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Chapter 2(principles of language assessment)

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Chapter 2(principles of language assessment)

  1. 1. Build Bright UniversityBuild Bright University Language Testing and AssessmentLanguage Testing and Assessment Chapter-2Chapter-2 Principles of LanguagePrinciples of Language AssessmentAssessment Prepared by Kheang SokhengPrepared by Kheang Sokheng Ph.D Candidate and MEd inPh.D Candidate and MEd in TESOLTESOL
  2. 2. Principles of Language AssessmentPrinciples of Language Assessment  Five cardinal criteria for “testing a test” areFive cardinal criteria for “testing a test” are as follows:as follows:  PracticalityPracticality  ReliabilityReliability  ValidityValidity  AuthenticityAuthenticity  WashbackWashback
  3. 3. PracticalityPracticality An effective practical test. This meansAn effective practical test. This means that itthat it is not excessively expensive,is not excessively expensive, stays within appropriate time constraint,stays within appropriate time constraint, is relatively easy to administer,is relatively easy to administer, has a scoring/evaluation procedure thathas a scoring/evaluation procedure that is specific and time-efficient.is specific and time-efficient.
  4. 4. Examples of Practicality checklistExamples of Practicality checklist  1. Are administrative details clearly1. Are administrative details clearly established before the test?established before the test?  2. Can students complete the test2. Can students complete the test reasonably within the set time frame?reasonably within the set time frame?  3. Is the cost of the test within budget3. Is the cost of the test within budget limits?limits?
  5. 5. ReliabilityReliability  Reliability means the degree to which anReliability means the degree to which an assessment tool producesassessment tool produces stablestable andand consistentconsistent results.results.  A reliable test is consistent and dependable.A reliable test is consistent and dependable.  A test is reliable if:A test is reliable if: ““You give the same test to the same studentYou give the same test to the same student or matched students on two differentor matched students on two different occasions, the test should yield similaroccasions, the test should yield similar results.” (Brown, 2004)results.” (Brown, 2004)
  6. 6. Student-Related ReliabilityStudent-Related Reliability  The most common learner-related issueThe most common learner-related issue in reliability is caused by temporaryin reliability is caused by temporary illness, fatigue, a “bad day”, anxiety,illness, fatigue, a “bad day”, anxiety, and other physical or psychologicaland other physical or psychological factors.factors.
  7. 7. Rater ReliabilityRater Reliability  Inter-rater reliability:Inter-rater reliability: When two or more scorers yieldWhen two or more scorers yield inconsistent scores of the same test.inconsistent scores of the same test. Factors: lack of attention to scoring,Factors: lack of attention to scoring, inexperience, inattention, etc.inexperience, inattention, etc.  Intra-rater reliability:Intra-rater reliability: Scoring criteria, fatigue, bias towardScoring criteria, fatigue, bias toward particular “good” and “bad” students,particular “good” and “bad” students, or simple carelessness.or simple carelessness.
  8. 8. Test Administration ReliabilityTest Administration Reliability  This involves the condition in which theThis involves the condition in which the test is administered.test is administered.  Unreliability occurs due to outsideUnreliability occurs due to outside interference like noise, variations ininterference like noise, variations in photocopying, temperature variations,photocopying, temperature variations, the amount of light in various parts ofthe amount of light in various parts of the room, and even the condition ofthe room, and even the condition of desk and chairs.desk and chairs.
  9. 9. Test Administration ReliabilityTest Administration Reliability  Brown (2010) stated that he onceBrown (2010) stated that he once witnessed the administration of a test ofwitnessed the administration of a test of aural comprehension in which an audioaural comprehension in which an audio player was used to deliver items forplayer was used to deliver items for comprehension, but due to street noisecomprehension, but due to street noise outside the building, test-taker sittingoutside the building, test-taker sitting next to open windows could not hearnext to open windows could not hear the stimuli clearly.the stimuli clearly.
  10. 10. Test ReliabilityTest Reliability Factors cause unreliability:Factors cause unreliability: If a test is too long, test takers mayIf a test is too long, test takers may become fatigued by the time they reachbecome fatigued by the time they reach the later items and hastily respondthe later items and hastily respond incorrectly.incorrectly. Ambiguous itemsAmbiguous items
  11. 11. ValidityValidity  Validity is the extent to which inferencesValidity is the extent to which inferences made from assessment results aremade from assessment results are appropriate, meaningful, and useful in termsappropriate, meaningful, and useful in terms of the purpose of the assessment” (Gronlund,of the purpose of the assessment” (Gronlund, 1998, p.226).1998, p.226). ““ Measuring what should be measured”Measuring what should be measured”  Content-related evidenceContent-related evidence  Criterion-related evidenceCriterion-related evidence  Construct-related evidenceConstruct-related evidence  Consequential validityConsequential validity  Face validityFace validity
  12. 12. Content-Related EvidenceContent-Related Evidence  If a test samples the subject matterIf a test samples the subject matter about which conclusions are to beabout which conclusions are to be drawn.drawn.  If a test requires the test-taker toIf a test requires the test-taker to perform the behavior that is beingperform the behavior that is being measured.measured.
  13. 13. Criterion-Related EvidenceCriterion-Related Evidence  Criterion-Related Evidence is used toCriterion-Related Evidence is used to demonstrate the accuracy of a measure ordemonstrate the accuracy of a measure or procedure by comparing it with anotherprocedure by comparing it with another measure or procedure which has beenmeasure or procedure which has been demonstrated to be valid.demonstrated to be valid.  For instance, imagine a hands-on drivingFor instance, imagine a hands-on driving test has been shown to be an accurate testtest has been shown to be an accurate test of driving skills. By comparing the scores onof driving skills. By comparing the scores on the written driving test with the scores fromthe written driving test with the scores from the hands-on driving test, the written can bethe hands-on driving test, the written can be validated by using a criterion relatedvalidated by using a criterion related
  14. 14. Criterion-Related EvidenceCriterion-Related Evidence strategy in which the hand-on driving test isstrategy in which the hand-on driving test is compared to the written test.compared to the written test. 1.1.Concurrent validity/empiric validity if a testConcurrent validity/empiric validity if a test result is supported by other concurrentresult is supported by other concurrent performance beyond assessment itself; forperformance beyond assessment itself; for example, the validity of a high score on theexample, the validity of a high score on the final exam of a foreign language course willfinal exam of a foreign language course will be substantiated by actual proficiency in thebe substantiated by actual proficiency in the language.language.
  15. 15. Criterion-Related EvidenceCriterion-Related Evidence 2.2. Predictive validity is used to assessPredictive validity is used to assess (and predict) a test-taker’s likelihood of(and predict) a test-taker’s likelihood of future success.future success. E.g. Placement tests, admissionsE.g. Placement tests, admissions assessment batteries, language aptitudeassessment batteries, language aptitude tests.tests.
  16. 16. Consequential validityConsequential validity  It encompasses all the consequences ofIt encompasses all the consequences of a test, including such considerationsa test, including such considerations as its accuracy in measuring intendedas its accuracy in measuring intended criteria, its impact on the preparation ofcriteria, its impact on the preparation of the test-takers, its effect on the learner,the test-takers, its effect on the learner, and the (intended and unintended) socialand the (intended and unintended) social consequences of a test’s interpretationconsequences of a test’s interpretation
  17. 17. Face ValidityFace Validity  ““It refers to the degree to which a testIt refers to the degree to which a test looks right, and appears to measure thelooks right, and appears to measure the knowledge or abilities it claims toknowledge or abilities it claims to measure, based on the subjectivemeasure, based on the subjective judgment of the examinees who take it,judgment of the examinees who take it, the administrative personnel who decidethe administrative personnel who decide on its use, and other psychometricallyon its use, and other psychometrically unsophisticated observers” (Mousavi,unsophisticated observers” (Mousavi, 2002, p.244)2002, p.244)
  18. 18. Face ValidityFace Validity  Sometimes students don’t know what isSometimes students don’t know what is being tested when they tackle a test. Theybeing tested when they tackle a test. They may feel, for a variety of reasons, that is amay feel, for a variety of reasons, that is a test isn’t testing what it is “ supposed” to test.test isn’t testing what it is “ supposed” to test. Face validity means that the studentsFace validity means that the students perceive the test to be valid.perceive the test to be valid.  Face validity will likely be high if the learnersFace validity will likely be high if the learners encounter:encounter:  a well-constructed, expected format witha well-constructed, expected format with familiar tasks,familiar tasks,
  19. 19. Face ValidityFace Validity  a test that is clearly doable within the allotteda test that is clearly doable within the allotted time limit,time limit,  Items that are clear and uncomplicated,Items that are clear and uncomplicated,  Directions that are crystal clear,Directions that are crystal clear,  Tasks that relate to their course workTasks that relate to their course work (content validity), and(content validity), and  a difficulty level that presents a reasonablea difficulty level that presents a reasonable challenge.challenge.
  20. 20. AuthenticityAuthenticity  Bachman and Palmer(1996,p.23) define as “Bachman and Palmer(1996,p.23) define as “ the degree of correspondence of thethe degree of correspondence of the characteristics of a given language test taskcharacteristics of a given language test task to the features of a target language task,”to the features of a target language task,” and then suggest an agenda for identifyingand then suggest an agenda for identifying those target language tasks and forthose target language tasks and for transforming them into valid test items.transforming them into valid test items.  Authenticity of a test may be present in theAuthenticity of a test may be present in the following ways:following ways:
  21. 21. AuthenticityAuthenticity  The language in a test is as natural asThe language in a test is as natural as possible.possible.  Items contextualized rather than isolated.Items contextualized rather than isolated.  Topics are meaningful (relevant,Topics are meaningful (relevant, interesting ) for the learner.interesting ) for the learner.  Some thematic organization to items isSome thematic organization to items is provided, such as through a story line orprovided, such as through a story line or episode.episode.  Tasks represent, or closely approximate,Tasks represent, or closely approximate, real-world tasks.real-world tasks.
  22. 22. WashbackWashback  The term ‘washback’ or backwash refersThe term ‘washback’ or backwash refers to “the effect of testing on teaching andto “the effect of testing on teaching and learning” (Hughes, 2003, p.1)learning” (Hughes, 2003, p.1)  For instance, the extent to whichFor instance, the extent to which assessment affects a student’s futureassessment affects a student’s future language development.language development.  Factors that provide beneficial washbackFactors that provide beneficial washback in a test (Brown, 2010):in a test (Brown, 2010):  It can positively influence what and howIt can positively influence what and how teachers teach, students learn;teachers teach, students learn;
  23. 23. WashbackWashback  offer learners a chance to adequately prepare,offer learners a chance to adequately prepare,  give learners feedback that enhance theirgive learners feedback that enhance their language development,language development,  is more formative in nature than summative,is more formative in nature than summative,  Provide conditions for peak performance byProvide conditions for peak performance by learners.learners.  In large-scale assessment, washback refers toIn large-scale assessment, washback refers to the effects that tests have on instruction inthe effects that tests have on instruction in terms of how students prepare for theterms of how students prepare for the test−e.g., cram courses and teaching to thetest−e.g., cram courses and teaching to the test.test.
  24. 24. WashbackWashback  Washback also includes the effects of anWashback also includes the effects of an assessment on teaching and learning prior toassessment on teaching and learning prior to the assessment itself, i.e. on preparation forthe assessment itself, i.e. on preparation for the assessment.the assessment.  The challenge to teachers is to createThe challenge to teachers is to create classroom tests that serve as learningclassroom tests that serve as learning devices through which washback isdevices through which washback is achieved.achieved.  Washback enhances a number of basicWashback enhances a number of basic principles of learning acquisition: intrinsicprinciples of learning acquisition: intrinsic motivation, autonomy, self-confidence,motivation, autonomy, self-confidence,
  25. 25. WashbackWashback  Ways to improve washback:Ways to improve washback:  To comment generously and specifically on testTo comment generously and specifically on test performanceperformance  Through a specification of the numerical scores onThrough a specification of the numerical scores on the various subsections of the test.the various subsections of the test.  Formative versus summative tests:Formative versus summative tests:  Formative tests provide washback in the form ofFormative tests provide washback in the form of information to the learner on progress towardsinformation to the learner on progress towards goals.goals.  Summative tests provide washback for learners toSummative tests provide washback for learners to initiate further pursuits, more learning, more goals,initiate further pursuits, more learning, more goals, and more challenges to face.and more challenges to face.
  26. 26. Thank you!Thank you!

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