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APPLE industrial crops.pptx

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APPLE industrial crops.pptx

  1. 1. • Family: Rosaceae (rose family) • Scientific name: Malus domestica • Morphology of useful part – fruit
  2. 2.  • The apple tree (Malus pumila, commonly called Malus domestica) is a deciduous tree in the rose family  • Best known for its sweet, pomaceous fruit, the apple.  • Apple trees are deciduous, meaning that they loose their leaves each fall and grow new leaves each spring  • It is cultivated worldwide as a fruit tree, and is the most widely grown species in the genus Malus.  • The tree originated in Central Asia Apple tree
  3. 3.  Apples have religious and mythological significance in many cultures, including Norse, Greek and European Christian traditions.  Generally apple cultivars are propagated by grafting onto rootstocks, which control the size of the resulting tree.  There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples, resulting in a range of desired characteristics.  Different cultivars are bred for various tastes and uses, including cooking, eating raw and cider production  The science of apple growing is called pomology.
  4. 4.  • Malus sieversii is a wild apple native to the mountains of Central Asia in southern Kazakhstan. It has recently been shown to be the primary ancestor of most cultivars of the domesticated apple (Malus pumila).  Its fruit is the largest of any species of Malus except pumila, up to 7 cm diameter, equal in size to many modern apple cultivars.  The species is now considered vulnerable to extinction. Origin of apple
  5. 5. • The apple is a deciduous tree, generally standing 1.8 to 4.6 m (6 to 15 ft.) tall in cultivation • When cultivated, the size, shape and branch density are determined by rootstock selection and trimming method. Botanical information
  6. 6. • The leaves are alternately arranged dark green- colored simple ovals with serrated margins and slightly downy undersides.
  7. 7. Apple blossom (apple flower ) • Most apple blossom petals are pink when the flower first blooms, and they fade to white as the season progresses. • The flowers are about 2.5–3.5 cm diameter, with five petals, and with usually red stamens that produce copious pollen, and an inferior ovary.
  8. 8.  The blossoms produce a sweet scent that is faintly reminiscent of apple fruits, which helps attract bees and insects for pollination.  Apple blossoms range from white / pale pink to dark pink. Their color is dependent on their variety.  The central flower of the inflorescence is called the "king bloom"; it opens first, and can develop a larger fruit.
  9. 9. • Fruits in general develop from the ovary and they are called true fruits . • When other accessory floral parts contribute to the formation of fruit, then such fruits are called as false fruits or pseudo carp. • In apple, the thalamus or receptacle grows around the pericarp to produce the fleshy edible part. Hence, it is a false fruit. Apple – false fruit
  10. 10.  The skin of ripe apples is generally red, yellow, green, pink, although many bi- or tri-colored cultivars may be found.  The skin may also be wholly or partly russeted i.e. rough and brown. The skin is covered in a protective layer of epicuticular wax.  The exocarp (flesh) is generally pale yellowish- white, though pink or yellow exocarps also occur.
  11. 11. Granny Smith Red McIntos h Golden (or Yellow) Delicious Gala
  12. 12. Fuji Braeb Pink Lady Honey Empire
  13. 13. Health Benefits of Apples  Digestion- Apples, being rich in fiber, help in the digestive process. Regular consumption of apples ensures smooth bowel movements and helps in preventing constipation and various stomach disorders.  Anemia- since apples are a rich source of iron By increasing the amount of red blood cells in the body, you not only prevent anemia but also ensure proper oxygenation of essential organ systems to keep them functioning properly.  Managing Diabetes- the polyphenols in apples have been directly linked to reducing the uptake of carbohydrates by the body. This, in turn, reduces the fluctuation of blood sugar levels.  Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease- The antioxidant effects of all the phytonutrient compounds in apples certainly help reduce Alzheimer’s disease, since the degeneration of the brain that leads to Alzheimer’s has been linked to free radical activity. Apples also increase the amount of acetylcholine in the brain, which is linked to concentration, problem-solving, and memory. In terms of Parkinson’s, apples stop the gradual breakdown of dopamine-producing nerve cells, which can be an underlying cause of Parkinson’s.
  14. 14. Heart Disease- Apples lower the level of cholesterol in the body, making it a strong defensive mechanism against cardiovascular disease. The adage of “an apple a day keeping the doctor away” is more accurate than you’d think, since the daily dose of an apple deemed healthy for the heart is approximately one per day. • Also, apples contain a very powerful flavonoid called quercetin, found in the skin of the fruit, can reduce inflammation in our blood vessels by reducing the amount of C-reactive protein (CRP). This protein has been linked to inflammation of the cardiovascular system, so a reduction of it through quercetin makes apples very strong heart boosters! Rheumatism- flavonoid compounds like kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin have been linked to reducing rheumatoid conditions, and inflammatory conditions like arthritis and gout. Eye Disorders- They also help in treating night blindness. Much of this is due to the fact that apples are rich in flavonoid compounds and antioxidant phytonutrients, which can reduce the impact of free radicals on the eyes, while preventing conditions like macular degeneration, cataracts, and glaucoma.
  15. 15.  Application of apple pulp on the face cures and improves acne.  Keeping the apple pulp on the eyelids for 15 to 20 minutes reduces strain of the eyes.  Paste made up apple leaves and used as shampoo cures dandruff, prevents hair fall and promotes hair growth Cosmetic Benefits of Apples
  16. 16. Products from apple
  17. 17. Apple jam • made from the pulp and juice of the fruit. • contains both fruit juice and pieces of the fruit. • The pulp or pieces and the juice are heated with sugar and water, to activate the pectin in the fruit. • A good jam has a soft and even consistency with good fruit flavor, bright color and a semi jellied texture, that is easy to spread over, but has no free liquid. Apple pulp is manufactured by picking fresh fruits, which are clean and properly matured. The fruit as such as slices or as pulp is pre heated and then packaged. These kind of pulp or slices apples are mostly used in the processing of apple juice and then they are sold as such. Since it is packaged in aseptic method, they generally have a long shelf life.
  18. 18. Apple Jelly- semi solid food made from fruit juice, sugar and pectin. Generally the pectin present in the fruit should act as a gelling agent, but since it is insufficient to form a proper gel, pectin is added externally to help enhance the gelling capacity. Apple juice is one of the fruit juice which is manufactured by pressing of apples. The expelled juice is further processed by centrifugal and enzymatic clarification to remove the pectin and starch. The resulting juice just holds the fine particulate in suspension which is then pasteurized for packing in glass, metal or aseptic processing system containers.
  19. 19. Apple juice concentrate -is generally produced by evaporating the fresh apple juice, which is extracted from farm fresh juicy apples. Evaporating the fresh juice, yields a good apple concentrate. This is very helpful for packaging and the same time reduces the spoilage, giving an extended shelf life. Dried apples and apple chips - Apples last in cold storage for a very long time so they may not be first priority for drying, but that said, they are excellent candidates for the results they provide. Dried apples retain some chewiness, apple chips are crunchy and make for a fine, fine garnish on desserts and salads.
  20. 20. Apple cider vinegar  Apple cider vinegar, otherwise known as cider vinegar or ACV, is a type of vinegar made from cider or apple must and has a pale to medium amber color.  ACV is used in salad dressings, marinades, vinaigrettes, food preservatives, and chutneys. It is made by crushing apples and squeezing out the liquid. Bacteria and yeast are added to the liquid to start the alcoholic fermentation process, and the sugars are turned into alcohol. In a second fermentation process, the alcohol is converted into vinegar by acetic acid-forming bacteria (acetobacter). Acetic acid and malic acid give vinegar its sour taste

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