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Characteristics of Dislocations
slip in single crystals
In edge dislocations, distortion exists
along an extra half-plane of atoms. These
atoms also define the dislocation line.
Motion of many of these dislocations will
result in plastic deformation
Edge dislocations move in response to
shear stress applied perpendicular to the
As the dislocation moves, the extra half
plane will break its existing bonds and
form new bonds with its neighbor opposite
of the dislocation motion.
This step is repeated in many discreet steps
until the dislocation has moved entirely
through the lattice.
After all deformation, the extra half plane
forms an edge that is one unit step wide
also called a Burger’s Vector
Edge Dislocation Examples
Ni-48Al alloy edge dislocation
the colored areas show the varying values of
the strain invariant field around the edge
Shear was applied so that glide will occur to
The motion of a screw dislocation is also
a result of shear stress.
Motion is perpendicular to direction of stress,
rather than parallel (edge).
However, the net plastic deformation of both
edge and screw dislocations is the same.
Most dislocations can exhibit both edge
and screw characteristics. These are
called mixed dislocations.
l=, (010) screw dislocation showed
Although shear was placed so that the dislocation
would move along the (010) it moved along the
Many dislocations have both screw and
edge components to them
called mixed dislocations
makes up most of the dislocations
encountered in real life
very difficult to have pure edge or pure screw
as a dislocation moves through a lattice, it
creates regions of compressive, tensile and
shear stresses in the lattice.
Atoms above an edge dislocation are squeezed
together and experience compression while atoms
below the dislocation are spread apart abnormally
and experience tension. Shear may also occur
near the dislocation
Screw dislocations provide pure shear lattice
During plastic deformation, the number of
dislocations increase dramatically to
densities of 1010
Grain boundaries, internal defects and
surface irregularities serve as formation
sites for dislocations during deformation.
Usually there are preferred slip planes
and directions in certain crystal systems.
The combination of both the slip plane
and direction form the slip system.
Slip plane is generally taken as the closest
packed plane in the system
Slip direction is taken as the direction on the
slip plane with the highest linear density.
FCC and BCC materials have large
numbers of slip systems (at least 12) and
are considered ductile. HCP systems
have few slip systems and are quite
Slip in Single Crystals
Even if an applied stress is purely tensile,
there are shear components to it in
directions at all but the parallel and
Classified as resolved shear stresses
magnitude depends on applied stress, as well
as its orientation with respect to both the slip
plane and slip direction
Slip in polycrystalline systems is more
direction of slip will vary from one crystal to
another in the system
Polycrystalline slip requires higher values
of applied stresses than single crystal
Because even favorably oriented grains
cannot slip until the less favorably oriented
grains are capable of deformation.
During deformation, coherency is
maintained at grain boundaries
grain boundaries do not rip apart, rather they
remain together during deformation.
This causes a level of constraint in the
grains, as each grain’s shape is formed by
the shape of its adjacent neighbors.
Most prevalent is the fact that grains will
elongate along the direction of deformation
As dislocations move through polycrystalline materials,
they have to move through grains of different
orientations, which requires higher amounts of energy, if
the grains are not in the preferred orientation.
As they travel between grains they must be emitted
across the grain boundary, usually by one half of a
partial dislocation, and then annihilated by the second
half at a time slightly after the first one.
LINK TO HELENA2.gif
A shear force which causes atomic
displacements such that the atoms on one
side of a plane (twin boundary) mirror the
atoms on the other side.
Displacement magnitude in the twin region is
proportional to the atom’s distance from the
takes place along defined planes and
directions depending upon the system.
Ex: BCC twinning occurs on the (112) system
orientation of atoms
remains the same
reorientation of atomic
direction across twin plane
displacements take place
in exact atomic spacings
atomic displacement is less
than interatomic spacing
Properties of Twinning
occurs in metals with BCC or HCP crystal
occurs at low temperatures and high rates of
shear loading (shock loading)
conditions in which there are few present slip
systems (restricting the possibility of slip)
small amount of deformation when compared