2d & 3d lattice crystal temperature coefficient wavelength of mercury spectrum monoatomic basis free charge bound charge self inductance of a coil nebula death of star birth of star protostar continuous spectra absorption spectra emission spectra spectroscopy weak interaction strong interaction bosons fermions leptons quarks fundamental particles elementary particles third law of thermodynamics second law of thermodynamics absolute zero internal energy temperature entropy first law of thermodyanamics zeroth law gut nuclear electromagnetic gravity interference wavefront wave
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