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June 4, 2012




Linked Data
Juan F. Sequeda – Daniel P. Miranker
Capsenta

Semantic Tech & Business Conference 2012
www.capsenta.com                                      1
Outline
 Part 1: Introduction to Linked Data
 Part 2: Linked Data Principles
 Part 3: Linked Data Architectures
 Part 4: Linked Enterprise Data




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Part 1:
                   Introduction to
                      Linked Data


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The Web is a Data Shredder




   Structured            Unstructured
      Data                   Data
                              Thanks Martin Hepp
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The Web of Documents
                   Search



        Search
        Engine


         Crawler




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What would we like?
 Make it easy for computers/software to find
  THINGS



       Do you SEARCH or do you
                FIND?


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Search for
       Football Players who went to the University
          of Texas at Austin, played for the Dallas
                         Cowboys as Cornerback

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Why can’t we just FIND it…


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Guess how I FOUND out?


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On a Semantic Web
 Besides publishing documents on the web
    which computers can’t understand easily

 Let’s publish on the web something that
  computers can understand



                   DATA
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The Semantic Web is a
                       web of data
                       The current web is a
                        web of documents

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But wait… doesn’t the
      web already have data?


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Current Data on the Web
  Relational Databases
  APIs
  XML
  CSV
  XLS
 …
  Can’t computers and applications already
   consume that data on the web?

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Yes! But it is all in different
              formats and data
                            models!


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This makes it hard to
                         integrate data


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The data in different
   data sources aren’t linked


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For example, how do I
                state that the Juan
          Sequeda in Facebook is
                  the same as Juan
                 Sequeda in Twitter


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Or if I create a mashup
            from different services, I
              have to learn different
             APIs and I get different
               formats of data back


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Data is Siloed




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Wouldn’t it be great if we
      had a standard way of
       publishing data on the
                        Web?


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We have a standardized
              way of publishing
             documents on the
                    web, right?
                           HTML


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Then why can’t we have
             a standard way of
         publishing data on the
                         Web?


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Good question! And the
          answer is YES. There is!
                                RDF


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Resource Description Framework
 (RDF)
 Data Model = a way to model data
    i.e. Relational databases use relational data model



 RDF is a graph data model




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RDF is a Graph
    <JuanSequeda> <firstName> “Juan”
    <JuanSequeda> <lastName> “Sequeda”
    <JuanSequeda> <livesIn> “Austin”
    <JuanSequeda> <knows> <DanielMiranker>
    ..
    <DanielMiranker> <firstName> “Daniel”
    <DanielMiranker> <lastName> “Miranker”
    <DanielMiranker> <livesIn> “Austin”



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RDF can be serialized in different
 ways
 RDF/XML
 RDFa (RDF in HTML)
 N3
 Turtle
 JSON




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RDFa




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RDF/XML




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RDF/N-triples




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RDF/Turtle




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So does that mean that I
        have to publish my data
                    in RDF now?


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You don’t have to… but
          we would like you to 


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An example


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Document on the Web




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Databases back up documents

                                              THINGS have PROPERTIES:
                                              A Book as a Title, an author, …

       Isbn           Title               Author       PublisherID     ReleasedData
       978-0-596-     Programming         Toby         1               July 2009
       15381-6        the Semantic        Segaran
                      Web
       …              …                   …            …               …



       This is a THING:                            PublisherID   PublisherName
       A book title “Programming the               1             O’Reilly Media
       Semantic Web” by Toby Segaran, …
                                                   …             …

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Lets represent the data in RDF
Isbn     Title              Author     PublisherID   ReleasedData

978-0-   Programming        Toby       1             July 2009
596-     the Semantic       Segaran
15381-   Web
6                                                                              Programming
                                                 title                         the Semantic
PublisherID      PublisherName
                                                                                   Web
1                O’Reilly Media

                                                         author                  Toby
                                      book
                                                                               Segaran



                                                         isbn
                                                                              978-0-596-15381-6
                                             publisher
                                                                                  name
                                                                  Publisher                 O’Reilly
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Remember that we are
                     on the web
     Everything on the web is identified by
                                       a URI

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And now let’s link the data to other
 data

                                                          Programming
                             title                        the Semantic
                                                              Web

                   http://
                   …/isbn9           author                 Toby
                     78                                   Segaran



                                     isbn
                                                      978-0-596-15381-6
                        publisher
                                              http://…/
                                                            name
                                              publisher                O’Reilly
                                                  1
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And now consider the data from
 Revyu.com
 http://      hasReview    http://
 …/revie                   …/isbn9
   w1                        78
             description
 reviewer

             Awesome
               Book


   http://          name
   …/revie
    wer
                       Juan
                     Sequeda


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Let’s start to link data
  http://      hasReview      http://
  …/revie                     …/isbn9
                                78                                       Programming
    w1                                                                   the Semantic
              description                   title
                                                                             Web
hasReviewer                 owl:sameAs

              Awesome           http://             author                 Toby
                Book            …/isbn9
                                                                         Segaran
                                  78
  http://…/
  reviewer           name
                                                    isbn
                                                                     978-0-596-15381-6
                       Juan              publisher
                     Sequeda                                 http://…/
                                                             publisher     name
                                                                                      O’Reilly
                                                                 1
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Juan Sequeda publishes data too




   http://juans              http://dbpedia.org/Au
                   livesIn            stin
   equeda.co
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       m/id
Let’s link more data
  http://…/ hasReview        http://…/
   review1                    isbn978
              description
hasReviewer

              Awesome
                Book


    http://…/
                     name
    reviewer

    sameAs              Juan
                      Sequeda

    http://juans                          http://dbpedia.org/Au
                            livesIn                stin
    equeda.co
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        m/id
And more
  http://…/ hasReview         http://…/
   review1                     isbn978                                   Programming
              description                    title                       the Semantic
                                                                             Web
hasReviewer                 owl:sameAs

              Awesome                                author
                                 http://…/                                 Toby
                Book
                                  isbn978                                Segaran

  http://…/
  reviewer           name
                                                     isbn                978-0-596-15381-6

    owl:sameAs          Juan             publisher          http://…/p
                      Sequeda                                ublisher1
                                                                  name       O’Reilly
    http://juans                             http://dbpedia.org/Au
                             livesIn                  stin
    equeda.co
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        m/id
Data on the Web that is
        in RDF and is linked to
           other RDF data is
             LINKED DATA


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Linked Data makes the
            web appear as
                      ONE
                     GIANT
                     HUGE
                    GLOBAL
                   DATABASE!
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I can query a database
       with SQL. Is there a way
    to query Linked Data with
           a query language?


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Yes! There is actually a
      standardize language for
                            that
                           SPARQL


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FIND all the reviews on
       the book “Programming
         the Semantic Web” by
       people who live in Austin


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SPARQL

          SELECT ?review ?comment
          WHERE {
            isbn:978 ex:hasReview ?review .
            ?review ex:description ?comment .
            ?review ex:hasReviewer ?person .
            ?person ex:lives dbpedia:Austin .
          }




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SELECT ?review ?comment
                                   WHERE {
                                   isbn:978 ex:hasReview ?review .
                                   ?review ex:description ?comment .
                                   ?review ex:hasReviewer ?person .
                                   ?person ex:lives dbpedia:Austin .
   http://…/ hasReview http://…/
                                   }
    review1                isbn978                          Programming
            description             title                   the Semantic
                                                                 Web
hasReviewer             owl:sameAs

              Awesome                        author
                               http://…/                           Toby
                Book
                                isbn978                          Segaran

  http://…/
  reviewer          name
                                             isbn                978-0-596-15381-6

    owl:sameAs        Juan           publisher      http://…/p
                    Sequeda                          ublisher1name         O’Reilly
     http://juans                        http://dbpedia.org/Au
                           livesIn                stin
     equeda.co
                                                                                    56
                                       Juan Sequeda
www.capsenta.com           name                                    June 4, 2012
           m/id
This looks cool, but let’s
       be realistic. What is the
           incentive to publish
    Linked Data on the Web?


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What was your incentive
        to publish an HTML page
                        in 1990?


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1) Share data in documents

  2) Because you neighbor was doing it

  … later on …

  3) Marketing, Advertising, …, SEO


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So why should we publish
          Linked Data in 2012?


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1) Share data as data

  2) Because you neighbor is doing it

  … later on …

  3) Marketing, Advertising, …, SEO


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Linked Data Publishers
  US and UK Government
  BBC
  NY Times
  Best Buy
  Sears
  Kmart
  Overstock
  … too many more to name

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Linked Open Data


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http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html

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May 2007




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Oct 2007




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Nov 2007




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Feb 2008




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Mar 2008




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Sept 2008




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Mar 2009 (1)




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Mar 2009 (2)




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July 2009




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September 2010




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September 2011




Linking Open Data
cloud diagram, by
Richard Cyganiak and
Anja Jentzsch.
 http://lod-cloud.net/
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YOU GET THE PICTURE
                   ITS BIG and getting

                   BIGGER and
                    BIGGER
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Part 2:
        Linked Data Principles


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Linked Data is a set of best practices to
     publish and interlink data on the web




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Linked Data Principles
1.     Use URIs as names for
       things

2.     Use HTTP URIs so that
       people can look up
       (dereference) those
       names.

3.     When someone looks up a
       URI, provide useful
       information.

4.     Include links to other URIs
       so that they can discover
       more things.
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1. Use URIs as names for things




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1) Use URIs as names for
     things


http://dbpedia.org/resource/Austin,_Texas




  http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/based_near




                     http://juansequeda.com/foaf.rdf#me     http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/card#i




                                                 http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows
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2. Use HTTP URIs so that people
              can look up (dereference)
                     those names.



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2) Use HTTP URIs
 HTTP client can lookup the URI using HTTP
  protocol and retrieve a description




  http://dbpedia.org/resource/Austin,_Texas



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What’s with the redirection (303) ?




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http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/06/AustinSkylineLouNeffPoint-2010-03-29-b.JPG


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http://dbpedia.org/page/Austin,_Texas
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Identifies the abstract concept of
                                  “the city of Austin, Texas”


                        http://dbpedia.org/resource/Austin,_Texas



               Accept: text/html                            Accept: application/rdf+xml




http://dbpedia.org/page/Austin,_Texas             http://dbpedia.org/data/Austin,_Texas.xml

  Identifies an HTML document that                        Identifies an RDF document that
  describes “the city of Austin, Texas”                  describes “the city of Austin, Texas”


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Minting HTTP URIs
 If you own the domain name and run a web
  server at that location, mint URIs in this
  namespace
 I own the domain capsenta.com
 I run the webserver http://capsenta.com
 I can mint URIs in this namespace
    http://capsenta.com/person/Juan-Sequeda



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Cool URIs         http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris/

 Don’t misuse a namespace that you don’t own
    http://www.imdb.com/title


 Avoid implementation details
    http://capsenta.com/person.php?id=123&format=rdf



 Use Natural Keys
    http://capsenta.com/person/123

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3. When someone looks up a
                    URI, provide useful
                       information.



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3) Provide useful information
 How do we provide useful information in
  document form on the web?  HTML


 How do we provide useful information in data
  form on the web  RDF




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What to publish?
  Literal Triples
 <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Austin,_Texas>
                 <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name>
                                                 “City of Austin”

  Outgoing Link Triples
 <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Austin,_Texas>
                 <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#sameAs>
                                  <http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/m/0vzm>

  Incoming Link Triples
 <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Dakota_Johnson>
               <http://dbpedia.org/ontology/birthPlace>
                       <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Austin,_Texas>


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What to publish?
 Description of the data set
    Semantic Sitemaps
    voiD (Vocabulary of Interlinked Datasets)



 Provenance Metadata


 Licenses Information

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Vocabularies (or Schemas or
 Ontologies)
  Create your own using
    RDFS/OWL/ SKOS

  Reuse vocabularies
    Dublin Core: metadata attributes
    Friend of a Friend (FOAF): persons and relationships
    Semantically Interlinked Online Communities (SIOC): describing
     users, posts, blogs, etc
    Description of a Project (DOAP)
    Music Ontology
    Programmes Ontology: TV and radio programs
    Good Relations: describing products and services
    Review Vocabulary
    Basic Geo (WGS84) Vocabulary

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4. Include links to other URIs so
             that they can discover more
                         things.



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4) Include links to other things
 Set external RDF links into other data sources on
  the Web
    Subject of the triple is in the namespace of one data
     set
    Object of the triple is a URI in the namespace of
     another data set

 Connect siloed data islands
 Enable discovery


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4) Include links to other things
  Relationship Link Triples
 <http://juansequeda.com/foaf.rdf#me>
                 <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/based_near>
                                  <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Austin,_Texas>

  Identity Link Triples
 <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Austin,_Texas>
                 <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#sameAs>
                                  <http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/m/0vzm>

  Vocabulary Link Triples
 <http://capsenta.com/vocab/name>
         <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#equivalentProperty>
                              <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name>


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Which predicate for linking to
 choose?
 Depends on your domain
 Is it widely used?
    owl:sameAs
    foaf:knows
    foaf:based_near
   …

 If you create your own, relate it to a widely
  used predicate

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Part 3:
                    Linked Data
                   Architectures


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Static RDF Files
 Small amount of data (personal FOAF file)
 Use RDF/XML serialization
 Save as .rdf file and upload it to your server
    http://www.capsenta.com/company.rdf
    http://www.capsenta.com/company.rdf#this
 Configure MIME types
    AddType application/rdf+xml .rdf

 Make RDF discoverable from HTMl
    <link rel="alternate" type="application/rdf+xml" href="company.rdf">


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RDF in HTML (RDFa)
 Another syntax for RDF


 Useful if you have template HTML pages


 Drupal 7 will do this out of the box




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Triplestores (aka RDF db, …)
 Commercial
    Oracle, IBM, OntoText (OWLIM), Franz (Allegrograph),
     Openlink (Virtuoso), C&P (Stardog), Ontoprise
     (OntoBroker), Meronymy


 Open Source
    Jena, Sesame, Mulgara, 4Store (Garlik), BigData
     (Systap)



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RDB2RDF
  Upcoming W3C RDB2RDF Standards
     R2RML: mapping language
     Direct Mapping: default automatic mapping


  Two Approaches
     Dynamic (SPARQL to SQL)
     ETL (Dump RDB to RDF)


  Ultrawrap
     Supports W3C standard and more
     SPARQL as fast as SQL

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Unstructured to RDF



                                      Triplestore




                   Entity Extractor




                    Unstructured



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Semi-structured to RDF



                                     Triplestore




                     XML2RDF,
                     XLS2RDF,
                     CVS2RDF


                   Semi-structured



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RDB to RDF

 CMS with RDFa,       RDB2RDF
  Semantic Wiki    (SPARQL to SQL)                 Triplestore




                                         RDB2RDF
                                           ETL




                            Relational
                            Database

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Creating Linked Data
                                         Linked Data

                                                                    CMS with                          Data
                       Linked Data           RDB2RDF                               Custom Linked
    Web Server                                                    RDFa, Semantic
                         Interface       (i.e. Ultrawrap)                          Data Wrapper       Publication
                                                                       Wiki




                                        RDB2RDF
                                                                                    Data source
                                                                                                      Data
                         Triplestore                        RDB
                                                                                     with API         Storage



                         XML2RDF,                                                                     Data
  Entity Extractor
                     XLS2RDF, CVS2RDF
                                                                                                      Preparation

  Unstructured       Semi-structured                               Structured                         Type of Data

Thanks Heath and Bizer
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Consuming Linked Data
                             Application




        Schema Mapping    Record Linkage        Provenance Tracking


                           Data Access




                             Linked Data




                         Creating Linked Data


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Schema Matching
  Renaming
    <ex:name>  <foaf:name>
    owl:equivalentClass and owl:equivalentProperty
    rdfs:subClass or rdfs:subProperty



  Structural Transformation
    <ex:Juan> <ex:lives> “Austin”
    <ex:Juan><foaf:based_near><db:Austin> .
     <db:Austin><rdfs:label> “Austin”.



  SPARQL Construct, RIF, R2R

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Record Linkage
 Different URIs that identify the same thing
 Create owl:sameAs links between them


 Manually lookup: Sindice


 (Semi) Automatically: SILK


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Provenance
 Keep track where the data is coming from
    Quality
    Trust


 Named Graphs
 SPARQL Graph




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Centralized
                      Application

                               SPARQL



                       Triplestore




                   Creating Linked Data

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Centralized
 Advantage
    Include the datasets that you need
    Complex queries and high performance
    Reasoning


 Drawbacks
    Depends on RDF dumps or crawling
    Effort to setup the centralized triplestore
    Queried data may be out of date


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Federated
                            Application

                                   SPARQL


                              Federator

          SPARQL                                           SPARQL
                   SPARQL                     SPARQL



                   RDB2RDF                              RDB2RDF
     Triplestore                          Triplestore
                   Relational                           Relational
                   Database                             Database


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Federated
 Advantage
    Include the datasets that you need
    Queried data is up to date



 Drawbacks
    Requires existence of a SPARQL endpoint
    Effort to setup federator



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Linked Traversal
                                     Application

                                             SPARQL

                             Linked Traversal Query Engine


                                    Linked Data



                                     RDB2RDF
                   Triplestore
                                     Relational
                                     Database
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Linked Traversal
 Advantage
    No need to know the data sources in advance
    Does not depend on the existence of SPARQL
     endpoints or RDF dumps
    Queried data is up to date
 Drawbacks
    Query execution time is slow
    Unsuitable for some queries
    Results may be incomplete
    Still in research

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Applications
 Linked Data Browsers
    http://browse.semanticweb.org/
 Linked Data (Semantic Web) Search Engines
    Falcons, SWSE, VisiNav, Sindice, Sigma, Swoogle, Wats
     on
 Search Engines
    Google, Bing, Yahoo!
 Faceted Browsers
    http://dbpedia.neofonie.de/browse/

www.capsenta.com                             June 4, 2012   122
Domain Specific Applications
 BBC World Cup


 Seevl.net


 Linked Life Data


 Government apps
www.capsenta.com                June 4, 2012   123
Part 2:
       Linked Enterprise Data


www.capsenta.com            June 4, 2012   124
Use
                                  Linked Data Principles
                                        internally
          Consume
     Linked (Open) Data




                                Publish
                          Linked (Open) Data


www.capsenta.com                         June 4, 2012   125
Linked Enterprise Data
 Linked Data can be used as an architectural
  style for integrating data in the Enterprise


 1. Standard Data Access Mechanism: HTTP
 2. Standard Address & Identifier Scheme: URI
 3. Standard Data Model: RDF



www.capsenta.com                      June 4, 2012   126
Linked Enterprise Data
 Information creation  information sharing
 Produce and consume data specific to your
  needs but also produce it in a way that it can
  be connected to other data in the enterprise
 Distributed but connected!
 Data that you create, may benefit others!
  Share it!


www.capsenta.com                       June 4, 2012   127
Benefits of RDF/Linked Data
 RDF (graphs) is a least common denominator
    Text, CVS, XML, XLS, RDB to RDF
    Imagine modeling a social network in XML


 Dynamic and Flexible
    Adding a column to a table in my RDBMS takes 6
     months to authorize!
    With RDF, simply add the triple!
    Incremental

www.capsenta.com                            June 4, 2012   128
Benefits of RDF/Linked Data
 Power of the URI and Links
    Universal Identifier
    Create a “foreign key” to a table that I have no
     control of


 Scalability in months, not only seconds
    “More can be done with less and faster”
    “Cooperation without coordination”



www.capsenta.com                               June 4, 2012   129
What’s next?
 W3C Linked Data Platform Working Group
    http://www.w3.org/2012/ldp/charter


 Linked Data Basic Profile 1.0
    http://www.w3.org/Submission/ldbp/




www.capsenta.com                          June 4, 2012   130
Summary


www.capsenta.com        June 4, 2012   131
Linked Data Checklist
 Does your data link to other data sets?
 Do you provide provenance metadata?
 Do you provide licensing metadata?
 Do you reuse common vocabularies?
 Do you map proprietary vocabulary terms to
  common vocabularies?
 Do you provide other access methods?
                                        Thanks Heath & Bizer
www.capsenta.com                       June 4, 2012
Acknowledgements
  RiBS Lab – UT Austin
  Olaf Hartig – Humboldt University Berlin
  Patrick Sinclair – BBC
  Jamie Taylor – Google


  Tom Heath & Chris Bizer. Linked Data: Evolving the
   Web into a Global Data Space
  David Wood (Ed.). Linking Enterprise Data

www.capsenta.com                              June 4, 2012   133
Thanks!
               Juan F. Sequeda        Daniel P. Miranker

            juan@capsenta.com      miranker@capsenta.com

                   @juansequeda




                         www.capsenta.com

www.capsenta.com                                    June 4, 2012   134

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Linked Data tutorial at Semtech 2012

  • 1. June 4, 2012 Linked Data Juan F. Sequeda – Daniel P. Miranker Capsenta Semantic Tech & Business Conference 2012 www.capsenta.com 1
  • 2. Outline Part 1: Introduction to Linked Data Part 2: Linked Data Principles Part 3: Linked Data Architectures Part 4: Linked Enterprise Data www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 2
  • 3. Part 1: Introduction to Linked Data www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 3
  • 4. The Web is a Data Shredder Structured Unstructured Data Data Thanks Martin Hepp www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 4
  • 5. The Web of Documents Search Search Engine Crawler www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 5
  • 6. What would we like? Make it easy for computers/software to find THINGS Do you SEARCH or do you FIND? www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 6
  • 7. Search for Football Players who went to the University of Texas at Austin, played for the Dallas Cowboys as Cornerback www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 7
  • 8. www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 8
  • 9. www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 9
  • 10. www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 10
  • 11. Why can’t we just FIND it… www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 11
  • 12. www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 12
  • 13. www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 13
  • 14. Guess how I FOUND out? www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 14
  • 15. On a Semantic Web Besides publishing documents on the web  which computers can’t understand easily Let’s publish on the web something that computers can understand DATA www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 15
  • 16. The Semantic Web is a web of data The current web is a web of documents www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 16
  • 17. But wait… doesn’t the web already have data? www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 17
  • 18. Current Data on the Web  Relational Databases  APIs  XML  CSV  XLS …  Can’t computers and applications already consume that data on the web? www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 18
  • 19. Yes! But it is all in different formats and data models! www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 19
  • 20. This makes it hard to integrate data www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 20
  • 21. The data in different data sources aren’t linked www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 21
  • 22. For example, how do I state that the Juan Sequeda in Facebook is the same as Juan Sequeda in Twitter www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 22
  • 23. Or if I create a mashup from different services, I have to learn different APIs and I get different formats of data back www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 23
  • 25. Wouldn’t it be great if we had a standard way of publishing data on the Web? www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 25
  • 26. We have a standardized way of publishing documents on the web, right? HTML www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 26
  • 27. Then why can’t we have a standard way of publishing data on the Web? www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 27
  • 28. Good question! And the answer is YES. There is! RDF www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 28
  • 29. Resource Description Framework (RDF) Data Model = a way to model data  i.e. Relational databases use relational data model RDF is a graph data model www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 29
  • 30. RDF is a Graph  <JuanSequeda> <firstName> “Juan”  <JuanSequeda> <lastName> “Sequeda”  <JuanSequeda> <livesIn> “Austin”  <JuanSequeda> <knows> <DanielMiranker>  ..  <DanielMiranker> <firstName> “Daniel”  <DanielMiranker> <lastName> “Miranker”  <DanielMiranker> <livesIn> “Austin” www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 30
  • 31. RDF can be serialized in different ways RDF/XML RDFa (RDF in HTML) N3 Turtle JSON www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 31
  • 32. www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 32
  • 33. RDFa www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 33
  • 34. RDF/XML www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 34
  • 36. RDF/Turtle www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 36
  • 37. So does that mean that I have to publish my data in RDF now? www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 37
  • 38. You don’t have to… but we would like you to  www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 38
  • 39. An example www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 39
  • 40. Document on the Web www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 40
  • 41. Databases back up documents THINGS have PROPERTIES: A Book as a Title, an author, … Isbn Title Author PublisherID ReleasedData 978-0-596- Programming Toby 1 July 2009 15381-6 the Semantic Segaran Web … … … … … This is a THING: PublisherID PublisherName A book title “Programming the 1 O’Reilly Media Semantic Web” by Toby Segaran, … … … www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 41
  • 42. Lets represent the data in RDF Isbn Title Author PublisherID ReleasedData 978-0- Programming Toby 1 July 2009 596- the Semantic Segaran 15381- Web 6 Programming title the Semantic PublisherID PublisherName Web 1 O’Reilly Media author Toby book Segaran isbn 978-0-596-15381-6 publisher name Publisher O’Reilly www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 42
  • 43. Remember that we are on the web Everything on the web is identified by a URI www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 43
  • 44. And now let’s link the data to other data Programming title the Semantic Web http:// …/isbn9 author Toby 78 Segaran isbn 978-0-596-15381-6 publisher http://…/ name publisher O’Reilly 1 www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 44
  • 45. And now consider the data from Revyu.com http:// hasReview http:// …/revie …/isbn9 w1 78 description reviewer Awesome Book http:// name …/revie wer Juan Sequeda www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 45
  • 46. Let’s start to link data http:// hasReview http:// …/revie …/isbn9 78 Programming w1 the Semantic description title Web hasReviewer owl:sameAs Awesome http:// author Toby Book …/isbn9 Segaran 78 http://…/ reviewer name isbn 978-0-596-15381-6 Juan publisher Sequeda http://…/ publisher name O’Reilly 1 www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 46
  • 47. Juan Sequeda publishes data too http://juans http://dbpedia.org/Au livesIn stin equeda.co www.capsenta.com name Juan Sequeda June 4, 2012 47 m/id
  • 48. Let’s link more data http://…/ hasReview http://…/ review1 isbn978 description hasReviewer Awesome Book http://…/ name reviewer sameAs Juan Sequeda http://juans http://dbpedia.org/Au livesIn stin equeda.co www.capsenta.com name Juan Sequeda June 4, 2012 48 m/id
  • 49. And more http://…/ hasReview http://…/ review1 isbn978 Programming description title the Semantic Web hasReviewer owl:sameAs Awesome author http://…/ Toby Book isbn978 Segaran http://…/ reviewer name isbn 978-0-596-15381-6 owl:sameAs Juan publisher http://…/p Sequeda ublisher1 name O’Reilly http://juans http://dbpedia.org/Au livesIn stin equeda.co www.capsenta.com name Juan Sequeda June 4, 2012 49 m/id
  • 50. Data on the Web that is in RDF and is linked to other RDF data is LINKED DATA www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 50
  • 51. Linked Data makes the web appear as ONE GIANT HUGE GLOBAL DATABASE! www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 51
  • 52. I can query a database with SQL. Is there a way to query Linked Data with a query language? www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 52
  • 53. Yes! There is actually a standardize language for that SPARQL www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 53
  • 54. FIND all the reviews on the book “Programming the Semantic Web” by people who live in Austin www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 54
  • 55. SPARQL SELECT ?review ?comment WHERE { isbn:978 ex:hasReview ?review . ?review ex:description ?comment . ?review ex:hasReviewer ?person . ?person ex:lives dbpedia:Austin . } www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 55
  • 56. SELECT ?review ?comment WHERE { isbn:978 ex:hasReview ?review . ?review ex:description ?comment . ?review ex:hasReviewer ?person . ?person ex:lives dbpedia:Austin . http://…/ hasReview http://…/ } review1 isbn978 Programming description title the Semantic Web hasReviewer owl:sameAs Awesome author http://…/ Toby Book isbn978 Segaran http://…/ reviewer name isbn 978-0-596-15381-6 owl:sameAs Juan publisher http://…/p Sequeda ublisher1name O’Reilly http://juans http://dbpedia.org/Au livesIn stin equeda.co 56 Juan Sequeda www.capsenta.com name June 4, 2012 m/id
  • 57. This looks cool, but let’s be realistic. What is the incentive to publish Linked Data on the Web? www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 57
  • 58. What was your incentive to publish an HTML page in 1990? www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 58
  • 59. 1) Share data in documents 2) Because you neighbor was doing it … later on … 3) Marketing, Advertising, …, SEO www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 59
  • 60. So why should we publish Linked Data in 2012? www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 60
  • 61. 1) Share data as data 2) Because you neighbor is doing it … later on … 3) Marketing, Advertising, …, SEO www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 61
  • 62. Linked Data Publishers  US and UK Government  BBC  NY Times  Best Buy  Sears  Kmart  Overstock  … too many more to name www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 62
  • 65. May 2007 www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 65
  • 66. Oct 2007 www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 66
  • 67. Nov 2007 www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 67
  • 68. Feb 2008 www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 68
  • 69. Mar 2008 www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 69
  • 70. Sept 2008 www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 70
  • 71. Mar 2009 (1) www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 71
  • 72. Mar 2009 (2) www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 72
  • 73. July 2009 www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 73
  • 75. September 2011 Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/ www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 75
  • 76. YOU GET THE PICTURE ITS BIG and getting BIGGER and BIGGER www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 76
  • 77. Part 2: Linked Data Principles www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 77
  • 78. Linked Data is a set of best practices to publish and interlink data on the web www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 78
  • 79. Linked Data Principles 1. Use URIs as names for things 2. Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up (dereference) those names. 3. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information. 4. Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things. www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 79
  • 80. 1. Use URIs as names for things www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 80
  • 81. 1) Use URIs as names for things http://dbpedia.org/resource/Austin,_Texas http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/based_near http://juansequeda.com/foaf.rdf#me http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/card#i http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 81
  • 82. 2. Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up (dereference) those names. www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 82
  • 83. 2) Use HTTP URIs HTTP client can lookup the URI using HTTP protocol and retrieve a description http://dbpedia.org/resource/Austin,_Texas www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 83
  • 84. www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 84
  • 85. www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 85
  • 86. www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 86
  • 87. What’s with the redirection (303) ? www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 87
  • 88. www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 88
  • 91. Identifies the abstract concept of “the city of Austin, Texas” http://dbpedia.org/resource/Austin,_Texas Accept: text/html Accept: application/rdf+xml http://dbpedia.org/page/Austin,_Texas http://dbpedia.org/data/Austin,_Texas.xml Identifies an HTML document that Identifies an RDF document that describes “the city of Austin, Texas” describes “the city of Austin, Texas” www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 91
  • 92. Minting HTTP URIs If you own the domain name and run a web server at that location, mint URIs in this namespace I own the domain capsenta.com I run the webserver http://capsenta.com I can mint URIs in this namespace  http://capsenta.com/person/Juan-Sequeda www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 92
  • 93. Cool URIs http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris/ Don’t misuse a namespace that you don’t own  http://www.imdb.com/title Avoid implementation details  http://capsenta.com/person.php?id=123&format=rdf Use Natural Keys  http://capsenta.com/person/123 www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 93
  • 94. 3. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information. www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 94
  • 95. 3) Provide useful information How do we provide useful information in document form on the web?  HTML How do we provide useful information in data form on the web  RDF www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 95
  • 96. What to publish?  Literal Triples <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Austin,_Texas> <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name> “City of Austin”  Outgoing Link Triples <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Austin,_Texas> <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#sameAs> <http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/m/0vzm>  Incoming Link Triples <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Dakota_Johnson> <http://dbpedia.org/ontology/birthPlace> <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Austin,_Texas> www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 96
  • 97. What to publish? Description of the data set  Semantic Sitemaps  voiD (Vocabulary of Interlinked Datasets) Provenance Metadata Licenses Information www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 97
  • 98. Vocabularies (or Schemas or Ontologies)  Create your own using  RDFS/OWL/ SKOS  Reuse vocabularies  Dublin Core: metadata attributes  Friend of a Friend (FOAF): persons and relationships  Semantically Interlinked Online Communities (SIOC): describing users, posts, blogs, etc  Description of a Project (DOAP)  Music Ontology  Programmes Ontology: TV and radio programs  Good Relations: describing products and services  Review Vocabulary  Basic Geo (WGS84) Vocabulary www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 98
  • 99. 4. Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things. www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 99
  • 100. 4) Include links to other things Set external RDF links into other data sources on the Web  Subject of the triple is in the namespace of one data set  Object of the triple is a URI in the namespace of another data set Connect siloed data islands Enable discovery www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 100
  • 101. 4) Include links to other things  Relationship Link Triples <http://juansequeda.com/foaf.rdf#me> <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/based_near> <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Austin,_Texas>  Identity Link Triples <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Austin,_Texas> <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#sameAs> <http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/m/0vzm>  Vocabulary Link Triples <http://capsenta.com/vocab/name> <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#equivalentProperty> <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name> www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 101
  • 102. Which predicate for linking to choose? Depends on your domain Is it widely used?  owl:sameAs  foaf:knows  foaf:based_near … If you create your own, relate it to a widely used predicate www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 102
  • 103. Part 3: Linked Data Architectures www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 103
  • 104. Static RDF Files Small amount of data (personal FOAF file) Use RDF/XML serialization Save as .rdf file and upload it to your server  http://www.capsenta.com/company.rdf  http://www.capsenta.com/company.rdf#this Configure MIME types  AddType application/rdf+xml .rdf Make RDF discoverable from HTMl  <link rel="alternate" type="application/rdf+xml" href="company.rdf"> www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 104
  • 105. RDF in HTML (RDFa) Another syntax for RDF Useful if you have template HTML pages Drupal 7 will do this out of the box www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 105
  • 106. Triplestores (aka RDF db, …) Commercial  Oracle, IBM, OntoText (OWLIM), Franz (Allegrograph), Openlink (Virtuoso), C&P (Stardog), Ontoprise (OntoBroker), Meronymy Open Source  Jena, Sesame, Mulgara, 4Store (Garlik), BigData (Systap) www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 106
  • 107. RDB2RDF  Upcoming W3C RDB2RDF Standards  R2RML: mapping language  Direct Mapping: default automatic mapping  Two Approaches  Dynamic (SPARQL to SQL)  ETL (Dump RDB to RDF)  Ultrawrap  Supports W3C standard and more  SPARQL as fast as SQL www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 107
  • 108. Unstructured to RDF Triplestore Entity Extractor Unstructured www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 108
  • 109. Semi-structured to RDF Triplestore XML2RDF, XLS2RDF, CVS2RDF Semi-structured www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 109
  • 110. RDB to RDF CMS with RDFa, RDB2RDF Semantic Wiki (SPARQL to SQL) Triplestore RDB2RDF ETL Relational Database www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 110
  • 111. Creating Linked Data Linked Data CMS with Data Linked Data RDB2RDF Custom Linked Web Server RDFa, Semantic Interface (i.e. Ultrawrap) Data Wrapper Publication Wiki RDB2RDF Data source Data Triplestore RDB with API Storage XML2RDF, Data Entity Extractor XLS2RDF, CVS2RDF Preparation Unstructured Semi-structured Structured Type of Data Thanks Heath and Bizer www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 111
  • 112. Consuming Linked Data Application Schema Mapping Record Linkage Provenance Tracking Data Access Linked Data Creating Linked Data www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 112
  • 113. Schema Matching  Renaming  <ex:name>  <foaf:name>  owl:equivalentClass and owl:equivalentProperty  rdfs:subClass or rdfs:subProperty  Structural Transformation  <ex:Juan> <ex:lives> “Austin”  <ex:Juan><foaf:based_near><db:Austin> . <db:Austin><rdfs:label> “Austin”.  SPARQL Construct, RIF, R2R www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 113
  • 114. Record Linkage Different URIs that identify the same thing Create owl:sameAs links between them Manually lookup: Sindice (Semi) Automatically: SILK www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 114
  • 115. Provenance Keep track where the data is coming from  Quality  Trust Named Graphs SPARQL Graph www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 115
  • 116. Centralized Application SPARQL Triplestore Creating Linked Data www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 116
  • 117. Centralized Advantage  Include the datasets that you need  Complex queries and high performance  Reasoning Drawbacks  Depends on RDF dumps or crawling  Effort to setup the centralized triplestore  Queried data may be out of date www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 117
  • 118. Federated Application SPARQL Federator SPARQL SPARQL SPARQL SPARQL RDB2RDF RDB2RDF Triplestore Triplestore Relational Relational Database Database www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 118
  • 119. Federated Advantage  Include the datasets that you need  Queried data is up to date Drawbacks  Requires existence of a SPARQL endpoint  Effort to setup federator www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 119
  • 120. Linked Traversal Application SPARQL Linked Traversal Query Engine Linked Data RDB2RDF Triplestore Relational Database www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 120
  • 121. Linked Traversal Advantage  No need to know the data sources in advance  Does not depend on the existence of SPARQL endpoints or RDF dumps  Queried data is up to date Drawbacks  Query execution time is slow  Unsuitable for some queries  Results may be incomplete  Still in research www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 121
  • 122. Applications Linked Data Browsers  http://browse.semanticweb.org/ Linked Data (Semantic Web) Search Engines  Falcons, SWSE, VisiNav, Sindice, Sigma, Swoogle, Wats on Search Engines  Google, Bing, Yahoo! Faceted Browsers  http://dbpedia.neofonie.de/browse/ www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 122
  • 123. Domain Specific Applications BBC World Cup Seevl.net Linked Life Data Government apps www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 123
  • 124. Part 2: Linked Enterprise Data www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 124
  • 125. Use Linked Data Principles internally Consume Linked (Open) Data Publish Linked (Open) Data www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 125
  • 126. Linked Enterprise Data Linked Data can be used as an architectural style for integrating data in the Enterprise 1. Standard Data Access Mechanism: HTTP 2. Standard Address & Identifier Scheme: URI 3. Standard Data Model: RDF www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 126
  • 127. Linked Enterprise Data Information creation  information sharing Produce and consume data specific to your needs but also produce it in a way that it can be connected to other data in the enterprise Distributed but connected! Data that you create, may benefit others! Share it! www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 127
  • 128. Benefits of RDF/Linked Data RDF (graphs) is a least common denominator  Text, CVS, XML, XLS, RDB to RDF  Imagine modeling a social network in XML Dynamic and Flexible  Adding a column to a table in my RDBMS takes 6 months to authorize!  With RDF, simply add the triple!  Incremental www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 128
  • 129. Benefits of RDF/Linked Data Power of the URI and Links  Universal Identifier  Create a “foreign key” to a table that I have no control of Scalability in months, not only seconds  “More can be done with less and faster”  “Cooperation without coordination” www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 129
  • 130. What’s next? W3C Linked Data Platform Working Group  http://www.w3.org/2012/ldp/charter Linked Data Basic Profile 1.0  http://www.w3.org/Submission/ldbp/ www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 130
  • 131. Summary www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 131
  • 132. Linked Data Checklist Does your data link to other data sets? Do you provide provenance metadata? Do you provide licensing metadata? Do you reuse common vocabularies? Do you map proprietary vocabulary terms to common vocabularies? Do you provide other access methods? Thanks Heath & Bizer www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012
  • 133. Acknowledgements  RiBS Lab – UT Austin  Olaf Hartig – Humboldt University Berlin  Patrick Sinclair – BBC  Jamie Taylor – Google  Tom Heath & Chris Bizer. Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space  David Wood (Ed.). Linking Enterprise Data www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 133
  • 134. Thanks! Juan F. Sequeda Daniel P. Miranker juan@capsenta.com miranker@capsenta.com @juansequeda www.capsenta.com www.capsenta.com June 4, 2012 134