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Letteratura e giochi combinatori

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Letteratura e giochi combinatori

  1. 1. Letteratura e giochi combinatori Con esercizi guidati
  2. 2. Letteratura combinatoria François Le Lionnais (1961): Linsieme delle pratiche letterarie in cui l’opera non fissa a priori l’ordine dei brani di testo che la compongono, ma ne dispone anzi la ricombinazione secondo procedimenti formalizzati.
  3. 3. Letteratura combinatoria Lopera combinatoria non viene letta, ma giocata: tessere da smontare e rimontare a piacere seguendo le “regole del gioco”.Non un prodotto letterario, ma un metodo di produzione, un oggetto a metà strada tra l’opera e la struttura.
  4. 4. Combinatoria esponenziale Raymond Queneau Cent mille milliards de poèmes (1961) Linguette intercambiabili sulle quali sono scritti i versi di un insieme di dieci sonetti (con 14 versi ciascuno) con le stesse rime, in modo che ogni verso è sostituibile con ogni altro verso situato nella stessa posizione.
  5. 5. Combinatoria esponenziale 1014 combinazioni (centomila miliardi)Le roi de la pampa retourne sa chemisepour la mettre à sécher aux cornes des taureauxle cornédbîf en boîte empeste la remiseet fermentent de même et les cuirs et les peaux.Le roi de la pampa retourne sa chemiselorsque le marbrier astique nos tombeauxla découverte alors voilà qui traumatiseil chantait tout de même oui mais il chantait faux. (da "Parole" , dove un generatore automatico permette di ottenere tutti i 1014 sonetti di Queneau).
  6. 6. Combinatoria fattorialeMarc Saporta, Composizione n. 1 (1961) Opera con 143 pagine che si mescolano come un mazzo di carte. “TANTI ROMANZI QUANTI SONO I LETTORI" Permutazione di 143 elementi: 143! possibili romanzi, cioè circa 2,69 × 10 245
  7. 7. Quadrato latino Il quadrato latino è una A B C D E struttura matematica bidimensionale utilizzata in ambito letterario: Si tratta di una griglia quadrata di B C D E A n×n caselle nella quale compaiono n simboli diversi, che soddisfa le C D E A B seguenti condizioni:1) in ogni cella della griglia compare un simbolo; D E A B C 2) in ogni riga e in ogni colonna ciascun simbolo compare una volta sola. E A B C D
  8. 8. Sestina liricaArnaut Daniel, Lo ferm voler qu’el cor m’intra (XIII sec.) La fermezza che in cuor m’entra non può becco spezzare a me né unghia d’invido che sparlando perde l’anima: Lo schema della sestina lirica non l’osando colpir con ramo o verga, deriva da una permutazione di frode almeno, ove non avrò zio, ottenuta mediante una regolare godrò gioia in giardino o dentro camera. alternanza d’inversione e progressione (retrogradatio Se ripenso a quella camera cruciata): si riscrive ogni volta la dove, a mio danno so, nessuno entra, sequenza prendendo in ordine successivo l’ultima parola, poi la ma ognuno m’è più che fratello o zio, prima, poi la penultima, poi la non ho membro non frema, fosse l’unghia, seconda, ecc. come fa il bimbo davanti alla verga: tanto temo non sia a lei presso all’anima.
  9. 9. Quadrati greco-latiniQuadrato greco-latino: è una sovrapposizione di Aa Bd Cb De Ec due quadrati latini, una scacchiera quadrata di lato n con coppie di Bb Ce Dc Ea Ad simboli su ogni casella, disposti in modo che Cc Da Ed Ab Be ogni simbolo compaia una e una sola volta in ogni riga e in ogni Dd Eb Ae Bc Ca colonna, e che ogni coppia compaia una e una sola volta. Ee Ac Ba Cd Db
  10. 10. PerecGeorges Perec: La vita: istruzioni per luso (Rizzoli, Milano, 1986) Descrizione un immobile parigino composto da 99 stanze, disposte su 10 piani, come in una scacchiera quadrata di lato 10 (una casella è vuota). Ogni capitolo è riservato alla narrazione di una stanza. 42 liste di 10 elementi ciascuna, corrispondenti a vincoli narrativi (persone, citazioni letterarie, mobili, oggetti, stili, colori, cibi, ecc), divise in 21 coppie. Ognuna un quadrato greco-latino di lato 10, le cui caselle corrispondono alle stanze dellimmobile. Ogni stanza è quindi caratterizzata da 42 vincoli narrativi.
  11. 11. Perec Il passaggio da una stanza/casella all’altra regolato dallalgoritmo del cavaliere: partendo da una casella qualsiasi, visitare tutte le altre una volta sola muovendosi come fa il cavallo negli scacchi. Vedi schema (in blu le caselle iniziale e finale). La prima e l’ultima mossa del cavallo sono illustrate dal colore dello sfondo:
  12. 12. Poesie booleane (o insiemistiche)Operazioni insiemistiche su due testi poetici Masaoka Shiki: Yosa Buson: Basso sopra i binari Notte di luna velata: il volo dellanatra selvatica qualcuno è fermo notte di luna. tra i peri del giardino.
  13. 13. Poesie booleane (o insiemistiche)Basso sopra i binariil volo dellanatra selvatica.Notte di luna velata:qualcuno è fermotra i peri del giardino.i: notte di luna.Sopra, il basso volo dellanatra:selvatica, velata.Qualcuno è fermotra peri, binari del giardino
  14. 14. Poesia in forma di grafo Claude Berge (1926-2002): creare, o ricreare, opere poetiche a partire dai grafi Il grafo è necessariamente orientato. No circuiti (a meno di versi ripetuti!). Multigrafo: più possibilità combinatorie. È anche possibile considerare i sottografi dell’opera, in modo da ottenere poesie più corte, a patto di rispettare l’ordine delle frecce.
  15. 15. Poesia in forma di grafoGeorg Trakl, D’Autunno (1913) 01. I girasoli sulla siepe splendono, 02. Gl’infermi stan seduti, zitti, al sole. 03. Donne faticano nel campo e cantano, 04. Suonano le campane del convento. 05. Dicon gli uccelli favole remote, 06. Suonano le campane del convento. 07. Da presso note di violino giungono. 08. Si pigia oggi nei tini l’uva bruna. 09. Ora luomo si mostra lieto ed ilare. 10. Si pigia oggi nei tini l’uva bruna. 11. Sono aperte le camere mortuarie 12. Bell’e dipinte dal fulgor del sole.
  16. 16. Poesia in forma di grafo Multigrafo planare a 5 vertici e ovviamente 12 archi (come i versi), nel quale è possibile leggere per intero il testo seguendo il percorso indicato dalle frecce da 1 a 12.
  17. 17. Poesia in forma di grafoPercorsi lungo i suoi sottografi, ad es. CEAB (versi 11, 7, 1):Sono aperte le camere mortuarie:da presso note di violino giungono.I girasoli sulla siepe splendono.Cammino hamiltoniano ABCDE (versi 1, 2, 3, 4, 7):I girasoli sulla siepe splendono,Gl’infermi stan seduti, zitti, al sole.Donne faticano nel campo e cantano,Suonano le campane del convento.Da presso note di violino giungono.

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