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L 2 sources and water supply schemes

Environmental Engineering-I (Water Supply Engg.) - TE (CIVIL)

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L 2 sources and water supply schemes

  1. 1. L-2 INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLY ENGINEERING Environmental Engineering-I - By Prof S S Jahagirdar
  2. 2. CONTENTS Sources NKOCET, Solapur of water, elements of water supply schemes, design period
  3. 3.  Raw Water Source  The various sources of water can be classified into two categories:  Surface sources, such as    Ponds and lakes; Streams and rivers; Storage reservoirs; and Oceans, generally not used for water supplies, at present. NKOCET, Solapur   Sub-surface sources or underground sources, such as    Springs; Infiltration wells ; and Wells and Tube-wells.
  4. 4. Another way to classify the water sources Rainwater, NKOCET, Solapur oceans, rivers, lakes, streams, ponds and springs are natural sources of water. Dams, wells, tube wells, hand-pumps, canals, etc, are man-made sources of water. 
  5. 5. DO YOU KNOW? NKOCET, Solapur
  7. 7. NKOCET, Solapur
  8. 8. NKOCET, Solapur
  9. 9. WORLD WATER CRISIS One in five people do not have access to safe drinking water Every 15 seconds a child dies from water related diseases Some young children and women trek up to six miles a day in order to collect water for their families •Much of the world's drinking water is contaminated and poses serious health threats Women carrying water drums
  10. 10. WATER RELATED DISEASES AND THEIR CAUSES Diseases • • • • • • • • • • Diarrhea Arsenicosis Schistosomiasis Intestinal Worms Hepatitis Cholera Malaria Trachoma Typhoid Fluorosis Bacteria • • • • E. coli Salmonella typhi Shigella spp. Yersinia enterocolitica E. coli bacteria Viruses • Hepatitis A/E virus • Adenovirus • Enterovirus • Rotavirus Hepatitis A Virus
  11. 11. A CURE FOR THIS GLOBAL PROBLEM? Problems with High-Tech Treatment Systems for Rural Areas of Developing Countries Usually are expensive and difficult to construct Require expensive mechanical equipment Require expensive and dangerous chemicals (e.g. chlorine- carcinogenous) • • • High-Tech treatment system
  12. 12. OBJECTIVES OF WATER TREATMENT 1. 3. NKOCET, Solapur 2. To remove colour, dissolved gases and objectionable colour of water To remove objectionable taste and odour. To remove disease producing microorganisms so that water is safe for drinking purpose.
  13. 13. NKOCET, Solapur 4. To remove hardness of water (In case of ground water source). 5. To make it suitable for wide variety of industrial purposes such as steam generation, dyeing etc.
  14. 14. USES OF WATER Drinking, cooking and washing ii. Bathing iii. Swimming pools and water games iv. Fountains and cascades (Display) v. Watering of lawns and gardens vi. Air coolers and dish washers vii. For fire fighting viii. Industrial operations such as steam generation ix. Irrigation x. Sanitary purposes i. NKOCET, Solapur
  15. 15. ELEMENTS OF WATER SUPPLY SCHEME 1. Selection of source – River, lake or open , tube well 3. Collection and conveyance of raw water – Intake works, pump house, rising main etc Treatment of water- Multi barrier NKOCET, Solapur 2. treatment to remove different types of impurities and pathogens 4. 5. Pumping and storing the treated water in the E S R s Distribution- network of pipes is needed
  16. 16. DATA TO BE COLLECTED FOR DESIGN OF WATER SUPPLY SCHEME 1. Sources of raw water – Choice amongst alternatives, reliability throughout the year NKOCET, Solapur 2. Quantity of water required which depends upon - Population to be served- Population forecasting, census data - Water demands- domestic, public, industrial, fire etc - Design period – 30 yrs is common
  17. 17. 3. Quality of water – analysis of water, line of treatment is decided by raw water quality maps 5. Plan or map of city or townfor knowledge of existing structures and roads etc NKOCET, Solapur 4. Survey data – Topographical
  18. 18. FACTORS AFFECTING DESIGN PERIOD 1. 3. NKOCET, Solapur 2. Useful life of the components of water supply scheme (Pumps, intake structures, rising main, pipe distribution network etc.) will decide the design period. Higher design period has to be adopted if there are difficulties in future expansion. Availability of funds. Less funds  less design period
  19. 19. 4. 6. NKOCET, Solapur 5. Rate of interest on the loans. Larger the rate of interest smaller is the design period and vise-versa. Rate of increase in population is lower then higher design period is adopted. Quantity of water available. If required quantity of the water is not available for longer periods then lesser design period shall be adopted
  21. 21. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS The fresh water content on the earth is ______%. 2. Safe water can be obtained by using advanced __________________. 3. Much of the world's drinking water is ______________ and poses serious health threats 4. Design period for pumps is ____ years. 5. Purpose of water treatment is _______________ (to remove odour/to remove taste/to kill pathogens/ all of above) 1. NKOCET, Solapur
  22. 22. THEORY QUESTIONS NKOCET, Solapur 1. Discuss classification of sources of water in detail. 2. Explain elements of water supply scheme 3. Discuss objectives of water treatment. 4. Write short notes on i. Factors affecting Design Period ii. Data to be collected for design of water supply scheme
  23. 23. NKOCET, Solapur NEXT LECTURE