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Golgi apparatus.pdf
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Lysosome.pdf

  1. 1. A lysosome is a membrane-bound cell organelle found in most animal cells (they are absent in red blood cells). The name, lysosome is derived from the two Greek words: lysis, meaning "to loosen", and soma, "body")
  2. 2. Lysosomes are known as suicidal bags suicidal bags suicidal bags suicidal bags of the cell? Why??? A lysosome is a organelle of cell. It is filled with enzymes that can digest things. When a cell is about to die, lysosome bursts to eat up the dead cell living space for new cells to come.
  3. 3. Lysosome is responsible for the digestion of macromolecules, old cell parts, and microorganisms.
  4. 4. Each lysosome is surrounded by a membrane that maintains an acidic environment within the interior via a proton pump.
  5. 5. Lysosomes contain a wide variety of hydrolytic enzymes (acid hydrolases) that break down macromolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins, and polysaccharides.
  6. 6. Each lysosome is surrounded by a membrane that maintains an acidic environment within the interior via a proton pump. Lysosomes contain a wide variety of hydrolytic enzymes (acid hydrolases) that break down macromolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins, and polysaccharides.
  7. 7. These enzymes are active only in the lysosome’s acidic interior; Their acid-dependent activity protects the cell from self-degradation in case of lysosomal leakage or rupture, since the pH of the cell is neutral to slightly alkaline.
  8. 8. Lysosomes were discovered by the Belgian cytologist Christian Christian Christian Christian René de Duve René de Duve René de Duve René de Duve in the 1950s. De Duve was awarded a share of the 1974 Nobel Prize for his discovery of lysosomes.
  9. 9. Lysosomes originate by budding off from the membrane of the trans-Golgi network, a region of the Golgi complex responsible for sorting newly synthesized proteins, which may be designated for use in lysosomes, endosomes, or the plasma membrane.
  10. 10. Lysosomes originate by budding off from the membrane of the Golgi network.
  11. 11. The lysosomes then fuse with membrane vesicles that derive from one of three pathways: 1. 1. 1. 1. Endocytosis Endocytosis Endocytosis Endocytosis 2. 2. 2. 2. autophagocytosis autophagocytosis autophagocytosis autophagocytosis, and 3. 3. 3. 3. phagocytosis phagocytosis phagocytosis phagocytosis.
  12. 12. In endocytosis endocytosis endocytosis endocytosis, extracellular macromolecules are taken up into the cell to form membrane-bound vesicles called endosomes that fuse with lysosomes.
  13. 13. Autophagocytosis Autophagocytosis Autophagocytosis Autophagocytosis is the process by which old organelles are removed from a cell; they are enveloped by internal membranes that then fuse with lysosomes.
  14. 14. Phagocytosis Phagocytosis Phagocytosis Phagocytosis is carried out by specialized cells that engulf large extracellular particles, such as dead cells or foreign invaders (e.g., bacteria).
  15. 15. Lysosomal storage diseases are genetic disorders in which a genetic mutation affects the activity of one or more of the acid hydrolases.
  16. 16. In such diseases, the normal metabolism of specific macromolecules is blocked and the macromolecules accumulate inside the lysosomes, causing severe physiological damage or deformity.
  17. 17. Lysosomes originate by budding off from the membrane of the Golgi network.

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