ v'jfpg] 6flgn ! u|fd÷afv|f cf}ifwL v'jfPsf] @! lbg k'u]kl5 k]ml/ bf]xf]¥ofP/ v'jfpg] l8lh:6n ! u|fd÷afv|f cf}ifwL v'jfPsf] @! lbg k'u]kl5 k]ml/ bf]xf]¥ofP/ v'jfpg] slS;l8of]l;; ;Nkmfd];flyog ! 6ofAn]6÷afv|f # lbg;Dd nuftf/ v'jfpg] Pk|f]lnod !)) u|fd÷ k|To]s $ lbgdf bf]xf]¥ofpg] v'jfpg] ;|f]tM afv|fkfng, s]Gb|Lo e]8f tyf afv|fkfng ljsf; sfof{no, @)^%÷^^ afF;sf] 9'ªu|f]af]tngfKg] efF8f] ef]hg–gnL h:t} kfOk cf}ifwL Vjfpg] aGbs ‑8]«lGrª–ug_ cf}ifwL v'jfpg] tl/sf ;f]nL
  40. 40. 33afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts ^ kfrg–k|0ffnL;Fu ;DalGwt ;d:ofx? vfgdf ?lr gb]vfpg] . k]6 km'Ng]÷9fl8g] . kvfnf nfUg]÷slAhot x'g]÷uf]6f kg]{ . ckr x'g] . ljiffQm (food poisoning) x'g] . ^=! bfgf jf ef]h et]/df kmflnPsf vfg]s'/f a9L vfPdf b]vfkg]{ ;d:ofx? Uof; pTkGg x'g], k]6 k'mNg] ‑l6DKofgL÷Anf]6 x'g]_ . ;f; k]mg{ cK7]/f] x'g] . l56f] l56f], yf]/} yf]/} lk;fa ug]{ . s/fpg] / 56k6fpg] . lb;f ubf{ ufx|f] eP/ sGg] / af/Daf/ lb;f ug{ vf]Hg] . dflQPem}+ ug]{ / 3l/3l/ e'OFdf n8g] . o:tf] x'Fbf ;dod} pkrf/ ug{ ;lsPg eg] afv|f dg{ klg ;S5 . pkrf/ ljlw pkrf/sf nflu :yfgLo ?kdf pknAw ljleGg a:t'x?sf] k|of]u ug]{, h:t}M lx+u, vfg];f]8f, ufFhf, cb'jf, tf]/Lsf] t]n, l6d'/ cflb v'jfpg] . DofUg]l;od ;Nk]m6 k|of]u ug]{ . ;dod} :yfgLo k|fljlws jf u|fdL0f kz':j:Yo sfo{stf{;Fu ;Dks{ u/L pkrf/sf] Joj:yf ldnfpg] . ljz]if ;ts{tf ckgfpg'kg]{ s'/fx? lj:s'g ;'sfPsf] 7fpF jf cGg /fv]sf] 7fpFaf6 afv|fx?nfO{ 6f9f /fVg] . afv|fx?nfO{ cGg÷bfgf lbFbf a9tf x'g]u/L glbg] . ef]h–et]/x?df kmflnPsf vfg]s'/fx?nfO{ /fd|f];Fu gksfO{ glbg] . ;fy} w]/} kl/df0f vfg klg glbg] . k|f]l6gsf] dfqf a9L x'g] vfnsf 3fF;x? klg w]/} vfg glbg] . afv|fnfO{ ;a}eGbf /fd|f] x'g] vfnsf 3fF;x? dfq vf]h]/ Nofpg] . cnUofP/ Vjfpg] Joj:yf ldnfpg] . ;|f]t kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^% á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á
  41. 41. afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts34 afv|fnfO{ pgLx?n] krfpg ;Sg]eGbf a9L cGg÷bfgf vfg lbg'x'Fb}g, gq k]6 k'mNg]÷9fl8g], 9':; eO{ ;f; km]g{ g;Sg] eP/ ;dodf pkrf/ lbg ;lsPg eg] afv|f dg{ klg ;S5g ef]h–et]/af6 pa|]sf] vfg]s'/fx? lsg kmfNg] eg]/ hah{:tL w]/} kl/df0fdf vfg lbFbf klg afv|fx? k]6 9fl8g], ckr x'g] Joyf nfu]/ dg{;d]t ;S5g . ^=@ 3fF;kftaf6 x'g] ljifsf] c;/ (Plant Poisoning) / pkrf/ ^=@=! s]xL ljiffn' 3fF;kftx? w]/} vfnsf afnLx?, 3fF;kft tyf 8fn]3fF;x?df ljiffn' tTj x'g] u5{ . To:tf j:t' vfPdf afv|fx?nfO{ ljifn] c;/ kfb{5 . sltko afnL÷ jf]6 la?jf / 3fF;kft w]/} slnnf] cj:yfdf v'jfpFbf ljiffn' k|s[ltsf x'G5g, h:t}M hO{3fF;, ux'F, ds}, ;'8fg 3fF;, :jL6–Snf]e/÷;]tf]–Snf]e/ cflb . oL 3fF;kft slnnf] v'jfOof] eg] gfO{6]«6 gfds ljifsf] c;/ k'Ub5 . ljif nfUbf b]lvg] nIf0fx? d'vjl/kl/ ufh÷kmLFh el/g] k]6 b'Vg] 56k6fpg] ule{0fL afv|fn] ljiffn' 3fF; vfFbf ue{ t'lxg] ;Defjgf a9L x'g;S5 df+;k];L a9L v'lDrg]÷yy{/fpg] yf]/}–yf]/} lk;fa k6s–k6s ug]{ bwfn' afv|fn] bwsf] dfqf 36fpg] b]a|]kl§sf] e'F8L k'mn]sf] b]lvg] . á á á á á á á á
  42. 42. 35afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts pkrf/ s;/L ug]{ kz' :jf:Yo k|fljlwssf] ;xof]uaf6 ldyfOlng An'–@) gfds cf}ifwL $) ld=ln= lbgsf] rf/k6s g;fdf ;O{ lbg] . t/n Koflkmg cf}ifwL v'jfpg] . pk/f]Qm cf}ifwLx? pknAw gePsf] v08df :yfgLo?kdf pknAw j:t'÷ ;fdu|Lx?nfO{ cf}ifwLsf] ?kdf k|of]u ug]{ . ^=@=@ c1ft af]6la?jf vfFbf nfUg] ljif / pkrf/ nIf0fx? afv|f rg{ 5f]85 / pu|fpg klg 5f]85 . afv|f Psbd lgl:qmo ÷emf]sfpg] / pbf; h:tf] b]lvG5 . d'v jl/kl/ ufh lgsfN5 . k]6sf] b]a|]kl§sf] efu k'mn]sf] b]lvG5 . kvfnf nfUg klg ;S5 . pkrf/ s;/L ug]{ pGo vfFbf afv|fn] /ftf] /Ësf] lk;fa u5{g . ljif nfu]–gnfu]sf] klxrfg ug]{ tl/sf ljiffn'/lxt kf/]sf] ‑:6]l/nfOH8 u/]sf]_ lunf;df lk;fa /fVg], @$ 306f;Dd Tof] lunf;nfO{ s;}n] g5'g]÷grnfpg] / @$ 306fkl5 /fd|f];Fu cjnf]sg ug]{ . olb lunf;sf] lkFwdf s]xL lylu|Psf] h:tf] (sediments) b]lvG5 eg] To:tf] cj:yfdf afv|fdf k|f]6f]hf]cfaf6 x'g] /f]u nfu]sf] x'g;S5, t;y{ Tof] lunf;sf] lk;fa glhssf] kz':jf:Yo k|of]uzfnfdf nuL k/LIf0f u/fpg] . olb Tof] lk;fadf Psgf;sf] /Ë b]lvG5 eg] Tof] pGo vfPsf sf/0fn] ljif pTkGg ePsf] x'g;S5 . pkrf/ s;/L ug]{ pGo knfPsf] r/g–If]qdf afv|fnfO{ r/fpg nfg'x'+Fb}g . ^=# afh/f÷;f]3{d÷h'g]nf]sf] 3fF; vfFbf pTkGg x'g;Sg] ljif / pkrf/ oL afnLsf 3fF;x? slnnf] cj:yfdf v'jfOof] eg] afv|fnfO{ ljif nfUg;S5 . o:tf 3fF; slnnf] x'Fbf ltgdf ;fOgfO8; (cyanides) gfds ljiffn' tTj pRrdfqfdf /x]sf] x'G5 . oL 3fF;x? v'jfpg' k/]df Ps/ft cf]OnfP/dfq v'jfpg] . á á á á á á á á á á á á á
  43. 43. afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts36 nIf0fx? /utn] clS;hg lng] Ifdtf 365 / /utdf clS;hgsf] dfqf Gog x'g hfG5 . ;f; k]mg{ ufx|f] x'G5 / aNn aNn Zjf;–k|Zjf; rn]sf] b]lvG5 . d'vsf] jl/kl/ ufh÷lkFmh b]lvG5 . cfFvfsf gfgLx? 7N7nf b]lvG5g . df+;k];Lx? v'lDrPsf] / sDkg ePsf] b]lvG5 . pkrf/ s;/L ug]{ !) u|fd ;f]l8od yfof];Nk]m6 gfds cf}ifwL !)) ld=ln= kfgLdf ld;fO{ v'jfpg] . ?d]g af]n; gfds cf}ifwL ;f]xL Kofs]6df l;kmfl/; ePcg';f/ v'jfpg] . DofUg]l;od ;Nk]m6 @ b]lv % lrofrDrf !)) ld=ln= -Ps lrof lunf;_ kfgLdf ld;fO{ v'jfpg] / lb;f u/fpg] . g;faf6 gd{n ;nfOg lbg] . ^=$ cFu]/L, bz{glkkn, gLnf] k'mNg] uGw], wf]q]m, cf?kft], /ftf] lz/Lif vfPdf nfUg] ljif nfdf] ;'Vvf ofdkl5 klxnf]k6s kfn'jf nfUg] pko'{Qm jg:kltsf d'06f÷3fF; afv|fn] vfPdf t'?Gt ljif nfUg ;S5 . o:tf]df b]lvg] nIf0fx?, o; k|sf/ 5g nIf0fx? d'vjl/kl/ ufh lgsfNg] d'vaf6 ¥ofn alu/xg] afv|fn] …dflQPsf]Ú h:tf] Jojxf/ b]vfpg yfN5 b]a|]kl§sf] e'F8L k'mn]sf] b]lvG5 af/Daf/ afGtf ug]{ 5]/f}6L nfU5÷kftnf] lb;f u5{ emf]qmfpg]÷pbf; b]lvg] cfFvfsf gfgLx? /ftf–/ftf b]lvG5g z/L/sf] tfkqmd ;fdfGo cj:yfdf eGbf 365 pkrf/ k|lt ao:s afv|f # b]lv % ln6/ kfgL v'jfpg] . k|lt ao:s afv|f vfgf ksfpg] t]n @%) ld=ln= sf b/n] v'jfpg] . pdfn]sf] cldnf] !)) ld=ln= nfO{ cfwf ln6/ kfgLdf ld;fO{ k|lt ao:s afv|fnfO{ v'jfpg] á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á
  44. 44. 37afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts ^=% e'F8L k'mNg] ;d:of o:tf] ;d:of vf;u/L lgDg sf/0faf6 pTkGg x'g] ub{5 cfsl:ds?kdf 7fpF÷jftfj/0f / cfxf/df kl/jt{g ePdf w]/} k|f]l6gldlt vfB kbfy{x? vfPdf ljiffn' 3fF;kft vfPdf cfGtl/s k/hLjLx?n] ;+qmd0f u/]df 3fF6Ldf vfgf c8lsP/ ;f; k]mg{ cK7]/f] ePdf cGo /f]ux?sf sf/0faf6 klg x'g ;S5 . nIf0fx? k]6df Uof; pTkGg x'g], vf;u/L afofF k]6df o:tf] x'G5 ;f; k]mg{ sl7g x'g] 56kl6g] lb;flk;fa ug{ g;Sg]÷aGb x'g] ;dodf pkrf/ gkfPdf dg]{ ;Defjgf x'g] . á á á á á á á á á á á afv|fn] ljiffn' 3fF; vfPsf afGtf ug]{, 5]/f}6L nfUg] / k]6 k'mNg] ;d:of ;dodf pkrf/ geP/ kz' dg{ ;S5 ljif x6fpg] cf}ifwL ‑Pl068f]6_ ;'O{ lbP/ pkrf/ ug{ ;lsG5 ;Dej eP;Dd :yfgLo?kdf pknAw x'g] ljleGg 3/]n' cf}ifwLx? v'jfpg ;|f]t kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^% . @–% lrof rDrf DofUg]l;od ;Nk]m6 #)) ld=ln= kfgLdf ld;fO{ k|lt ao:s afv|fnfO{ v'jfpg] dflysf pkfox? ckgfpFbf klg ljif vfPsf] afv|fdf s'g} ;'wf/ b]lvPg eg] glhssf] kz' k|fljlws;Fu t'?Gt ;Dks{ u/L pkrf/sf] Joj:yf ldnfpg] . á á
  45. 45. afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts38 pkrf/ s;/L ug]{ l6Dkf]n jf Anf6f]l;nåf/f pkrf/ vfg] t]n / tflk{gsf] t]n a/fa/ dfqf ldnfP/ v'jfpg] PlenÙ k|lt ls=u|f= afv|fsf] hLljt tf}nsf nflu ! ld=ln= sf b/n] df;'df jf g;fdf ;O{ lbg] DofUg]l;od ;Nk]m6 cfwf ln6/ kfgLdf ! lrofrDrf cf}ifwL /fv]/ v'jfpg] . ^=^ 5]/f}6L 5]/f}6L nfUgfsf sf/0fx? vfgf, 7fpF / jftfj/0fdf cfsl:ds kl/jt{g ePdf w]/} k|f]l6 ldlt vfB kbfy{ vfPdf ljiffn' 3fF;kft vfPdf cfGtl/s k/hLjLx?n] ;+qmdg u/]df cGo /f]ux? nfUbf klg 5]/f}6L nfUg ;S5 . nIf0fx? kftnf] lb;f x'g] z/L/sf] tf}n 36b} hfg] bw pTkfbg 36b} hfg] a9L Kof;÷ltvf{ nfUg] / z/L/df kfgLsf] dfqf sd x'g] ‑l8xfO8]«;g_ pkrf/ s;/L ug]{ g]Anf]g kfp8/ / ;Nkmf ju{sf cf}ifwL;Fu} k|ofu] ug]{ . olb cfGtl/s k/hLjLsf sf/0faf6 5]/f}6L nfu]sf] xf] eg] ;f]sf nflu cf}ifwL v'jfpg} k5{ . vf]/ jl/kl/sf] jftfj/0f, e'OF, kfgL cflbsf] ;/–;kmfO / :j:ytfdf a9L hf]8 lbg'k5{ . z/L/df kfgL sd x'g] x'Fbf ;f]sf nflu hLjghn agfO{ v'jfpg], hLjnhn agfpbf %)) ld=ln= kfgLdf ! lrof rDrf g'g / # lrof rDrf lrgL /fVg] . ;fy} :yfgLo kz' :jf:Yo k|fljlwssf] k/fdz{ / ;xof]u lng] . á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á
  46. 46. 39afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts 5]/f}6L jf cfpFaf6 lj/fdL ePsf] afv|f Hj/f] b]lvof], tfkqmd w]/} a9]sf] 5 Hj/f] gfKbf Hj/f] b]lvPg /f]ux?n] cfqmd0f ul/;s]sf 5g kLkLcf/ nx'd't] Eofu't] lb;f k/LIf0f ug]{ ljiff0f' / hLjf0f'af6 x'g] /f]ux? :yfgLo k|fljlws;Fu k/fdz{ u/L pkrf/sf] Joj:yf ldnfpg] cfGtl/s k/hLjL tyf c08f, z/L/sf 6'qmfx? kQf nfU5g ‑h:t}M gfDn]hsf, uf]nf]hsf, lkmQ]hsf cflb_ k/LIf0f ubf{ k/hLjLsf c08f, z/L/sf efux? b]lvPgg, zfob vfgfsf] sdL, ljiffn' 3fF;kft cflbaf6 klg o:tf] ePsf] x'g;S5 . :yfgLo k|fljlws;Fu k/fdz{ u/L pkrf/sf] Joj:yf ldnfpg] :yfgLo k|fljlws;Fu k/fdz{ u/L pkrf/sf] Joj:yf ldnfpg] ;|f]t kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^% . ^= 5]/f}6L jf cfpFn] afv|fnfO{ ;tfpFbf s] s] x'G5
  47. 47. afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts40 =! ;LkLkL ‑;g]{ vfnsf] k'/fgf] lgdf]lgof_ hLjf0f'sf sf/0faf6 x'g] d[To'b/ cTolws a9L x'G5 ‑^) k|ltztb]lv !)) k|ltzt;Dd_ nIf0fx? afv|f ;fx|} sdhf]/ b]lvG5 vfgdf ?lr gb]vfpg] cTolws Hj/f] cfpg] a]nfa]nfdf vf]Sg] Zjf;k|Zjf;df sl7gfO x'g] sltko hgfj/df d'6'sf] w8sgdf clgoldttf b]lvg], hf]gL{ tyf dl:tisdf ;d]t km/skg b]lvg ;S5 . /f]u ;g]{ dfWodx? /f]uL kz' / :j:y kz'aLr ;Dks{ ePdf /f]uL kz'n] vfPsf] bfgf–kfgL jf uf]7÷vf]/, r/g–If]q k|of]u ePdf . lgoGq0fsf pkfox? ufpFsf ;a} k|sf/sf afv|fx?nfO{ /f]ula?4 ;O{ nufpg'k5{ . ufpFdf gofF kz'÷afv|f Nofpg' k¥of] eg] pQm kz'÷afv|fn] /f]u lj?4sf] ;O{ lnPs} x'g'k5{ . ayfgaf6 /f]uL kz'nfO{ t'?Gt cnUofP/ /fVg'k5{ . /f]uL kz'sf] ;Dks{÷;+;u{df cfPsf ;Dk0f{ j:t'x? gi6 ug'{k5{ . pkrf/ tl/sf 6fOnf]l;g (Tylosine) gfds cf}ifwL l;kmfl/; ul/Psf] dfqf cg';f/ v'jfpg] jf df;'df ;O{ lbg] . =@ kLkLcf/ /f]u ljiff0f'af6 x'G5 Psbd} ;+qmfds÷l56f] l56f] ;g]{ k|j[lQsf] x'G5 o;nfO{ …afv|fsf] x}hfÚ eg]/ klg lrlgG5 . á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á k|d'v ;?jf (Contagious) /f]ux?
  48. 48. 41afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts kLkLcf/ nfUbf k|f/lDes cj:yfdf b]lvg] nIf0fx? cTolws Hj/f] cfpg] ‑!)$ l8u|L ;]l06u|]8b]lv !)^ l8u|L ;]l06u|]8;Dd_ d'v / y't'gf]sf] efu ;'Vvf x'g] z/L/sf] ;tx v;|f] b]lvg]÷lhªl/Ë k/]sf] b]lvg] cfFvfsf gfgLx? /ftf–/ftf x'Fb} hfg] vfgdf k6Ss} ?lr gb]vfpg] . a9L ;+qmd0f ePsf] cj:yfdf b]lvg] nIf0fx? gfsaf6 kfgL h:tf] l;Fufg alu/xg] / kLk ldl;Ph:tf] klg b]lvG5 . gfssf Kjfnx?sf] leqkl§ 3fp;d]t x'G5 . luhf, lha|f] / d'v jl/kl/ ;–;fgf 3fp cfpF5g . vf]/]t /f]u nfu]sf] h:tf] nIf0f b]lvG5 / uf9f sfnf] / kftnf] vfnsf] lb;f u5{ . z/L/df kfgLsf] dfqf sd eP/ cTolws Kof; nfU5 . z/L/sf] tfkqmd ;fdfGoeGbf klg tn 365 . #–$ lbg kl5 kz'df lgdf]lgof, vf]sL / Zjf;–k|Zjf;sf] ;d:of pTkGg x'g yfN5 . afv|L ule{0fL 5] eg] ue{ t'lxg] ;d:of klg x'g;S5 . kf7f–kf7L / jo:s afv|fx?df d[To'b/ a9L x'g;S5 ;+qmd0f ePsf] % b]lv !) lbgdf pkrf/ kfPg eg] kz' dg{ klg ;S5 . /f]u ;g]{ dfWodx? /f]uL / :j:y afv|faLr ;Dks{÷;+;u{ ePdf /f]uL kz'n] vfPsf bfgf–kfgL–3fF; lg/f]uLn] vfPdf jf /f]uLn] k|of]u u/]sf] uf]7, vf]/ tyf r/g–If]qdf r/]df lgoGq0fsf pkfox? k|To]s @–@ jif{df ufpFsf ;Dk0f{ afv|fx?nfO{ vf]k lbg] Joj:yf ldnfpg] . gofF afv|f ufpFdf Nofpg'k5{ eg] vf]k nufP–gnufPsf] lglZrt u/L vf]k nufP/dfq Nofpg] . pkrf/ kz'df ;+qmd0f eO;s]kl5 pkrf/ ug{ sl7g 5 . t;y{ /f]u nfUg glbg' g} ;a}eGbf pQd pkfo ePsfn] /f]syfdsf pkfox? cjnDag ug]{ . á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á á gfs / d'vdf ufh lgsfn]sf] luhf / leqkl§ 3fp cfPsf]
  49. 49. afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts42 =# ljleGg k|sf/sf /f]ulj?4 lbOg] vf]ksf gfd / dfqf dlxgf /f]u dfqf÷k|lt k0f{ jo:s afv|fsf nflu dfqf÷kf7f–kf7L ev{/sf] jo:ssf nflu hgj/L – k]ma|'c/L ‑df3_ ;LkLkL )=@ ld=ln= ‑5fnfdf ;O{ lbg]_ )=@ ld=ln= ‑5fnfdf ;O{ lbg]_ k]ma|c/L – dfr{ ‑kmfNu'g_ kLkLcf/ !=) ld=ln=÷df;' jf ‑5fnfdf ;O{ lbg]_ !=) ld=ln=÷df;' jf ‑5fnfdf ;O{ lbg]_ dfr{ – clk|n ‑r}t_ lakm/ (Pox) ;O{sf] k|of]u u/L g/d df;'df ;O{ nufpg] ;o{sf] k|of]u u/L g/d df;'df ;O{ nufpg] clk|n – d] ‑j}zfv_ OG6]/f]6f]lS;ldof % ld=ln= ‑5fnfdf ;O{ nufpg_ @=% ld=ln= ‑5fnfdf ;O{ nufpg]_ clk|n – d] ‑j}zfv_ vf]/]t (FMD) @ ld=ln= ‑5fnfdf ;O{ nufpg]_ ! ld=ln= ‑5fnfdf ;O{ nufpg]_ =$ pkrf/ lsg k|efjsf/L gx'g ;S5 pkrf/ ug{ w]/} l9nf ePdf /f]u cg';f/ cf}ifwLsf] k|sf/ / dfqf gldn]df k6s k6s cgfjZos?kdf ljleGg cf}ifwLx? k|of]u u/]sf] ePdf olb afv|f cGo s'g} k'/fgf] ‑qmf]lgs_ /f]uaf6 u|:t 5 eg] cjlw ;lsPsf] cf}ifwL k|of]u u/]sf] v08df vf]/÷uf]7sf] jftfj/0f / ;/–;kmfO{ :j:ys/ gePdf lj/fdL kz'nfO{ /fd|f];Fu Wofg glbOPsf] v08df bfgf / 3fF;sf] u'0f:t/ sd;n ePdf . á á á á á á á á ;|f]tM kz'kfng k'l:tsf, @)^% la/fdL kz'x? xl/of] 3fF;kfteGbf klg ;'s]sf] 3fF; vfg ?rfpF5g .
  50. 50. 43afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts * afv|fsf nflu 8fn]3fF; tyf cGo e'OF3fF;x? *=! ux|f–sfGnf tyf 8Lnx?df 8fn]3fF; tyf e'OF3fF;x? nufpg] Olkn–Olkn 9}+rf ‑;gx]Dk_ e]r 3fF; e6df;] 3fF; cld|;f] 3fF; s]/f g]lko/ afF; Olkn–Olkn sfGnfdf ul/Psf] 3fF;–/f]k0f Olkn– Olkn 6fFsLe]r 3fF; e6df;] 3fF; g]lko/ sfGnfdf ul/Psf] 3fF;–/f]k0f bLgfgfy 3fF;sf] g;{/L /fVg] sfd x'Fb}5 g]lko/ e6df;] ux|f / sfGnfdf 3fF;sf aLpx? ;Lw}+ /f]lkFb}5bLgfgfy 3fF;sf la?jf ;fl/Fb}5 hO{ e]r
  51. 51. afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts44 *=@ 8fn]3fF; / e'O{3fF;x? sf6g] pko'Qm cj:yf cld|;f] e6df;] Olkn–Olkn ;Gbe{–;fdu|Lx? Aryal, IK., Kuwar, BS., Bista KS., and Kandel RN (B.S. 2065). Padhupalan Pusthika (Animal Health).DepartmentofLivestockServices,LeaseholdForestryandLivestockDevelopment Program, Harihar Bhawan, Lalitpur. Aryal, IK., Kuwar, BS., Bista KS., and Kandel RN (B.S. 2065). Padhupalan Pusthika (Livestock Management). Department of Livestock Services, Leasehold Forestry and Livestock Development Program, Harihar Bhawan, Lalitpur. DLS (F/Y‑2065/066). Bakharapalan; Department of Livestock Services (DLS), Central Sheep and Goat development Office, Harihar Bhawan, Lalitpur. Koirala, PK; Saha. RB and Das RP (F/Y‑2065/66). Bakhara Palan Pusthiks; Department of Livestock Services, Leasehold Forestry and Livestock Development Program, Harihar Bhawan, Lalitpur. Paudyal Ram Mani (2047 B.S). An Introduction to Animal Health, Vol ‑1; Pakhribas Agriculture Centre, Dhankuta, Nepal
  52. 52. 45afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts Ifdtf clej[l4 lqmofsnfk cGtu{t lhNnf kz' ;]jf sfof{nosf k|fljlwsx?sf nflu afv|fkfng ljifodf k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f sfo{qmd x'Fb} kl/of]hgfsf pkk|jGwsåf/f sfo{qmd;DaGwL hfgsf/L k|bfg ub}{ /fli6«o kz'kfng ljz]if1åf/f afv|fkfng tflndsf] af/]df k|sfz kfb}{ afv|fkfng tflndsf ;xefuLx? ;dxut 5nkmndf afv|fkfng tflndsf ;xefuL k|:t'tLs/0f ub}{
  53. 53. afv|fkfng M s[ifsx?sf nflu xft]–k':ts46 kl/of]hgf (OSRO/NEP/801/SPA) cGtu{t ;~rflnt afv|fkfng;DaGwL s[ifs:t/Lo ljleGg lqmofsnfkx? afv|fkfng tflndsf ;xefuLx? 3/;Fu} hf]l8Psf] afv|fsf] vf]/ afv|f ljt/0fsf nflu ;+sng s]Gb|df hDDff kfl/Psf afv|fx? lhNnf kz';]jf sfof{nosf k|fljlwsx? Affv|f klxrfgsf nflu sfgdf 6ofluª ub}{ afv|f ljt/0fsf nflu ckgfOPsf] lrÝf k|0ffnL lhNnf kz';]jf sfof{nosf k|fljlwsx? Affv|f klxrfgsf nflu sfgdf 6ofluª ub}{

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