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Ml&a minimalism presentation (final version)

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Ml&a minimalism presentation (final version)

  1. 1. MinimalismEarly 1960s-Late 1960s
  2. 2. Development Abstract Expressionism dominant in the „50s oExperimental artists separated New York from Paris oMade New York predominant Artists began deviating from the pure movement oUsed objects not always associated with art oHad meaning but stronger emphasis on the medium
  3. 3. InfluencesBauhaus Movement (German)De Stijl Movement (Dutch)Constructivist Movement (Russian)Influential Artists
  4. 4. Bauhaus (1919-1933) German school that combined crafts and fine art Aimed to unite creativity and manufacturing for everyday life Stressed intellectual and theoretical pursuits Linked to an emphasis on practical skills, crafts and techniques of the medieval guild system oGoal of problem solving for a modern industrial society Crafts placed on same level as fine art
  5. 5. De Stijl (1917-1931) Sought to express a new utopian ideal of spiritual harmony and order Advocated pure abstraction and universality by a reduction to the essentials of form and color Simplified compositions to vertical and horizontal directions Used only primary colors, with black and white Incorporated geometric shapes of squares, rectangles, lines Piet Mondrian key contributor
  6. 6. Russian Constructivism Influenced Bauhaus and De Stijl Influenced by Cubism, Suprematism, and Futurism Emphasized modular fabrication and industrial materials over the craft technique Remove traditional artistic concerns and focus with composition, to replace with „construction‟ oCarry out a fundamental analysis of the materials and forms of art, leading to the design of functional objects for modern Communist society
  7. 7. Significant Others Marcel Duchamp - Readymades showed that sculpture might use a variety of pre-fabricated materials Barnett Newman – Key in the development of the color field Ad Reinhardt – Use of geometric shapes and solid colors Josef Albers - Combine solid color, geometric form and hard-edge
  8. 8. Notable Exhibits Primary Structures: Younger American and British Sculpture o New York’s Jewish Museum from April 27 – June 12, 1966 o Organized by the Curator of Painting and Sculpture, Kynaston McShine Systematic Painting o New York’s Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in 1966 o Organized by curator Lawrence Alloway Green Gallery o New York, 1964 o Donald Judd sculptures and the first light works of Dan Flavin Leo Castelli Gallery and Pace Gallery
  9. 9. The New America Art Minimalist Art was developed through these exhibits Exhibits showcased Geometric Abstractionism with unique characteristics: oShaped canvases oColor fields oHard-edge painting
  10. 10. CharacteristicsGeometric form, hard-edge painting, solid colors, industrial objectsAvoiding shared traits in all previous movementsEmphasis on the mediumRemoved all self-expressionRemoved the appearance of fine art
  11. 11. Key Artists Carl Andre Robert Morris Sol LeWitt Frank Stella Dan Flavin Donald Judd
  12. 12. Carl Andre Sculptures made from industrial metals, stones, wood, and brick Emphasis on loose placement and sorting of materials – no fixatives Often geometric or simple repetitive arrangements Explores properties of matter “Sculpture as place”
  13. 13. Carl AndreAluminum-Zinc Dipole E/W 1989 “What my sculpture has in common with science andtechnology is an enormous interest in the features of materials”
  14. 14. Carl AndreSteel-Aluminum Plain 1969
  15. 15. Carl Andre144 Graphite Silence 2005
  16. 16. Carl AndreStone Field Sculpture 1977
  17. 17. Robert Morris Highly involved with dance and theater in early years Started with many kinds of mediums, but primarily worked with plywood at his heights Theoretician of Minimalist art Emphasis on scale, form, and perception of work
  18. 18. Robert Morris Cloud - 1964
  19. 19. Robert MorrisCorner Beam - 1964
  20. 20. Robert MorrisCorner Piece - 1964
  21. 21. Robert MorrisLead and Felt - 1969
  22. 22. Sol LeWitt Founding member of Minimalism and Conceptual art Early works were basic geometric forms with only red, yellow, blue, black colors Later featured more colors and free form Works include: oWall drawings, paintings, and other 2D creations oStructures of geometric forms, towers, pyramids and progressions
  23. 23. Sol LeWitt – Biography Born 1928 in Hartford, Connecticut Family of Jewish immigrants from Russia Studied at Wadsworth Atheneum, Syracuse University and School of Visual Arts Practiced Old Master painting in Europe Worked as a graphic designer and spent time at Seventeen Hired at the Museum of Modern Art Taught at the University of New York and School of Visual Arts Moved to Spoleto, Italy, in 1980
  24. 24. Sol LeWitt Five Modular Structures“In my case, I used theelements of these simpleforms - square, cube, line andcolor - to produce logicalsystems. Most of thesesystems were finite; that is,they were complete using allpossible variations. This keptthem simple.”
  25. 25. Sol LeWitt Isometric Projection #13“Every generationrenews itself in its ownway; theres always areaction againstwhatever is standard.”
  26. 26. Sol LeWitt Tower“The artist is seen likea producer ofcommodities, like afactory that turns ourrefrigerators.”
  27. 27. Frank Stella - The Man Contributor for Minimalism and Post-Painterly Abstraction Born 1936 in Malden, Massachusetts Graduated from Princeton University Influenced by Abstract Expressionism of Jackson Pollock and Frank Kline Drawn to Newman‟s “flatter” surfaces and Jasper Johns “target” paintings
  28. 28. Frank Stella – The Artist  Moved to New York and reacted against expression in art  Emphasized the picture-as-object  Pre 1960: Used these ideas in the Black Paintings oBasic form and color  Post 1960: Style shifted in Irregular Polygon series and Protractor Series oUsing shaped canvases and more colors
  29. 29. Frank Stella Die Fahne Hoch!“What you see iswhat you see”
  30. 30. Frank Stella Harran II“The aim of art is tocreate space - spacethat is notcompromised bydecoration orillustration, spacewithin which thesubjects of paintingcan live”
  31. 31. Before and After Black Series Irregular Polygon
  32. 32. Frank Stella“[A painting] is aflat surface withpaint on it -nothing more”
  33. 33. Dan Flavin•Started out primarily as an Abstract Expressionist•Quickly developed an appreciation for light•Used changes in tone rather than lines in earlyworks•First overt reference to light in an Apollinaire-esque poem•Early works used light, but had meaning behindthemSailDan Flavin
  34. 34. Icon V (Coran’s BroadwayFlesh)-1962
  35. 35. the diagonal of May25, 1963 (toConstantin Brancusi)-1963
  36. 36. Characteristics of the MediumReflected light depends on the surfaceAngle affects diffusion in a roomColor can change (red and deep yellow darker)Completely store-boughtThe color is different from pigmentsEach light is one colorThe pieces all have a limited lifetime
  37. 37. untitled (to Janie Lee) one -1971
  38. 38. untitled (Marfa project)
  39. 39. What‟s the difference?Abstract Expressionism Minimalism
  40. 40. Abstract Expressionism• Subjective• Expressive• Action painting• Wild brush strokes• Drip paintings• Lack of form
  41. 41. Minimalism• Hard edge painting• Geometric form• Reduced color• Non-subjective
  42. 42. Minimalism