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Module v Environmental Sanitation

DABTU Wastewater Treatment T E (CIVIL)

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Module v Environmental Sanitation

  1. 1. Online Lecture- 19 Environmental Sanitation Module V WasteWater Treatments
  2. 2. Contents • Environmental Sanitation :Communicable diseases, Methods of communication, Diseases communicated by discharges of intestines, nose and throat, other communicable diseases and their control • Insects and Rodent Control-Mosquitoes, life cycles, factors of diseases control methods - natural &chemical, Fly control methods and fly breeding prevention, Rodents and public health, plague control methods, engineering and bio-control methods
  3. 3. Communicable disease • A communicable disease is one that is spread from one person to another through a variety of ways that include: contact with blood and bodily fluids; breathing in an airborne virus; or by being bitten by an insect. • Reporting of cases of communicable disease is important in the planning and evaluation of disease prevention and control programs, in the assurance of appropriate medical therapy, and in the detection of common-source outbreaks. • Some examples of the reportable communicable diseases include Hepatitis A, B & C, influenza, measles, and salmonella and other food borne illnesses. • COVID19
  4. 4. COVID19
  5. 5. Spread of communicable disease • How these diseases spread depends on the specific disease or infectious agent. Some ways in which communicable diseases spread are by: 1. Physical contact with an infected person, such as through touch (staphylococcus), sexual intercourse (HIV), fecal/oral transmission (hepatitis A), or droplets (influenza, TB, COVID19)
  6. 6. 2. contact with a contaminated surface or object (Norwalk virus), food (salmonella, E. coli), blood (HIV, hepatitis B), or water (cholera); 3. bites from insects or animals capable of transmitting the disease (mosquito: malaria and yellow fever; flea: plague); and 4. travel through the air, such as tuberculosis or measles.
  7. 7. Prevention of Communicable Diseases I Immunizations are important to protect you from diseases W Wash your hands often with soap and water. H Home is where you stay when you are sick. A Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth –especially when you are sick. C Cover your coughs and sneezes so you do not spread germs to others. K Keep your distance from sick people so you don’t get sick too. I Whack Germs Concept Try this fun way of remembering the most important steps to staying well.
  8. 8. Chain of Disease Transmission • Infectious agent is the pathogen (germ) that causes diseases • Reservoir includes places in the environment where the pathogen lives (this includes people, animals and insects, medical equipment, and soil and water) • Portal of exit is the way the infectious agent leaves the reservoir (through open wounds, aerosols, and splatter of body fluids including coughing, sneezing, and saliva)
  9. 9. • Mode of transmission is the way the infectious agent can be passed on (through direct or indirect contact, ingestion, or inhalation) • Portal of entry is the way the infectious agent can enter a new host (through broken skin, the respiratory tract, mucous membranes, and catheters and tubes) • Susceptible host can be any person (the most vulnerable of whom are receiving healthcare, are immunocompromised, or have invasive medical devices including lines, devices, and airways)
  10. 10. ORAL-FECAL TRANSMITTED DISEASES
  11. 11. • What the diseases in this group have in common is that the causative organisms are excreted in the stools of infected persons (or, rarely, animals). • The portal of entry for these diseases is the mouth. • Therefore, the causative organisms have to pass through the environment from the feces of an infected person to the gastro- intestinal tract of a susceptible person. • This is known as the fece-oral transmission route. • Oral-oral transmission occurs mostly through unapparent fecal contamination of food, water and hands.
  12. 12. 1. Typhoid fever • Definition ✓A systemic infectious disease characterized by high continuous fever, malaise and involvement of lymphoid tissues. • Infectious agent ✓Salmonella typhi ✓Salmonella enteritidis (rare cause) • Occurrence- ✓It occurs worldwide, particularly in poor socioeconomic areas. ✓ Annual incidence is estimated at about 17 million cases with approximately 600,000 deaths worldwide. ✓In endemic areas the disease is most common in preschool and school aged children (5-19 years of age).
  13. 13. • Reservoir ✓Humans • Mode of transmission ✓ By water and food contaminated by feces and urine of patients and carriers. ✓Flies may infect foods in which the organisms then multiply to achieve an infective dose. • Incubation period ✓1-3 weeks • Treatment 1. Ampicillin or co-trimoxazole for carriers and mild cases. 2. Chloramphenicol or ciprofloxacin or ceftriaxone for seriously ill patients.
  14. 14. • Prevention and control 1. Treatment of patients and carriers 2. Education on handwashing, particularly food handlers, patients and childcare givers 3. Sanitary disposal of feces and control of flies. 4. Provision of safe and adequate water 5. Safe handling of food. 6. Exclusion of typhoid carriers and patients from handling of food and patients 7. Immunization for people at special risk (e.g. Travelers to endemic areas) 8. Regular check-up of food handlers in food and drinking establishments
  15. 15. 2. Dysentery • Definition ✓ An acute bacterial disease involving the large and distal small intestine, caused by the bacteria of the genus shigella. • Infectious agent Shigella is comprised of four species or serotypes. 1. Group A= Shigella dysentraie (most common cause) 2. Group B= Shigella flexneri 3. Group C= Shigella boydii 4. Group D= Shigella sonnei • Occurrence ✓ It occurs worldwide, and is endemic in both tropical and temperate climates. ✓ Outbreaks commonly occur under conditions of crowding and where personal hygiene is poor, such as in jails, institutions for children, day care centers, mental hospitals and refugee camps.
  16. 16. • Reservoir- Humans • Mode of transmission- ✓Mainly by direct or indirect fecal-oral transmission from a patient or carrier. ✓Transmission through water and milk may occur as a result of direct fecal contamination. ✓Flies can transfer organisms from latrines to a non-refrigerated food item in which organisms can survive and multiply. • Incubation period- 12 hours-4 days (usually 1-3 days). • Treatment 1. Fluid and electrolyte replacement 2. Co-trimoxazole in severe cases or Nalidixic acid in the case of resistance.
  17. 17. • Prevention and control 1. Detection of carriers and treatment of the sick will interrupt an epidemic. 2. Handwashing after toilet and before handling or eating food. 3. Proper excreta disposal especially from patients, convalescent and carriers. 4. Adequate and safe water supply. 5. Control of flies. 6. Cleanliness in food handling and preparation
  18. 18. 3. Cholera • Definition ✓An acute illness caused by an enterotoxin elaborated by vibrio cholerae. • Infectious agent ✓Vibrio cholerae • Occurrence- has made periodic outbreaks in different parts of the world and given rise to pandemics. Endemic predominantly in children. • Reservoir- Humans • Mode of transmission- by ingestion of food or water directly or indirectly contaminated with feces or vomitus of infected person. • Incubation period- from a few hours to 5 days, usually 2-3 days.
  19. 19. • Treatment ✓Prompt replacement of fluids and electrolytes ✓Rapid IV infusions of large amounts ✓Isotonic saline solutions alternating with isotonic sodium bicarbonate or sodium lactate. ✓Antibiotics like tetracycline dramatically reduce the duration and volume of diarrhoea resulting in early eradication of vibrio cholerae • Prevention and control 1. Case treatment 2. Safe disposal of human excreta and control of flies 3. Safe public water supply 4. Handwashing and sanitary handling of food 5. Control and management of contact cases.
  20. 20. 4. Infectious hepatitis • Definition ✓An acute viral disease characterized by abrupt onset of fever, malaise, nausea and abdominal discomfort followed within a few days by jaundice. • Infectious agent- Hepatitis A virus • Occurrence- Worldwide distribution in sporadic and epidemic forms. In developing countries, adults are usually immune andepidemics of HA are uncommon. Infection is common where environmental sanitation is poor and occurs at an early age. • Reservoir- Humans. • Mode of transmission- Person to person by fecal-oral route. Through contaminated water and food contaminated by infected food handlers. • Incubation period- 15-55 days, average 28-30 days.
  21. 21. • Treatment ✓Symptomatic: Rest, high carbohydrate diet with low fat and protein. • Prevention and control 1. Public education about good sanitation and personal hygiene, with special emphasis on careful handwashing and sanitary disposal of feces. 2. Proper water treatment and distribution systems and sewage disposal. 3. Proper management of day care centres to minimize possibility of faecal-oral transmission. 4. HA vaccine for all travellers to intermediate or highly endemic areas. 5. Protection of day care centres employees by vaccine.
  22. 22. AIR-BORNE DISEASES • The organisms causing the diseases in the air-borne group enter the body via the respiratory tract. When a patient or carrier of pathogens talks, coughs, laughs, or sneezes, he/she discharges fluid droplets. The smallest of these remain up in the air for some time and may be inhaled by a new host. • Droplets with a size of 1-5 microns are quite easily drawn in to the lungs and retained there. •
  23. 23. • Droplets that are bigger in size will not remain air-borne for long but will fall to the ground. Here, however, they dry and mix with dust. When they contain pathogens that are able to • survive drying, these may become air-borne again by wind or something stirring up the dust, and they can then be inhaled. • Air-borne diseases, obviously, will spread more easily when there is overcrowding, as in overcrowded class rooms, public transport, canteens, dance halls, and cinemas. • Good ventilation can do much to counteract the effects of overcrowding. • Air-borne diseases are mostly acquired through the respiratory tract.
  24. 24. 1. Common Cold • Definition • An acute catarrhal infection of the upper respiratory tract. • Infectious agent • Rhino viruses (100 serotypes) are the major causes in adults. Parainfluenza viruses, respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV), Influenza, and Adeno viruses cause common cold-like illnesses in infants and children. • Occurrence- Worldwide both in endemic and epidemic forms. Many people have one to six colds per year. Greater incidence in the highlands. Incidence is high in children under 5 years and gradually declines with increasing age.
  25. 25. • Reservoir- Humans • Mode of transmission- by direct contact or inhalation of airborne droplets. Indirectly by hands and articles freshly soiled by discharges of nose and throat of an infected person. • Incubation period- between 12 hours and 5 days, usually 48 hours, varying with the agent. • Treatment • No effective treatment but supportive measures like: ✓Bed rest ✓Steam inhalation ✓High fluid intake ✓Anti pain ✓Balanced diet intake
  26. 26. • Prevention and Control • 1. Educate the public about the importance of: ✓Handwashing ✓Covering the mouth when coughing and sneezing ✓Sanitary disposal of nasal and oral discharges • Avoid crowding in living and sleeping quarters especially in institutions • Provide adequate ventilation
  27. 27. 2. Measles (Rubella) • Definition • An acute highly communicable viral disease • Infectious agent • Measles virus • Occurrence- Prior to widespread immunization, measles was common in childhood so that more than 90% of people had been infected by age 20; few went through life without any attack. • Reservoir- Humans
  28. 28. • Mode of transmission- Airborne by droplet spread, direct contact with nasal or throat secretions of infected persons and less commonly by articles freshly solid with nose and throat secretion. Greater than 94% herd immunity may be needed to interrupt community transmission. • Incubation period- 7-18 days from exposure to onset of fever. • Treatment 1. No specific treatment 2. Treatment of complications 3. Vitamin A provision
  29. 29. • Prevention and control ✓Educate the public about measles immunization. ✓Immunization of all children (less than 5 years of age) who had contact with infected children. ✓Provision of measles vaccine at nine months of age. ✓Initiate measles vaccination at 6 months of age during ✓epidemic and repeat at 9 months of age.
  30. 30. 3. Influenza • Definition ✓An acute viral disease of the respiratory tract • Infectious agent ✓Three types of influenza virus (A,B and C) • Occurrence- In pandemics, epidemics and localized outbreaks. • Reservoir- Humans are the primary reservoirs for human infection.
  31. 31. • Mode of transmission- Airborne spread predominates among crowded populations in closed places such as school buses. • Incubation period- short, usually 1-3 days. • Treatment • 1. Same as common cold, namely: ✓Anti-pain and antipyretic ✓High fluid intake ✓Bed rest ✓Balanced diet intake
  32. 32. • Prevention and control 1. Educate the public in basic personal hygiene, especially the danger of unprotected coughs and sneezes and hand to mucus membrane transmission. 2. Immunization with available killed virus vaccines may provide 70-80% protection. 3. Amantadize hydrochloride is effective in the chemprophylaxis of type A virus but not others.
  33. 33. 4. Tuberculosis • Definition • A chronic and infectious mycobacterial disease important as a major cause of illness and death in many parts of the world. • Infectious agent. • Mycobacterium tuberculosis- human tubercle bacilli (commonest cause) • Mycobacterium bovis- cattle and man infection • Mycobacterium avium- infection in birds and man. • Occurrence- Worldwide, however underdeveloped areas are more affected. Affects all ages and both sexes. Age groups between 15-45 years are mainly affected. According to the WHO report, 9 million cases and 3 million deaths have occurred.
  34. 34. • Mode of transmission- Through aerosolized droplets mainly from persons with active ulcerative lesion of lung expelled during talking, sneezing, singing, or coughing directly. Most important is the length of time of contact an individual shares volume of air with an infectious case. That is intimate, prolonged or frequent contact is required. Transmission through contaminated fomites (clothes, personal articles) is rare. Ingestion of unpasteurized milk transmits bovine tuberculosis. Overcrowding and poor housing conditions favor the disease transmission. • Incubation period- 4-12 weeks • Treatment • The following drug are being used for treatment of TB in • Rifampin
  35. 35. • Prevention and control 1. Chemotherapy of cases 2. Chemoprophylaxis for contacts INH (Isoniazid) for adults and children who have close contact with the source of infection 3. Immunization of infants with BCG 4. Educate patients with TB about the mode of disease transmission and how to dispose their sputum and cover their mouth while coughing, sneezing, etc.
  36. 36. 5. Public health education about the modes of disease transmission and methods of control • Improved standard of living • Adequate nutrition • Health housing • Environmental sanitation • Personal hygiene; etc. • Active case finding and treatment
  37. 37. C. VECTOR BORNE DISEASES
  38. 38. Mosquito-Borne Diseases 1. Malaria • Definition • An acute infection of the blood caused by protozoa of the genus plasmodium. • Infectious agent. • Plasmodium falciparum/malignant tertian: Invades all ages of red blood cells. Red blood cell cycle is 48 hours • Plasmodium vivax/benign tertian: Invades reticulocytes only. Red blood cell cycle is 48 hours. • Plamodium ovale/tertian: Invades reticulocytes only. Red blood cell cycle is 48 hours. • Plasmodium Malariae/Quartan malaria: Invades reticulocytes only. Red blood cell cycle is 72 hours. • Epidemiology • Occurrence- Endemic in tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world. Affects 40% of the world population. Children less 5 years of age, pregnant women and travelers to endemic areas are risk groups.
  39. 39. • Reservoir- Humans • Mode of transmission- By the bite of an infective female anopheles mosquito, which sucks blood for egg maturation. Blood transfusion, hypodermic needles, organ transplantation and mother to fetus transmission is possible. Since there is no pre- erythrocytic (tissue) cycle, the incubation period is short. • Incubation period- Varies with species ✓ Plasmodium falciparum 7-14 days ✓ Plasmodium virvax 8-14 days ✓ Plasmodium ovale 8-14 days ✓ Plasmodium malariae 7-30 days • Treatment • 1. Plasmodium vivax, ovale and sensitive plasmodium falciparum ✓ Chloroquine or ✓ Fansidar • 2. Chloroquine resistant falciparum and when sensitivitypattern is not known. ✓ Quinine or ✓ Fansidar
  40. 40. • Prevention and control • 1. Chemoprophylaxis- for those who go to endemic areas but not for those who live in the endemic area (travellers and newcomers); for under-five children and pregnant mothers who have not enough immunity. • 2. Vector control ✓Avoiding mosquito breeding sites ✓Residual DDT spray or other chemicals ✓Personal protection against mosquito bite (use of bed nets, etc.)
  41. 41. 2. Plague • Definition • A highly infectious bacterial disease which can kill many people within a short time. • Infectious agent • Yersinia pestis, the plague bacillus. • Epidemiology • Occurrence- Endemic in wild rodents living in forests in the highlands. Wild rodent plague exists in western USA, of South America, North, Central, Eastern and Southern Africa, Central and Southeast Asia. However, urban plague is controlled in most of the world. • Reservoir- Wild rodents (especially ground squirrels) are the natural vertebrate reservoir of plague. Wild carnivores and domestic cats may also be a source of infection to people.
  42. 42. • Mode of transmission- Through the bite of infected fleas. Handling of tissues of infected animals. • Incubation period- 1-7 days. • Treatment- Early treatment with antibiotics like streptomycin or tetracycline or sulfa groups. • Prevention and Control 1 . The area where disease occurs must be quarantined (isolated from outer world) 2. Insecticides to kill fleas 3. Encourage people to kill rats 4. Notify the disease to the concerned health authority
  43. 43. VECTOR CONTROL
  44. 44. Mosquito Life Cycle • Egg - hatches when exposed to water. • Larva - (plural: larvae) "wriggler" lives in water; molts several times; most species surface to breathe air. • Pupa - (plural: pupae) "tumbler" does not feed; stage just before emerging as adult. • Adult - flies short time after emerging and after its body parts have hardened.
  45. 45. Mosquito Control measures a. Drain • Many mosquito problems in your neighborhood are likely to come from water-filled containers that you, the resident, can help to eliminate. All mosquitoes require water in which to breed. Be sure to drain any standing water around your house. • Dispose of any tires. Tires can breed thousands of mosquitoes. • Drill holes in the bottom of recycling containers. • Clear roof gutters of debris. • Clean pet water dishes regularly. • Check and empty children’s toys. • Repair leaky outdoor faucets.
  46. 46. • Change the water in bird baths at least once a week. • Canoes and other boats should be turned over. • Avoid water collecting on pool covers. • Empty water collected in tarps around the yard or on woodpiles. • Plug tree holes. • Even the smallest of containers that can collect water can breed hundreds to thousands of mosquitoes. They don’t need much water to lay their eggs. (bottles, barrels, buckets, overturned garbage can lids, etc.)
  47. 47. b. Dress • Wear light colored, loose fitting clothing. • Studies have shown that some of the 174 mosquito species in the United States are more attracted to dark clothing and most can readily bite through tight-fitting clothing of loose weave. • When practical, wear long sleeves and pants.
  48. 48. c. Defend • Choose a mosquito repellent that has been registered by the Environmental Protection Agency. • Registered products have been reviewed, approved, and pose minimal risk for human safety when used according to label directions. • Three repellents that are approved and recommended are: • DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) • Picaridin (KBR 3023) • Oil of lemon eucalyptus (p-methane 3,8- diol, or PMD)
  49. 49. Life Cycle of a Fly • Egg 1. A female housefly lays her eggs in decaying organic material. Housefly eggs hatchinto tiny larvae within 24 hours. • Larva 2. Housefly larvae, called maggots, go through three larval phases before buildingtheir pupal cocoons. The larval phase lasts about 4 to 13 days.
  50. 50. • Pupa 3. Housefly pupae complete their development inside of cocoons. The pupal phasetypically lasts for 2 to 6 days. • Adult 4. Adult houseflies emerge from their cocoon and typically live for 15 to 25 days. Adult houseflies begin reproducing in 10 to 14 days. Fun Facts • 5. A female housefly deposits up to 500 eggs in 4 days. Houseflies live longer in cooler temperatures.
  51. 51. Flies Control a. Cultural Control • Cultural control means changing the environment to prevent houseflies from developing. The best cultural method is to properly dispose of any organic matter, such as vegetable or other food by-products, where houseflies might lay eggs. Place these materials in garbage bags and tie the bags securely. Remove all food residues and clean your garbage cans weekly. • Another cultural method is to keep houseflies out of homes and businesses by ✓keeping windows screened and doors closed, ✓placing exhaust (blower) systems above doors, and ✓installing doors that open and close mechanically.
  52. 52. b. Biological control • Parasitic wasps and fire ants suppress housefly populations naturally. If you want to use this form of natural pest control, you can order fly pupae from insectaries in Texas or across the United States. • The pupae, which are already infected with the parasites, can be spread around homes or near where houseflies are developing. Place the pupae in areas out of direct sunlight where they will not be stepped on. • Parasitic wasps do not harm people or animals. They seek out and kill immature houseflies. However, parasitic wasps take time to work, and they alone will not eliminate a housefly population. Use this method in combination with other methods.
  53. 53. c. Chemical control • When necessary, insecticides can help suppress housefly populations. Fly baits, such as QuickBayt® and Golden Malrin®, are usually sugar-based and contain a compound that attracts the adult flies. Flies that feed on these baits are killed by the insecticide they digest. • Many spray pyrethroid-based insecticides can suppress houseflies in and around homes. These products can be purchased at grocery and hardware stores. Be sure to read and follow the instructions on all insecticide labels.
  54. 54. MCQs 1. A _______ ______________ is one that is spread from one person to another through a variety of ways. 2. _______ ___________ is the pathogen (germ) that causes diseases. 3. __________ includes places in the environment where the pathogen lives. 4. ___ __________ is the way the infectious agent leaves the reservoir. 5. _______ ____________ is the way the infectious agent can be passed on. 6. __________ __________ is the way the infectious agent can enter a new host. 7. __________ host can be any person. 8. The organisms causing the diseases in the ____________group enter the body via the respiratory tract.
  55. 55. 9. COVID19 is non communicable disease (True/False). 10. For prevention and control of vector borne diseases life cycle study of vectors is essential. (True/False) 11.__________is a stage just before emerging as adult in life cycle of flies. 12.

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  • ADITYAAWASTHI1234567890

    Jun. 18, 2020
  • SubhashPatil37

    Nov. 3, 2020

DABTU Wastewater Treatment T E (CIVIL)

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